ARH 252 - Test 4 Study Guide
ARH 252 - Test 4 Study Guide ARH 252 - Online
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mina Lubel on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 252 - Online at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jenny Tucker in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 722 views. For similar materials see Survey of Art I in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
ARH 252 1 EXAM FOUR STUDY GUIDE STYLISTIC PERIODS A AngloSaxon B HibernoSaxon C Carolingian Charelemange became ruler Brought bible order by bringing it into a correct translation Built schools D Ottonian E Romanesque Roman Arches Rounded Buttresses Can39t in much light Thick walls Windows at top Took name from artistic style Feudalism F Gothic Flying buttresses Allows light Uses pointed arch Allows windows at bottom ANGLOSAXON 0 Anglo Saxon art contains art from the Warrior Lords or barbarians These nonRoman tribes include the Huns Vandals Merovingians Franks Goths Visigoths and several others 0 Artistic characteristics of the Anglo Saxon period include both animal imagery and abstract motifs 0 The Merovingian Looped F ibulae is a typical object from the Anglo Saxon period in that it is a small portable object only re ecting the aesthetic taste of wealthy members of these tribes Unfortunately there is not a wide range of objects from this period and therefore give a narrow glimpse of nonRoman life ARH 252 Many objects from this time period were found at burial sites The richest site from this period is the ship burial from SUTTON H00 in Suffolk England An anomaly amongst typical ship burials as it was buried inland The Purse Cover is decorated using a technique called CLOISONNE in which small gold strips are soldered to a metal background holding semiprecious stones and jewels The Anglo Saxon epic poem BEOWULF follows the life of the 7th century hero who battles the monster Grendel This famous poem is in uential in much of the Anglo Saxon imagery for example the Purse Cover from Sutton Hoo Another ship burial at Oseberg Norway famously held objects from the VIKINGS the great seafaring and woodworking barbarians from Scandinavia The Animal Head Post is characteristic of the masterfully carved wooden ships of the Vikings and is also representative of the animal imagery and abstract motifs of medieval art HIBERNO SAXON Monasteries were built in Ireland during this period and provided a safe haven for European scholars Monks chose this location specifically because of its isolation which provided solace away from worldly temptations and distractions Illuminated manuscripts associated with this period of art were typically handmade in the Christian monasteries and were the primary method used to convert people to Christianity The most common text written into illuminated manuscripts was The Bible However it was not transcribed in its entirety rather it was written into separate volumes The page depicting the man also known as the symbol of the apostle Matthew is seen in the Book of Durrow eagle for Mark not the lion traditionally used a calf for Luke and a lion for John There are illuminated manuscripts from Late Antiquity as well as Medieval Europe however Miniatures are only found in medieval manuscripts These highly detailed handpainted pages were placed in between the text of manuscripts ARH 252 The Chirhoiota Page from the famous HibernoSaxon manuscript Book of Kells corresponds with the text from Matthew s Gospel and story of the birth of Jesus Christ CAROLINGIAN The Carolingian period refers to the time during the reign of Charlemagne who was crowned King of the Franks in 768 and then the Emperor of Rome in 800 He created a cultural revival intended to enhance his imperial image in the tradition of ancient m To that effect much of the art produced during his reign shows a revival of a more classical natural style Charlemagne s official seal was inscribed with the Latin phrase Renovatio Imperii Romani meaning Renewal of the Roman Empire The Eauestrlln Portrait of Charlem gg depicts the ruler on horseback in the tradition of many Roman emperors The Cruci xion front cover of the Lindau Gospels is beautifully decorated with beaten gold precious stones and pearls and is exemplary of the typical manuscript cover The Palatine Chapel is highly in uenced by the Ravenna structure Church of San Vitale However the Palatine Chapel is considered to be more simple with overwhelming geometric forms OTTONIAN Refers to the period when the m family stabilized the Empire after Charlemagne s death How did this family continue Charlemagne s revival of classical antiquity growth and reform in the church and monasteries produced much of the finest Ottonian art including magnificent illuminated manuscripts churches and monastic buildings and sumptuous luxury objects intended for church interiors and treasuries Otto III s tutor Bishop Bernward of Hildesheim built Saint Michael s in Hildesheim Germany n ARH 252 Ottonian architecture followed the course of Carolingian and Byzantine architecture How so double ended feature with apses at either end of the church Originally located at Saint Michael s the Hildesheim Doors illustrate scenes from the book of Genesis on the left door panel while the right door illustrates scenes from the New Testament text of the life of Christ Also commissioned for Saint Michael s is the Hildesheim Column which depicts seven spiral bands containing other scenes from the life of Christ not illustrated in the Hildesheim Doors The scene of Otto III Enthroned from the Gospel Book of Otto III shows the ruler enthroned between barons and clergy members Why mior division in Medieval society between regnum and sacerdotjum or the secular authority of the state and the religious authority of the church ROMANESQUE Romanesque was a term applied by art historians that describes the art and architecture between the years 10501200 that appeared RomanLike Religious journeys in search of religious structures or relics called Pilgramages reached a high point during the Romanesque period The church of Saint Sernin is an example of a pilgrimage church in which the nayes are significantly larger and wider to accommodate large numbers of pilgrims A m M is featured in the nave Because this type of yault requires so much support they were unable to add windows in the nave Small chapels called Radiating Chapels protrude from the apse of many pilgrimage churches and hold relics and other sacred objects The Morgan Madonna functioned as a vessel used for holding relics called a Religuary Speyer Cathedral in Germany was originally timberroofed and was rebuilt using what kind of vault in the nave Groin Vault This made it possible to have clerestory windows along the nave making it lighter and taller inside than Saint Sernin ARH 252 0 Also emerging during the Romanesque period is the M or doorway into a church It holds significance as it s symbolic of the entryway to the path of salvation 0 Romanesque portals contain important architectural elements such as the trumeau lintel jamb and tympanum The Tympanum is the prominent semicircular area above the doorway The m is the horizontal beam above the doorway The Trumeau is the center post supporting the lintel The m are the side posts of the doorway 0 Most commonly the scene of Second Coming is depicted within the tympanum of Romanesque portals Why 0 Within Italy freestanding baptisteries contribute to the diversity of Romanesque architecture One of the most famous the Florence Baptistery serves as an anomaly amongst the predominantly Renaissance architecture in Florence and is dedicated the city s patron saint Saint John 0 The facade of Saint Etienne in Caen France is very plain and is divided into 3 bays of space by the large buttresses of masonry What kind of vaults are used in the nave barrel or groin m The ribs divide the large vaults into 6 sections making them Rib 0 Saint Etienne was built under the ruler William the Congueror and completed in time for his burial 0 The Old Testament Prophet from Saint Pierre at Moissac decorates the center post supporting the lintel called the Trumeau 0 Within the monastery the Cloister is a place of contemplation and pious re ection 0 The Bayeux Tapestry is an embroidered 230 feet long piece of linen It depicts the 1066 Norman defeat of the English also known as the Battle of Hastings In 1066 King Edward the Confessor died and his burial at Westminster Abby is also depicted on the tapestry The battle scenes within the Bayeaux Tapestry were created similarly to the battles scenes of Ancient Rome GOTHIC ARH 252 The term Gothic was first coined by Giorgio Vasari The Gothic style is said to have first appeared at Church of Sgint Denis The presiding abbot and visionary was Abbot Suger He was interested in a style of architecture that enhanced the spirituality of the church What are the architectural elements that comprise the Gothic style Pointed arch ribbed Eult flving butress Chartres Cathedral is dedicated to the Virgin Mary or Notre Dame which means Our Lady Construction at Chartres began in 1145 but caught fire in 1194 Reconstruction of the church began immediately but built in the later High Gothic style The Royal Portal at Chartres is so named because of the jamb statues of Old Testament kings and queens that are seen as the ancestors of Christ both figuratively and literally At the facade of Chartres Cathedral is the rose window symbolic of the Virgin Mary and exemplary of the Gothic cult of the Virgin in which Mary s importance grew to the extent in that churches and hymns were dedicated to Mary and images of her likeness were carried in battle The construction after the 1194 fire at Chartres became the blueprint for future High Gothic French architecture Stainedglass windows are synonymous with the Gothic style Abbot Suger called the light that comes through stained glass windows LuX Nova new light At NotreDame in Paris two of the four stories of the nave were filled with windows further reducing the masonry area To hold the much thinner and taller walls in place architects used architectural supports that transfer the thrust of the vault to the outside using an arch called Pointed Archs Amiens Cathedral shows the French Gothic obsession with height also known as soaring heights The porches of the facade are exceptionally deep and the walls are deeply pierced The interior arches are 144 feet above the nave oor while the vaults ARH 252 convey a sense of buoyance How do the soaring heights of Gothic cathedrals suggest divinity and spirituality Power and closer to Heaven The Visitation at Reims Cathedral is located on the west facade jambs Comparing the figures of Mary and Elizabeth to the jamb statues of Chartres Cathedral what are the differences Reims resemble Romgn Portrm while chartres are naturalistic style The Virgin of Paris depicts Mary as a M and highlights the royalty of Mary and the cult of the Virgin What are the major differences between French Gothic and English Gothic styles Each French cathedral tends to be stylistically uni ed in appearance when compared with an English c hedral where there is great diversity in almost every building French focuses on Height English on Length Specifically how does Salisbury Cathedral differ from Amiens Cathedral Salisbury ns wider and shorter facade st ends double tr septs and sparing use of the ying butrtress The Virgin of Jeanne d Evreux is an example of a Statuette The Rottgen Pieta depicts the Virgin Mary holding the dead Christ How is this work re ective of the immense suffering that was occurring during the 14th century piece of sculpture spe s to the troubles of the area in which it was carved Germany was going through many widespread dif cultjes during the 14th century and this piece could have been used to remind them of ultimate salvation but to also alig heir suffering wth of a nobler individual And what specific event occurred during the 14th century in the majority of Western Europe Black De h Bubonic Plague Part 11 Terms Animal Interlace A decorative technique using abstracted animal forms in an interwoven pattern a ARH 252 Animal Style Decoration made of interwoven animals or serpents often found in Celtic and early medieval Northern European art Aisles The portion of a basilica anking the nave and separated from it by row of columns or piers Alternatesupport system In church architecture the use of alternating wall supports in the nave usually piers and columns or compound piers of alternating form Apse A recess usually semicircular in the wall of a building commonly found at the east end of a church Barrel Vault Semi cylindrical vault Roof is in effect a deep arch or an uninterrupted series of arches one behind the other over an oblong space Bible of the poor Refers to stained glass that illustrates often for the illiterate figures andor stories from the bible Buon Fresco also known as quottrue frescoquot painting onto wet plaster pigment is mixed with water and then painted onto wet wall thus becoming part of wall itself Butress An exterior masonry structure that opposes the lateral thrust of an arch or a vault Carpet page decorative page resembling a textile in medieval manuscripts Cathedra latin word for SEAT Cathedral a Bishops church derives from latin word cathedra for Bishops chair Choir Space within church that is reserved for clergy members and singers of the church Cloisonne An enamel technique in which metal wire or strips are affixed to the surface ARH 252 a to form the design The resulting areas cloisons are filled with enamel colored glass Cloister monastery courtyard usually with covered walks or ambulatories along its sides Crossing square the area in a church formed by the intersection crossing of a nave and a transept also used as a measure of proportionality Crusades Armed pilgrimages aimed to gain control of the Holy Land from their Muslim rulers Divine Light sunlight that is seemingly transformed into sacred light God39s light as it passes through stained glass windows Facade front of a building Fibula decorative pin usually used to fasten garments Flying buttress exterior arches that spring from lower roofs over the aisles and ambulatory transfer the trust of the have vaults across the roofs of the side aisles and ambulatory to a tall pier rising above church39s exterior wall Fourpart nave elevation Early Gothic nave arcade resting on the oor a tribune gallery on the second level a blind arcade called a triforium on the third level and clerestory windows at the top Fresco secco also known as quotdry frescoquot pigment is mixed with water and painted onto dry wall 10 ARH 252 Gothic Period followed Romanesque solved problem of the pointed arch sides arc up to a point and weight is channeled down to the ground at a steeper angle thus allowing the arch to be higher During Plague Groin Vault Two barrel vaults intersect at right angles Humanism within the Renaissance an emphasis on education and the expansion of knowledge also meant a focus on the individual potential and the desire to excel and the commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty J amb Side posts of a portal door J amb Statue figural sculpture attached to the side posts of a doorway Example Old Testament Kings and Queens King Charlemagne Was first holy roman emperor during the Carolingian Art period LadderFold Drapery a stylized depiction of drapery where the folds simulate rungs on a ladder Lancet tall narrow window ending in a pointed arch in gothic architecture Lintel horizontal beam used to span an opening LuX nova new light Abbot Suger s term for the light that enters a gothic church through stained glass windows Module A basic unit of which the dimensions of the major parts of a work are multiples Mondorla Almond shaped ring of light around holy figures 1 ARH 252 Naturalism Painted or sculpted representation based on close observation of the natural world that was at the core of the classical tradition Nave Arcade The series of arches supported by piers separating the nave from the sides aisles Perspective Depiction of threedimensional objects in space on a twodimenstional surface Pieta painted or sculpted representation of the Virgin Mary mourning over the body of the dead Christ Pilgrimage Long journey in search of moral or religious significance journey to important shrine structure or place Pointed arch narrow arch used in Gothic architecture Portal door entrance especially a grand or impressive one Radiating chapels Chapels that are reserved for the display of relics typically open directly onto the ambulatory or the transept Relics The body parts clothing or objects associated with a holy figure such as the Buddha or Christ or a Christian saint Reliquary The container of a relic Renaissance French word for quotrebirthquot ultimately describes hte reemergence of history culture and art of the 14l6th centuries denotes the intentional focus on the classical style Rib slender molded masonry arch that projects from the surface In gothic architecture 12 ARH 252 the rib forms the framework of the vaulting Rib vaults a vault in which the diagonal and transverse ribs compose a structural skeleton specific to Gothic architecture Rose window circular stained glass window Sevenpart vaulting vaulting where ribs are divided into 7 compartments Sexpartite vault vaulting where ribs are divided into 6 compartments Stained glass in Gothic architecture the colored glass used for windows Stigmata In Christian art the wounds of christs crucifixion appearing miraculously on the body of a saint Threepart nave elevation High Gothic nave arcade triforium and greatly lengthened clerestories Transept The part of a church with an axis that crosses the nave forming a quotTquot shape resemble arms thus exaggerating the cruciform shape Transverse rib crosses the nave or aisle at a 90 degree angle Triforium in a gothic cathedral the blind arcaded gallery below the clerestory occasionally the arcades are filled with stained glass Trumeau Center post supporting the lintel in the middle of the portal doorway Tympanum Semicircular lunette above doorway of a portal typically where primary decoration is located Westwork german western entrance structure Facade and towers at west end of a medieval church During which years does the Romanesque period occur 10501200 1 ARH 252 What was called Romanlike or in the Roman manner by earlyhistorians Romanesque described European medieval architecture What seems to be the causations of these pilgrimages Relics stored in sacred shrines What are the characteristics of a pilgrimage church longer and Wider naves and aisles transepts and ambulatories With additional chapels secondstory galleries What is an example of a pilgrimage church Saint Peter s and Saint Paul s in Rome Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem What is vita contemplativa Latin for quotcontemplative lifequot secluded spiritual life of monks and nuns What is the functionality and symbolism of the portal door the beginning of the path to salvation through Christ What scene is usually depicted on the tympanum of a portal door Why Last Judgement 14 ARH 252 Christ as king and judge of the world in its last days re ects the idea that Christ is the door to salvation What is the Throne of Wisdom Virgin and Child in Magestry What are the characteristics of the Italian Romanesque style lacks verticality similar to early Christian basilican type of church round and free standing Why are there so many freestanding baptisteries in Italy where baptisms took placethe whole city would welcome the new member important for civic and religious regions What was the Battle of Hastings when William the Conqueror Norman lead the conquest of England and defeated the AngloSaxons English joining Normans England and some of France under one rule What church did William the Conqueror build Saint Tienne Caen What is the Bayeux Tapestry What did it commemorate 230 ft long embroidered tapestry commemorates the battle of hastings Which churches are examples of stone groin sexpartite and sevenpart vaulting Stone Saint Sernin 1 ARH 252 Groin Speyer Cathedral Sant39 Ambrogio SeXpartite Saint Etienne Notre Dame Sevenpart Durham Cathedral What are the architectural differences between Italy and France Italy had wooden roofs France had stone vaulting Lintel The horizontal beam above the doorway or portal Gothic Recipe Pointed archrib vaultrose window ying buttressing Who coined the term Gothic Giorgio Vasari In what church did the Gothic style rst appear SaintDenis What speci c person introduced the Gothic style at this church Abbot Suger What caused Abbot Suger to develop the Gothic architectural elements rib vaults allowed them to eliminate the walls between the chapels use stainedglass Windows most sacred light What does it mean to achieve soaring heights in the Gothic period Wanted to be as tall as possible 16 ARH 252 Focus on verticality of structures In what country was the Gothic style most prevalent France What relic was held at Chartres Cathedral Santa Camisa the holy tunic of Virgin Mary What year did Chartres Cathedral burn down 1 194 How long did it take to rebuild Chartres Cathedral 27 years How did the re at Chartres affects its overall stylistic characteristics surViVing parts were in the Early Gothic style rebuilt part was in the High Gothic style How do jamb gures evolve throughout the Gothic period figures of the New testament in medieval clothing thought of them as the queen and kings of france begin very long and skinny not very lifelike develop into realistic scenes of the figures What is Lux Nova New light the light that enters a Gothic church through stained glass windows Who coined the term Lux Nova Abbot Suger 1 ARH 252 How does the view of the Virgin Mary change during the Gothic period and what is the cult of the virgin Became known as the Queen of Heaven became extremely popular and had thousands of churches dedicated to her Portrayed in the Royal Portal Chartres How is the holy spirit depicted in several Gothic stained glass windows doves Where in Paris is Notre Dame speci cally located Center of Paris on a island il del acite What are the major differences between Amiens and Reims Cathedral What is the Annunciation a sculpture Mary being told she is going to give birth to a son What is the Visitation Sculpture Elizabeth telling Mary she is pregnant with John Who commissioned SainteChapelle Louis IX What reliquary once held the lock of hair belonging to the Virgin Mary Virgin of Jeanne D39 Evreux 18 ARH 252 How does the English Gothic style differ from the French Gothic style more balance less ying buttresses simplistic no rose Window No Soaring towers focuses on Horizontality not Verticality Long rectangular plan How does the English Gothic style differ from the German Gothic style Soaring Heights lots of ying butresses What other regional style does English gothic style closely resemble French Gothic Style What event during the 14th century would in uence the death and suffering highlighted in the Rottgen Pieta The Plague Black Death How should the distortion of the Rottgen Pieta be interpreted confusion pain deathdecay punishment from God Black Death Art What are the characteristics of the Byzantine style Portraying religious images not naturalistic paper doll like halos What does the ItaloByzantine style mean Combination of Italian imagery and the Byzantium imagery What artwork epitomizes the ItaloByzantine style Saint Francis Altarpiece What is the ProtoRenaissance Contains ItaloByzantine style style Earliest form of renaissance What was Cimabue and Giotto s relationship Teacher and student Giotto is known for renaissance while Cimabue is not Cimbaue has more Byzantine imagery while Giotto has more naturalism Who is known as the Father of Western Pictorial Art Giotto What is the Renaissance a rebirth of of the classical style by artists 1 ARH 252 20 ARH 252 How does Humanism directly correlate with Renaissance ideals People during the Renaissance start focusing on individual potential and expand their knowledge which directly correlates with the renaissance They go hand in hand During the formative years of the Renaissance what city do we associate with the burgeoning of this style Florence In a last judgement scene where are the good and bad in relation to Christ The Good are on Christ39s right They are fully clothed static and peaceful The Bad are on Christ39s left They are nude active and chaotic What do the 12 oxen represent on the Rainer of Huy 12 decibels and also refers to the bronze casting from King Soloman39s temple
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