Psych Exam 2 Review Part 2
Psych Exam 2 Review Part 2 0010
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Spencer Poston on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 0010 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Cynthia Lausberg in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Intro to Psychology Exam 2 Review Part 2 Chapter5 51 How should we de ne learning Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience 52 Classical Conditioning The practice that one stimulus when paired with another stimulus can eventually produce a similar response Brought about by Ivan Pavlov and his salivationfoodsound experiment with dogs Unconditioned stimulus UCS the naturally occurring stimulus that produces the involuntary or unconditioned response UCR They are called unconditioned because they are not learned Conditioned stimulus CS begins as a neutral stimulus but when paired with the unconditioned stimulus eventually begins to cause an involuntary and automatic behavior on its own called the conditioned response CR These are called conditioned because they are learned ln Pavlov s experiment 0 UCS food o UCR salivation o CS the sound of the bell o CR salivation The neutral stimulus and UCS must be paired several times and the CS must precede the UCS by only a few seconds In other words the bell had to be rung right before the food was presented multiple times for progress to be made 53 Conditioned Emotional Responses Phobia an emotional disorder that is based on fear typically irrational Watson and Little Albert Watson exposed a baby to loud noise then presented a white rat which conditioned fear of the rat in the baby Conditioned taste aversions when an organism becomes nauseated after eating a certain food which then becomes aversive to the organism Biological preparedness a person can have a predisposition that make some kinds of conditioned responses more easily learned Cognitive perspective states that the CS has to provide some kind of information or establish expectancy about the coming of the UCS in order for conditioning to take hold Law of Effect A response followed by a pleasurable consequence will be repeated Thorndike 54 and 55 Operant Conditioning Works on the basis of reinforcement the process of strengthening a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence Developed by BF Skinner and his experimentation with pigeons Primary reinforce something like food or water that satis es a basic natural drive Secondary reinforce something that becomes reinforcing only after being paired with a primary reinforce Positive reinforcement a response is followed by giving something pleasurable 0 Ex Rewarding a good grade with money Negative reinforcement a response is followed by taking away something unpleasant 0 Ex Rewarding a good grade by eliminating chores Shaping molding behavior through reinforcements in small steps 56 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous when every single correct response is followed by a reinforcer Partial Reinforcement only some correct responses are followed by reinforcement much more resistant to extinction Fixed interval giving the reinforcement after a xed amount of time as long as the correct response has occurred at least once Variable interval reinforcement is given after different amounts of time for every correct response Variable ratio a varying number of correct responses is required to get reinforcement 57 Punishment Punishment is any event or stimulus that makes a response less likely to happen Positive punishment by application something negative is given after a certain response 0 Ex Being spanked after lying Negative punishment by removal something positive is taken away 0 Ex Taking away TV privileges after lying 58 Problems with Punishment 0 A person who administers aggressive punishment spanking too much or too severely can cause the one being punished to develop aggressive behavior Punishment often only has a temporary effect 0 Punishment can be more effective when it s immediate and consistent and paired with reinforcement of a desirable response 59 Operant Stimuli o Discriminative stimuli cues that provide information about what response to make in order to obtain reinforcement 0 Ex When a police officer puts on his lights indicating a person to pull over 0 Instinctive drift tendency for an animal to revert to its own instincts instead of what it is being trained to do 510 Behavior Modi cation Token economy secondary reinforcers are used to modify behavior 0 Ex Giving students gold stars for good behavior 0 Applied behavior analysis ABA uses functional analysis and behavioral techniques to change human behavior Neurofeedback a person learns to modify the activity of his or her brain a version of biofeedback 511 Cognitive Learning 0 Cognitive learning theory learning requires the in uence of an organism s thought processes it can t happen without you thinking about it o Latent learning learning without necessarily trying picking up on information about your surroundings Learned helplessness failing once leads to a person giving up even when the solution is obvious o Insight the sudden perception of the relationships among elements of a problem 512 Observational Learning 0 When we learn by watching others model certain actions it is called observational learning 0 Ex Bobo the Doll experiment 0 Four elements need to be present for observational learning to occur 0 Attention 0 Memory 0 Imitation o Desire Chapter 6 61 What is Memory 0 An active system that takes in information from the senses organizes it and stores it away to be retrieved later encodingstorageretrieval Parallel Distributed Processing model information about memories is stored across an interconnected neural network across the brain 62 Sensory Memory 0 lconic memory visual sensory memory when an image is held in neural form for about half a second Echoic memory auditory sensory memory when a sound is memorized for about 4 seconds 63 Shortterm Memory 0 When information is held while it is being used lasts about 30 seconds STM can be lost when new information is presented which pushes the old information out of the STM system 64 Longterm Memory 0 When information is stored more or less permanently unlimited capac y Information that is more deeply processed is more likely to be retained here 65 Types of Longterm Declarative explicit memories for general facts and personal expedences o A person is aware of possessing these o Nondeclarative implicit memories for skills habits and conditioned responses 0 More dif cult to bring into conscious awareness 66 What helps us remember Retrieval cues words meanings sounds and other stimuli that are processed by our brains at the same time as a new memory 0 Associating the memory of your trip to New York City with traf c noises o Encoding speci city when contextdependent information becomes encoded as retrieval cues for certain memories Statedependent learning when physiological states become encoded as retrieval cues for memories formed while in those states 0 Ex Associating the memory of driving to a friend s house while being very car sick 67 Recall vs Recognition o Recall when information is pulled out of a memory with few cues 0 Trying to remember a certain date 0 Recognition matching information with stored images or facts 0 Seeing a red light and remembering what it means 0 Serial Position Effect when he rst and last items in a list are recalled more easily than other items in the list 68 Formation of Longterm Memories Constructive processing putting bits and pieces of information together that were encoded at different times to form memories 0 Hindsight bias when people falsely think they knew the outcome of a particular event before it occurred because they re taking information about the actual outcome from their memory Misinformation effect tendency for people who are asked a misleading question to incorporate that misleading information into their own actual memory 69 Falsememory Syndrome Poor ability to retrieve memories so false memories are created 0 Especially likely to happen when hypnotized through power of sugges on False memories are more likely to form about plausible events than ridiculous events 610 What makes us forget Curve of forgetting the gradual loss of memory after an hour of storage Forgetting can be looked at as a failure to encode information properly Forgetting a memory in LTM is likely due to interference of some kind it doesn t happen often on its own 611 How and where are memories formed Procedural memories are thought to be stored in the cerebellum Shortterm memories are likely stored in the prefrontal and temporal lobes Memories associated with fear are stored in the amygdala Longterm declarative memories are stored in the hippocampus 612 Amnesia Retrograde amnesia memory for the past is lost varies in amount of time Anterograde amnesia memory for anything new becomes impossible but old memories may still be accessible Infantile amnesia inability to remember anything before the age of 2 or 3
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