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the nervous system

Created by: Cara Lockman Elite Notetaker

Flashcards > the nervous system

the nervous system

School: Providence College
Tags:
Name: the nervous system
Uploaded: 02/27/2016
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Central nervous system (CNS)

Nervous system subdivision that is composed of the brain and spinal cord.

Somatic nervous system

Subdivision of the PNS that controls voluntary activities such as the activation of skeletal muscles. Sends commands to skeletal system.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Nervous system subdivision that is composed of the cranial nerves and spinal nerves. Communication lines.

Autonomic nervous system

Subdivision of the PNS that regulates the activity of the cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands. It is also called the involuntary nervous system because it controls body activities automatically. It is very Important in maintaining homeostasis for the body.

Neuroglia

Cells that support, insulate, and protect neurons. These cells are able to divide and are usually involved in brain tumors.

Neurons

Cells that transmit electrical message from one area of the body to another area.

Axon

End of neuron that releases neurotransmitters away from the cell body.

Dendrite

End of neuron that conducts electrical currents toward the cell body.

Myelin

White, fatty material that covers long nerve fibers, protecting and insulating the fibers, as well as Increasing the speed of impulse transmission.

Cell body

Location of the nucleus in a neuron.

Schwann cells

Specialized cells that myelinate the fibers of neurons found in the PNS.

Synapse

Junction or point of close contact between neurons.

Tract

Bundle of nerve processes inside the CNS.

Nodes of Ranvier

Gaps in the myelin sheath between schwann cells.

Ganglia

Collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS.

Efferent neuron

Neuron that conducts impulses away from the point of reference or the CNS to muscles and glands.

Stimuli

Changes, occurring within or outside the body, that affect nervous system functioning.

Afferent neuron

Neuron that conducts impulses toward the point of reference or the CNS from the body periphery. Red-sensory. Receive sensory info.

Neurotransmitters

Chemicals released by neurons that stimulate other neurons, muscles, or glands.

Potassium ions

The chief positive ion found inside a neuron during its resting state.

Sodium potassium pump

completely restores the resting conditions of the neuron.

Hypothalamus

Site of regulation of water balance, body temperature, and metabolism. Centers for thirst, hunger, rage, sex, pleasure, etc. Controls pituitary gland.

Cerebellum

Responsible for the regulation of posture and coordination of skeletal muscle movements, for equilbrium and balance. "Little brain" Has branching of white matter=arbor vitae.

Thalamus

Acts as a filter or switchboard. Important relay station for afferent fibers traveling to the sensory cortex for interpretation giving us a crude idea if the sensation we are about to feel will be pleasant or unpleasant.

Medulla oblongata

Location for cranial nerve gray matter, connects spinal cord to brain stem, houses many vital centers for heart beat and breathing. Found in the brain stem, contains autonomic centers which regulate blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, swallowing, and vomiting,

Concussion

Occurs when the brain injury is slight. Although patient may be dizzy or briefly lose consciousness, the damage is not permanent.

Contusion

Result of marked tissue destruction. If the cerebral cortex is damaged, the person may remain conscious but if the brain stem is damaged, may go into a permanent coma.

Coma

Total nonresponsiveness to stimulation.

Cerebral edema

After head injury, if bleeding occurs from ruptured vessels the brain may swell and left untreated, can result in death.

Stroke

Also called a cerebrovascular accident. Occurs when blood circulation to the brain area is blocked, as by a blood clot or a ruptured blood vessel and vital brain tissue dies. 3rd leading cause of death in the USA.

Gyri/gyrus

Folds. Elevated ridges of tissue in the cerebral hemispheres.

Sulci/sulcus

Grooves. Shallow grooves or furrows in the cerebral hemispheres.

Cerebrum

Right & Left cerebral hemispheres. Connected by the corpus callosum. Separated by the longitudinal fissure. Seat of higher intellectual functions. Most superior part of the brain, as well as the largest part of the brain.

Dienchephalon

Interbain that sits atop the brain stem and is enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres. Includes the thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus.

Brain Stem

Provides a pathway for ascending and descending tracts and contains the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.

Cerebellum

Large califlower-like structure that projects dorsally from under the cerebrum. Provides precise timing for skeletal muscle activity (muscle pattern) and controls balance and equilibrium. "little brain" Has branching white matter = "arbor vitae".

Meninges

Consists of three protective tissues that surround and cover the CNS.

Meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges posing a serious threat if the bacteria or virus spreads to the CNS.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)

Made by special capillaries in venticles. Watery broth similar in make up to blood plasma, but contains less protein and more vitamin C. Forms a watery cushion that protects fragile nervous tissue from blows and other trauma.

Fight or Flight

Phrase given to instinctive response to danger where our heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and oxygen intake from lungs increase to give one more energy for a response. Controlled by the sympathetic division.

Type A Personalities

People who work at breakneck speeds and push themselves continually due to excessive sympathetic nervous system disorder. Can lead to heart disease, high blood pressure, and ulcers.

Cerebral Palsy

Birth defect often due to a temporary lack of oxygen that causes brain damage and results in a poorly controlled voluntary muscles, seizures, mental retardation, and/or impaired hearing and eyesight.

dura mater

The outermost layer, "tough mother" meninges (tissue membranes covering and protecting CNS structures), double layered

arachnoid layer

"Spidery layer" subarachnoid space underneath contains the cerebrospinal fluid, type of meninges (tissue membranes covering and protecting CNS structures)

pia mater

Thin, delicate layer that closely adheres to surface of the brain and spinal cord, "soft mother", type of meninges (tissue membranes covering and protecting CNS structures)

ciliated neuroglial

Cerebrospinal fluid circulated by what type of cell?

150 ml

What is the total volume of cerebrospinal fluid?

8

How many hours in a circulation of cerebrospinal fluid?

bloodstream

Where does the cerebrospinal fluid empty into?

neurulation

The process that forms the brain and spinal cord in the embryo and requires folic acid.

cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum

What are the 4 hemispheres of brian?

cerebral cortex

Blanket of gray matter on surface of cerebrum

left

Which side is dominant for language head, 90% of people, usually right-handed?

right

Which side is dominant for language heart, 10% of people, typically left-handed, males, may contribute to dyslexia

homunculus

Map of the body on the cerebral cortex?

epithalamus

Also called pineal gland, secretes melatonin to regulate day/night cycle, part of diencephalon

thalamus

Part of diencephalon, acts as a filter or switchboard

hypthalamus

Part of diencephalon. Centers for thirst, hunger, rage, sex, pleasure, etc. Controls pituitary gland.

midbrain

Part of the brain with superior colliculi (for visual tracking) and inferior colliculi (for auditory reflexes, includes the startle reflex)

pons

Part of the brain that serves as a bridge between spinal cord and brainstem

medulla oblongata

Part of the brain located for cranial nerve gray matter connects spinal cord to brain stem, houses many vital centers for heart beat and breathing.

Wenicke's

Sensory function of hearing language and understanding it.

Broca's

Speech area where we produce language

limbic system

The emotional brain: anger, fear, danger responses, happiness, pleasure and sorrow. Connects emotions with smell. Converts new info into memory. Includes hypothalamus

RAS-reticular formation

Maintains alert status, auditory impules, descending motor projections to spinal cord, ascending.

alpha

The brain wave that is regular rythmic, at "idle"

beta

The brain wave that is rthymic, more irregular, alert.

theta

The brain wave that is more irregular, more common in children.

delta

The brain wave that is deep sleep, when thelamus.

PNS

Is the part of the nervous system outside the CNS. It consists mainly of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord. Spinal nerves carry impulses to and from the spinal cord. Cranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brain. These nerves serve as communication lines. They link all parts of the body by carrying impulses from the sensory receptors to the CNS and from the CNS to the appropriate glands or muscles.

ganglia

Bundles of neurons.

motor efferent

Nerve carries impulses from CNS. Blue. Send motor commands.

sensory afferent

Nerve carries impulses to the CNS

12

How many cranial nerves are there?

olfactory, optic, oculomotor

Name 3 cranial nerves

plexus

Spinal nerves, a cast or braid of nerves off the spinal cord.

cervical plexus

The nerves in phrenic nerve that start in neck, innervates your diaghragm for breathing.

brachial plexus

Nerves down into arm where you get funny bone feeling in arm.

lumbosacral

Nerve in the lumbar plexus in quadrecips, innervates "quads"

sacral plexus

Nerves innervates back of leg (hamstrings, gastro..) sciatic nerve

nervous system

The sensory input/stimuli, integration, motor output-communication

CNS, PNS

The components or anatomical subdivision of nervous system

general senses, special senses

External stimuli of nervous system.

general

Sense of touch, vibration, pain, pressure, temperature.

special

Sense of smell, vision, taste, balance, hearing.

internal stimuli

The heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, electrolyte and ion levels in blood, )2 and CO2 levels, stretch receptors, proprioceptors

responses

Caused by the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse between cells, exictatory or inhibitory

excitatory

The neurtransmitter ACH is ____ to skeletal muscle causing them to contract

interneuron

Green-Nerve also termed association neurons. Between sensory and motor neurons.

autonomic, somatic

Motor divisions

somatic NS

The motor division that sends commands to skeletal muscles, voluntary.

autonomic NS

The motor division that sends commands to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands, involuntary. Subconscious control, fine-tuning without awareness and ensures homeostasis.

sympathetic, parasympathetic

What are the 2 subdivisions of autonomic NS.

sympathetic ns

Fight or flight. Mobilizes body during extreme situations. Exercise, excitement, emergency and embarrasment. Increases blood flow to muscles. Increases heart rate and respiratory rates. Dilates pupils. Reduces blood flow to GI tract and urinary organs. Makes skin cold and sweaty.

parasympathetic

Rest and digest. Performs maintenance activities. Conserves body energy. Digestion, defecation and diuresis. Keeps blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate low. Increases activity in GI tract. Constricts pupils. Skim warm (vascularized).

receptor, sensory neuron, integration center, motor neuron,effector

Reflex ARC components. Life saving actions

somatic ns

Subdivision of the PNS that controls voluntary activities such as the activation of skeletal muscles.

PNS

Nervous system subdivision that is composed of the cranial, spinal nerves and ganglia.

autonomic NS

it is also called involuntary nervous system.

CNS

A major subdivision of the nervous system that intergrate incoming information and issues orders.

PNS

A major subdivision of the nervous system that serves as communication lines, linking all parts of the body to the CNS.

neuroglia

Supports, insulates and protect cells.

neurons

Demonstrate irritability and conductivity, and thus transmit electrical messages from one area of the body to another area.

neurons

Releases neurotransmitters

neurons

Are amitotic.

neuroglia

Able to divide: therefore are responsible for most brain neoplasms.

cutaneous sense organs

Sensory receptors found in the skin, which are specialized to detect temperature, pressure changes and pain.

schwan cells, neuroglia

Specialized cells that myelinate the fibers of neurons found in the PNS.

synapse

Junction or point of close contact between neurons.

tract

Bundle of nerve processes inside CNS

association neuron

Interneuron, serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons.

nodes of Ranvier

Gaps in a myelin sheath

ganglion

Collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS

efferent neuron

Neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscle and glands.

proprioceptor

Sensory receptors found in muscle and tendons that detect their degree of stretch.

stimuli

Changes, occuring within or outside the body, that affect nervous system functioning.

afferent neuron

Neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body periphery.

Sensory organs and muscles below the head

The spinal cord, one of the 2 constituents of the CNS, deals with these

Bell Magendle Law

top of brain) roots and motor information exits the cord via the ventral (towards the stomach) roots.

white matter

much of the spinal cord is comprised of white matter (bundles of myelinated axons)

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Join more than 18,000+ college students at Providence College who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: Providence College
Tags:
Name: the nervous system
Uploaded: 02/27/2016
120 Pages 4 Views 3 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!

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