HST109 Midterm Study Guide
HST109 Midterm Study Guide HST109
Popular in United States to 1865
Popular in History
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HST109 at Arizona State University taught by Lauren Berka in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 228 views. For similar materials see United States to 1865 in History at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
HST109 Midterm Study Guide Short Answer Columbian Exchange 0 after arrival of Columbus Cortes transatlantic trade of slaves goods ideas 0 plants animals cultures from different continents come into contact 0 America to Europe corn tomatoes potatoes peanuts tobacco Europe to America wheat rice sugarcane horses cattle wars enslavement diseases smallpox in uenza measles D 80 million people die during rst 150 years of contact Megafauna before end of ice age mammoth mastodon camelops giant ground sloth rhinoceros The Reconquista reconquest of Spain from the Moors African Muslims that had occupied for centuries Ferdinand and Isabella to ensure religious unification expelled Muslims and Jews who didn39t convert to Catholicism Ferdinand and Isabella and merchants back Columbus to nd way around Muslim control of eastern trade Bartolome de Las Casas wrote quotDestruction of the Indiesquot against the cruel enslavement of natives used to own slaves in Cuba 0 described burning alive forced labor captivity Indians are rational beings not barbarians translated into several European languages D spread of Black Legend image of Spain as brutal and exploitive colonizer Mestizo Spain orders wives of colonists to join husbands single men marry but number of women remain low intermixed marriages begin and are later approved by Spain 0 urban population of Spanish America mostly mestizo repopulation of decimated areas a hybrid culture emerges Pueblo Re volt negative relations between Indians and colonial authorities in small colony of New Mexico punish nonconverters through violence intimidation burning sacred objects Pope helps coordinate different tribes into an uprising spoke 6 different languages warriors destroy farms and missions surround Santa Fe colonist forced to abandon colony most complete victory for natives and only complete expulsion of settlers in North America The Black Legend image of Spain as a uniquely brutal and exploitive colonizer Las Casas39 writings circulated through Europe contribute to image inspired sense of superiority among Spain39s rivals who want to match Spain39s success inspires Dutch to treat natives humanely thought they were liberating New World from tyranny of Spain Middle Ground contested area of Ohio Valley between French British and natives natives in area pushed out of ancestral lands looking for new hunting 0 Indians sought to play empires off each other 0 Indians sought to control fur trade 0 Virginia awards land to Ohio Company French reject land claims D 7 years war The Virginia Company 0 business organization with aristocratic shareholders sponsored colony ofJamestown hoping to discover silver and gold colony unsuccessful at rst food shortages long winter kills many 0 John Smith autocratic system of forced labor 0 company realizes no gold establishes headright system land to any colonist who pays for another39s passage Quakers create settlement in Pennsylvania under William Penn quotinner lightquot piece of god in everyone equality among all people religious liberty broad suffrage paci sts strict morality code smaller families women have more in uence children not inherently sinful purchase land from Indians instead of conquering Predestina tion teachings ofJohn Calvin quotCalvinistquot fate has already been determined by god heaven or hell determined before birth 0 works don39t get you into heaven 0 death something to fear 0 primary difference between Catholicism Coverture widespread legal doctrine in Europe 0 when a woman married she surrendered her legal identity which became covered by her husband 0 women cannot sign contracts own property control wages write a will seek divorce husband conducts business for whole family has exclusive rights to wife doctrine remains intact after revolution Matriinea society is centered on clans or kinship groups in which children become members of the mother39s clan most lndian societies women play role in certain ceremonies help elect tribal leaders take part in tribe meetings women own dwellings and tools husbands move to live with wife s family Anne Hutchinson held meeting in home and led discussions of religious issues among men and women thought salvation was god39s gift to the elect and could not be earned by good works charged that all ministers in Mass were guilty of faulty preaching for distinguishing saints from the damned on basis of church attendance and moral behavior placed on trial for seditions expressing opinions dangerous to authority held her own during trial but spoke of god speaking directly to her banished with followers shows tie between church and state puritan belief that everyone can interpret bible for themselves easily leads to criticism of authority lndentured servitude in New France New England Virginia 17th century 23 english settlers indentured servants surrendered freedom for speci ed time could be bought and sold couldn39t marry without permission subject to physical punishment indenture lengthened if get pregnant received payment quotfreedom duesquot and become free at end high death rate many don39t live out terms freedom dues sometimes so little they couldn39t buy land better investment than slaves because of high death rate Halfwa y Covenant Puritan leaders worry about declining piety in society new generation were baptized but often did not become members of the church church membership now given to grandchildren of immigrants of the Great Migration church membership still stagnates response to commercialization of New England Consumer Revolution Great Britain emerges as leading producertrader of inexpensive consumer goods coffee tea linen glassware ceramics clothing trade integrates British empire brings colonies into commerce shops proliferate people start to buy consumer items instead of homemade tea changes from luxury to necessity Bacon 5 Rebelion Virginia Governor Berkeley runs corrupt regime in alliance with inner circle of elite tobacco plantation owners lands given to inner circle freed slaves must become tenants or move to frontier right to vote reserved for landowners increased white poverty settlers demand Berkeley remove Indians from colony to open up land refuses Nathaniel Bacon elite not part of inner circle leads uprising calls for removal of Indians reduction of taxes end to corruption army burns Jamestown Berkeley ees Bacon becomes ruler until warships from England restore order elite try to consolidate power and improve image reinstate property quali cations for voting cultivated support of poor reduce taxes more aggressive indian policy shift to slaves Mercantiism theory that government should regulate economic activity to promote national power should encourage commerce and manufacturing exports should exceed imports role of colonies to serve mother country though importing Navigation Laws certain goods tobacco sugar have to be transported in English ships and sold in English ports imported goods to colonies must be shipped through England Salem Witch Trials 0 several girls experience ts night mares attributed to witchcraft accusations of witchcraft snowball because only way to avoid prosecution is to confess and name others accusations used to settle old scores within the community majority of accused are women accusations spread beyond usual pro le of middleaged women Governor of Mass dissolves salem court orders prisoners released events discredit tradition of prosecuting witches Pontiac s Rebelion after abrupt French departure after 7 years war groups think freedom is threatened because no more balance of power diplomacy Treaty of Paris doesn39t acknowledge lndian land claims D period of confusion overland Neolin religious prophet says natives must reject European technology free themselves from commercial ties to whites alcohol drive british out of territory Neolin preached PanIndian identity several tribes besiege Detroit together British counterattack and tribes one by one make peace leads to Proclamation of 1763 prohibits settlement west of Appalachian mountains but ignored by many speculators and settlers john Locke gained prominence in 17005 after death 0 quotsocial contractquot men surrender a part of their right to govern themselves in order to enjoy bene ts of the rule of law 0 men retail natural rights life liberty property 0 individual rights consent of the governed right of rebellion against unjust or oppressive governments natural rights justi cation for colonial resistance in uences Declaration of Independence and Constitution Middle Passage Deism voyage across the Atlantic for slaves secondmiddle leg in the triangular trading routes linking Europe Africa America crammed as tightly as possibly to maximize pro t 15 perish spread of disease sick often thrown overboard majority of slaves to Brazil West Indies bc of high death rates on sugar plantations belief that god withdrew after creating the world leaving it to function according to scienti c aws without divine intervention miracles revealed truth of the bible innate sinfulness viewed as superstitious Newton39s laws clear evidence of God39s handiwork best form of religious devotion to study workings of nature Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson founding father deists want to erect quotwall of separationquot between politics and religion movement towards religious freedom states disassociate with churches Old Lights traditionalists during the Great Awakening condemn revivalist preachers for lacking theological training encouraging disrespect for established church ing churches with disorder congregations split in factions many new lights form dissenting churches First Great Awakening transatlantic movement of a series of revivals beginning in 17305 quotreligion of the heartquot more personalemotional response to threat of established reigion enlightenment involvement in commercial activities materialism luxury goods new preaching style focus on individual John Edwards quotSinners in the Hands of an Angry Godquot frightening negative enthusiastic old lights vs new lights appeals to people of modest means many slaves convert some women given speaking roles Seven Years War British try to dislodge French from forts in Pennysylvania Battle of Fort Necessity Washington forced to surrender after losing 13 of men starts in colonies and spreads to outposts British losing rst 2 years PM Pitt funnels lots of money to shift tide Peace of Paris 1763 British gain islands in French Caribbean India Canada British begin taxing colonies to make up debt Proclamation Line of 1 763 after Pontiac39s rebellion prohibits further colonial settlement west of Appalachian Mountains sale of Indian lands to private individuals aim to stabilize the situation not protect Indians settlers and speculators ignore further exacerbates settlerIndian relations Common Sense written by Thomas Paine directed at everyone uncomplicated language attacks monarchy takes on idea that British monarchy is best government in the world read by people of all backgrounds major cause of revolutionary passion in the colonies Virtual representation idea that British Parliament represents interests of colonies and entire British empire Brought on the colonist39s thoughts of Britain s idea of representation quotno taxation without representationquot Presented con icting thoughts of colonists and British Britain thought if colonists wanted English rights they will be taxed as if they were English they paid for the colonies protection and the colonies are British subjects Stamp Act 1765 any type of printed materials needed a stamp a rst time British directly taxed the colonies Molasses Wool amp Hat Acts all regulated trade which was not a direct tax like the Stamp Act Affected a wider range of colonists amp caused extreme backlash bc the colonists thought if was oppressive and represented a permanent British empire Challenged local elite39s authority Sons of Liberty 0 Everyday colonists who began to boycott British goods 0 They would threaten people who were buying stamps Similar to Bacon39s Rebellion in that it was a collection of the middle class big threat to the power of the elite Demonstrates the power of the lower class Daughters of Liberty 0 Women who boycotted British goods 0 Made clothes so colonists bought the product in the colonies instead of from the British 0 Made America less dependent of British textiles Continuing resistance Boston Massacre March 5 1770 street ght between British soldiers and civilian colonists killed 5 civilians Unsure of how the ght began Represented the building tension between Britain and colonies Colonies were frustrated with quartering of soldiers taxes and job competition with British East India Company 0 British joint stock company 0 Collection of London businessmen who banded together to make money by importing spices from South Asia 0 Very lucrative modern day monopoly Homespun Virtue Encouraging colonists to produce their own goods to prevent them from buying goods from the British 0 Symbol of American resistance to British imperialism Tea Act a 1773 tax on tea Merchants in colonies are not able to compete due to the tax Pushes colonists to more rebellion Loyalists Colonists who did not favor severing ties with Britain 0 20 25 of free America remained loyal to British 0 100000 loyalists were emigrated or banished from the US Dunmore s Proclamation 1775 promised freedom for slaves who left their masters and joined the royal forces Signed my John Murray royal governor of the British colony of Virginia Slaves were motivated to ght for the British for their freedom not due to their allegiance to the crown Dunmore hoped slaves would rise against their masters Treaty of Paris 1783 0 British recognizes American independence end of the Revolutionary War Colonies gain control of land to Mississippi Social Contract 0 Agreement between the governed and government de ning duties 0 By John Locke39s de nition government was formed by mutual agreement among equals 0 In the 18th century social contract men surrendered a part of their right to govern themselves in order to enjoy the bene ts of the rule of law 0 They retained their natural rights Abigail Adams 0 States in a letter to John Adams that men have unlimited power over women in marriages Thought women were dominated by their husbands Republican Motherhood Having children for the success of the new nation Caused women to have a prominent role in the creation of the new nation they were responsible for raising children that would carry on the ideals of the Revolution 0 Altered family life reinforced women39s responsibility and main focus of raising the children but also gave them more in uence in the development of society Primogeniture System in which land is passed down through family line to the oldest son 0 This is being rejected after the Revolution Noah Webster stated equal distribution of land is the basis of national freedom 0 The colonies begin to create a more democratic society which means equal distribution of land 0 This way land is available to people who aren39t just born into it Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom 0 Proposed by jefferson Thought people should not be taxed for church funding and there should be no religious requirement in order to vote Sparked the idea of the separation of church and state quotWall of separa tion jefferson39s proposal of a separation between church and state Establishes religious freedom Disestabishment Allowing churches other than the Anglican Church to exist Renouncing the old ways of an quotof cial churchquot in which people must support with taxes Freedom Petitions a People who are in servitudeslavery are petitioning for their freedom 0 Those attempting to do this are trying to show how hypocritical slavery is when the Revolution was a ght for freedom 0 Displays how slaves began to use the language of the Revolution to argue for the end of slavery Ex of such language life liberty and the pursuit of happiness Free Labor 0 Ability to make own decisions about one39s working life not indentured servitude or slavery Can decide wages hours salary etc 0 Ideas of liberty are beginning to be taken literally Shay s Rebelion Leader Daniel Shay debtridden farmer who couldn39t pay his bills because he hadn39t gotten paid from Congress for ghting in the war Uprising of lower class threatens power of the elite Calls for a stronger national government in order to control uprisings like this Articles of Confederation 17771788 re ects fear of centralized power 0 states remained sovereign one house Congress each state casts one vote no president orjudiciary major decisions needed 9 states approval 0 speci c powers included declare war conduct foreign affairs make treaties coin money Can39t levy taxes or regulate commerce amending Articles required unanimous consent Concentrated on international involvement not on controlling the home front had no power over states Three fths clause Slave population counted as 35ths Exaggerates power of the South in reality South was not given more power since it was highly unlikely slaves were able allowed to vote 0 Shows attempt to compromise on slavery but only embed it further into the na on Fugitive slave clause 0 States if a slave escapes they are still not free condition of slavery bondage is inescapable Makes it illegal for free people to help fugitive slaves Causes race to become more closely associated with slavery whole country is involved with perpetuating slavery because they can39t escape anywhere legally national government has no control over abolishing slavery in the South Bill of Rights Amendments that protected the rights of the citizens by retraining the power of the government Compromise between Anti Federalists and Federalists in order to ratify the Constitution lstloth amendements outlined unalienable rights rights that the government can39t take away reinforces idea that centralized power is the biggest threat to liberty North west Ordinance 1 787 Depicted western settlement and idea that Americans had a right to the land 0 Created principle of quotempire of libertyquot colonists would govern the land differently than Britain they will treat the new land as equal states Pledged quotutmost good faithquot would be observed towards Indians and prohibited slavery on the new land 1St recognition of Native American rights to the land Constitutional Convention 0 1787 Independence Hall Philadelphia called to amend Articles 0 55 delegates participated they are leaders in their communities but not elected by a democratic process 0 Established 3 branches of government and established that Congress can raise money without asking the states gave more power to the national government Virginia Plan Favored by the big states because the population of the state would determine representation in legislature Proposed byJames Madison FederalistsAntiFederaists Federalists pro constitution wanted to rid the fear of a central government Thought that the purpose of the government was to protect property rights because they did not want an uprising of people trying to redistribute land Shay39s Rebellion the Constitution protects against tyranny and the size of the US means there is a collection of distinct interests which prevents one faction from dominating AntiFederalists didn39t want to ratify the constitution as is Thought that the constitution provides Congress too much power local interests would not be observed under the constitution and they favored local over national institutions the constitution pushed people into a mass without concern for diversity wanted Bill of Right to protect citizens from the national government Essay Questions 1 Throughout the history of English colonization of North America interactions With Native Americans have been a constant feature Compare and contrast English society to the societies of the various Indian groups residing in North America In your analysis be sure to discuss their respective ideas about religion land gender roles and freedom 0 religion EngHsh o Angelican church 0 no religious tolerance Natives 0 religious ceremonies re farming hunting 0 sacred spirits in livinginanimate things 0 single creator 0 land EngHsh 0 land inequality 0 most men lack economic freedom because they work for others Natives 0 land a resource not commodity cannot be owned 0 land lended to family to use for one season 0 little inequality 0 gender roles EngHsh o coverture women surrender legal identity no property 0 male dominance female submission Natives o matrilineal 0 men are tribal leaders but women have some say 0 women agriculture menhunting o premarital sex can divorce husbands freedom EngHsh o selfgovernment o exemption from taxation 0 right to work Natives o no laws 0 no word quotfreedomquot in language 0 embodiment of freedom 2 By the middle of the seventeenth century a number of rival European powers had come to inhabit North America even though the native inhabitants of the continent still vasty outnumbered them The Spanish Empire stretched into presentda y California the French were active in much of Canada and along the Mississippi River the Dutch had founded New Netherand and the English were settling a number of colonies on the east coast Why did the English come to dominate North America rather than the Spanish the French or the Dutch Defend your answer by discussing the nature of each country s colonies and how they interacted with each other prior to 1763 0 Spanish largest Mexico Andes Mountains Southwest US Florida tens of thousands of natives work on haciendas mines Indians always outnumber Europeans hybrid culture mestizos intermarriage lack of European women 0 Virgen de Guadelupe symbol of hybrid culture natives expected to conform to Spanish culture many missionaries Black Legend 0 what rest of world thinks about Spain 0 uniquely brutal and exploitive o justi es colonization of other empires 0 French arc along St Lawrence Mississippi Ohio rivers mostly explorers sherman pirates fur traders fewer sent than England more French attracted to Native life than Natives to French life many marry Indian women didn39t take native39s land Jesuits not as active as Spanish 0 Dutch diverse population attracted by religious tolerance freedom of press half rights to slaves o Africans Belgians English French german protestants jews Freedom39s amp Exemptions plan 0 large estates to those who transport tenants 0 creates feudal system with patroons at top few immigrant remain came to trade not conquer or convert 3 English settlement on the eastern coast of North America radiated from settlements in jamestown Virginia and Plymouth Massachusetts The settlers in these regions had very different reasons for migrating that affected the development and character of these colonies Compare and contrast the Chesapeake and New England colonies In your answer discuss the environment economies family life and gender roles and demographics of these colonies as well as the role of religion and their relations With Native Americans Be sure to discuss differences as well as similarities Jamestown motives for colonization Virginia Company sends group of men hoping to nd goldsilver headright system lures settlers with servants environment swamp containing malaria carrying mosquitos garbage dumped into river leads to disease economy tobacco emerging class of tobacco planters society with few towns and no social unity demand for labor D male indentured servants with high death rate family lifegender roles lack of women late age of marriage because of servitude single women have legal identity demographics mostly men at rst few farmers but more come after headright system indentured servants role of religion Native American relations Virginia Company instructs colonists to treat natives well because of Black Legend initial peace but uprising in 1622 after uprisings Indians sign treaty and move to reservations and must stay away from white settlements Plymouth motives for colonization pilgrims are separatists England being corrupted by satan environment abandoned Indian village with ready to cultivate elds harsh winter economy fur trade shing adopted agriculture methods from natives family lifegender roles family patterns emerged quickly male authority females are equals in religion but not family demographics families puritans role of religion virtually no separation between church and state no church membership means second rate citizen Native American relations decimated by smallpox before arrival assisted during rst winter 4 Over the course of the seventeenth century tobacco planters in the Chesapeake region came to rely more on African slaves rather than European indentured servants How did this shift from a quotsociety With sla ves to a quotsla ve society occur How is this kind of racial sla very different than a captivesla ve system In your answer discuss how economics culture and legislation in uenced this change 0 Economics 0 In 1660s is was more economical to use indentured servitude because slaves were more expensive and wouldn39t live as long but increased demand for tobacco led to labor shortage cause of shift from quotsociety with slavesquot to quotslave societyquot Slave trade made colonies pro table Created the construction of ports growth of banking and shipbuilding Financed the industrial revolution Bacon39s Rebellion an uprising of the lower class for the removal of Indians on the frontier so there was more land for colonists acceIerated shift to slave labor because freed indentured servants were given more rights There is now an investment in a permanent lower class of slaves Culture 0 Easier to draw line between free and enslaved if it is identi ed by the color of skin 0 Hard to enslave Native Americans because they had a bigger population and were settled in America rst 0 Legislation 0 Virginia Act of 1662 stated status of the child followed that of the mother Previously followed the father39s line Caused slavery to be inheritable Sexual abuse of slaves would be profitable if a slave master impregnated their women slave the child would be their slave as well Prevented growth of quotfree blacksquot 0 Virginia House of Burgesses approved a decree stating 1667 religious conversion does not free slaves Christianity was previously used as a way to quotelevate civilizationquot but now that is not possible for slaves Made escaping slavery virtually impossible No way for slaves to rise out of servitude 5 Not everyone supported the independence movement within the colonies Explain who supported independence and who did not Be sure to include a thorough discussion about how socioeconomic standing race religion and gender affected whether an individual would support or oppose independence In your answer use examples from the relevant sources in the Voices of Freedom reader 6 The patriots claimed to be ghting a war to protect liberty and freedom in America yet these ideas did not apply to everyone How did the Revolution affect Loyalists Native Americans slaves free blacks and women Was the Revolution quotrevolutionaryquot for them In your answer use examples from the relevant sources in the Voices of Freedom reader Loyalists 0 100000 Loyalists were emigrated or banished from the US 0 Native Americans 0 Caused many groups to unite 0 Joseph Brant saw shift in power and tried to unite lndian groups to create a Confederacy Slaves O O O O Sparked debate of freedom Used language of the revolution to show that slavery was hypocritical since the Revolution was a ght for freedom Argued they were entitled to life liberty and the pursuit of happiness Development of freedom petitions Free Blacks o In the North slavery was not the basis of the economy 0 There was no large plantation owners with many slaves more in South 0 Abolition in the North allowed the emergence of Free Black Communities 0 Women 0 Idea of republican motherhood women have a prominent role in creating the new generation that will carry on the ideals of the revolution 0 Women39s primary role of raising the children was reinforced but they were also given more responsibility because of their role in the development of the new generation
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