BIO 240 Exam 1 Study Guide
BIO 240 Exam 1 Study Guide BIO 240
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miriam Valenzuela on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 240 at San Francisco State University taught by Dr. Andrew Swei and Dr. Dennis Desjardin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 522 views. For similar materials see Second Semester Biology in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
BIOLOGY 240 STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 AVocabulary Eukaryote any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes Stromatolites layered biochemical structures formed in shallow water by trapping binding and cementing of sedimentary grains by microorganisms such as cyanobacteria spontaneous generation the hypothetical process by which living organisms develop from nonliving matter protobiont self organized spherical collection of lipids proposed as a stepping stone to the origin of life proteinoid thermal protein that is abiotically formed from amino acids liposome artificially prepared spherical vesicle composed of a lipid bilayer which administrates nutrients ribozymes protein capable of catalyzing biochemical reactions chemoheterotroph organism that obtains energy by the oxidation of electron donors makes organic compounds from what it consumes autogenic origin self generating organelles and eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic cells endosymbiotic origin the theory that explains the arising of eukaryotic cells mitochondria and organelles were free living organisms and through phagocytosis ones consumed the others resulting in one organisms with various organisms inside organelles taxon a group of one or more organisms to form a unit Ex Kingdom Phylum Genus Species etc specific epithet specific name is the second part of a species name Homo Sapiens Sapiens is the specific epithet genus a group of related animals or plants which includes different species binomial having two names Ex Homo Sapiens two names systematics the study of the diversification of living forms such as sorting through their existence in the past present and the relationship of these related organisms through time phylogeny evolutionary branching process in which the place of each organism is a hypothesis about the sequence of evolution taxonomy the branch of science concerned with classification of organisms analogous performing similar function but evolved from different organisms ex Wings homologous having the same position structure and evolutionary origin but serving different purposes recessive allele an allele that produces characteristics only when paired with another recessive allele Usually related to the lack of production of protein or molecule dominant allele an allele that produces characteristics when paired with dominant or recessive allele heterozygous having a dominant and recessive allele ex Aa or Bb or Dd homozygous having two identical alleles both recessive or both dominant ex AA or aa BB or bb mutation the changing of the structure of a gene resulting in some variance Ex deletion insertion rearrangement incomplete dominance intermediate inheritance in which an allele or trait is not completely dominant there s characteristics from both the dominant and recessive alleles Combined phenotypes complete dominance a type of dominance where the dominant allele masks the effect of the recessive allele in heterozygous conditions cline the gradual change in certain characteristics by members of the same species phenotypic plasticity the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environment phenotype the observable physical characteristic which is a manifestation of the alleles present in an organism for a specific gene genotype genetic makeup of a cell or organism which can be manifested physically allele viable DNA coding which has a special place in a chromosome and codes for a specific characteristic gene molecular unit of heredity of a living organism which codes for a protein which performs a specific function Natural Selection gradual process by which heritable biological traits become either more or less common in a population depending on the reproductive success of the individual containing the gene descent with modification DanNin s name for evolution Change in frequency of genes in a population uniformitarianism assumption that the same natural laws and processes that operated in the universe in past times operate in the present and will be applied everywhere microevolution the change in allele frequencies that occur over time within a population macroevolution evolution on a scale separated by gene pools the change above the level of species convergent evolution process by which organisms not closely related independently evolve similar traits as a result of a similar environment cladogram diagram which shows the relationship among organisms clade a group consisting of a common ancestor and all its descendants monophyletic a taxon which forms a clade meaning that it consists of an ancestor and species that are a direct descendant of that common ancestor paraphyletic consists of all the descendants of the last common ancestor minus a small number of the monophyletic descendants polyphyletic a group composed of organisms in which the most common ancestor isn t included apomorphic nonevolutionary trait that is unique to a particular species and all its descendants plesiomorphic ancestral trait on its own in reference to another trait heterotroph organism that cannot fix carbon and uses organic substances and its source autotroph producer Organism that produces its own complex organic compounds derived character a trait that arose in the most recent common ancestor of a lineage and was passed on parsimony the idea that the simplest scientific explanation that fits the evidence is probably the right assumption speciation the evolutionary process by which biological species arise anagenesis phyletic change in the evolution species involving an entire population rather than a branching event as in cladogenesis cladogenesis evolutionary splitting event in which a species branches off clade which leads to a greater variety in the sister species Biological Species members of a population that can interbreed and produce viable offspring Evolutionary Species a series of ancestor descendent populations passing through time and space independent of other populations morphological species single specimen structures that are similar Reproductive Isolation hybridization barriers through a collection of mechanisms both behavioral and physiological which prevent the process of producing offspring Prezygotic Barriers prevent mating or fertilization between different species Postzygotic Barriers reproductive barriers that operate should interspecies mating occur and prevents the production of a hybrid allopatric speciation speciation by geographic isolation to the organism prevents two or more groups from mating with each other regularly sympatric speciation process through which new species evolve from a single ancestral species while inhabiting the same geographic region prokaryote a unicellular organism having cells lacking cell membrane and bound nuclei extinction the steady process of exacting a continuous toll of species even in the best of times paedomorphosis phylogenetic chance that involves retention ofjuvenile characters by adu s allometric growth the increase in size of different organs or parts of an organism different stages in life heterochrony a genetic shift in timing of the development of a tissue or anatomical part relative to an ancestor exaptation characteristic that evolved but isn t considered adaptation punctuated equilibrium theory in evolutionary biology which says that most species will exhibit little to no change for most of their geological history gradualism hypothesis that evolution occurs in gradual changes through time anaerobic respiration the form of respiration using electron acceptors other than oxygen No oxygen aerobic respiration producing cellular energy respiration using oxygen allopolyploidy individuals with chromosomes derived from different species autopolyploidy multiple chromosome sets from same species adaptive radiation process by which organisms diversify rapidly and through a short time span hybrid offspring of two different organisms with different genetic makeup different species B What concepts and ideas influenced Darwin s development of his theory of evolution Collected thousands of plants and animal specimens noticed similarities between organisms in similar environments witnessed natural disasters that might alter the environment of the organisms living there C What mechanism did Darwin propose in the Origin of Species to explain the diversity of life Adaptation characteristics that help an organism survive Natural Selection survival of the fittest selection of a specific trait that brings advantage to the organism Descent with Modification unity of life And Two primary ideas for the process of evolution Darwin 1 The traits that are inherited for an organism vary within a population 2 Species often have more offspring than the environment can carry carrying capacity Malthus which results in the dying off of some offspring D What lines of evidence are there for evolution Direct evidence for Evolution Arms race between species to prevent from being consumed Ex rough skinned newts and garter snakes Antibiotic resistance antibiotics wiping out the weakest individuals and leaving behind the organisms with the most resistance making the antibiotics less successful Fossil Record compression replacement trace fossils Problems with Fossil Record incomplete not all things fossilize equally fossilization only occurs during certain conditions unreliable Homology inferential Phylogenetic Trees hypothesis about the relationships structures and features compared to ancestry and related organisms Biogeography inferential Alfred Russel Wallace PANGEA and Plate Tectonics Similar environments until the world started moving similar creatures in opposite sides of the world E What are the assumptions for a population to be in HardyWeinberg equilibrium No Mutations No Natural Selection Very large populations Random Mating No gene flow F Be able to calculate allele genotype and phenotype frequencies for a population in HardyWeinberg equilibrium A p aq Frequencies of an allele in population IOJ39CF1 Hardy Weinberg pAZ 2pq q 2 1 G Understand complete dominance versus incomplete dominance Complete Dominance When there is a direct link between the genotype and the phenotype Example Mouse Black fur BB Gray fur bb Bb Black fur In the case of complete dominance the dominant allele will always overshadow the recessive allele completely and thus there is a direct relationship between the genotype and the phenotype Incomplete Dominance There is a direct relationship between the homozygous genotype and phenotype but the heterozygous genotype results in a blending of the two traits Example Flowers Red PP White pp Pp Pink Flowers In the case of incomplete dominance the homozygous genotypes will still correspond with the expected phenotype but the difference is that in heterozygous genotypes the dominant allele won t overshadow the recessive allele completely and will cause a blending effect H Understand how to interpret phylogenetic trees and recognize monophyletic and paraphyletic groups ii i 111 Mtl ti hyl it Paraphgletii g yphyl ic I What are the various species concepts and how do they differ Species Kind or Appearance Morphological Species Biological Species Evolutionary Species Morphological Species focuses on the overall similarity of the organisms combination of anatomical and physiological features if individuals have similar morphologies they belong to the same species Problem does not address relatedness Biological Species Ernst Mayr introduced biological species to distinguish diversity Defined species Species population or group whose members can interbreed and receive viable fertile offspring Problem biological species doesn t extend to some plants who hybridize Problem Does not work for asexual organisms and fossils Evolutionary Species lndividuals who share a common ancestor Problem does not work for fossils Problem have to defined genetic variation and limit the way they categorize species J Know the prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers and how they restrict genetic exchange Prezygotic Barriers doesn t allow mating between species which prevents fertilization of the ova if different species try to mate Habitat isolation behavioral isolationtemporal isolation mechanical isolation gametic isolation geographical isolation can be considered a prezygotic barrier mating rituals are another prezygotic barrier Postzygotic Barrier prevent hybrid zygote from developing inability of fetus or zygote to survive once its been fertilized Example Sterility Example Failing to develop Hybrid offspring between two different species K Understand the allopatric and sympatric speciation mechanisms Speciation how gene flow is interrupted Allopatric Speciation geographic separation Mountain ranges glaciers land bridges splintering of lakes colonization of a few individuals becoming isolated Small and isolated populations makes it easier to alter the gene pool organisms can be carried by other organisms to new habitats Sympatric Speciation biological factors chromosomal changes nonrandom mating crossing over reduce gene flow L Understand the factors that influence macroevolution Speciation changes in speciation for various episodes long period of time can account for macroevolution Preadaptation Exaptation descent with modification morphological transformations Gradual refinements for existing structures leading to new functions evolving in one context and then coopted in another exaptations Natural Selection Genes that control development Evodevo examines how genetic divergences can become morphological differences Heterochrony evolutionary change in rate of events Allometric Growth proportions growth rates during development Continental Drift Tectonic Plates Earth s crust floating on hot mantle Ex nc on Mass extinction followed by extensive diversification Destruction of habitat Evolutionary changes increasing chances of predation M What was early earth like Understand the steps involved in the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and the relative times when major changes happened What was the Earth like very hot from excessive volcanic activity numerous meteor impacts high solar radiation very little oxygen consequently no ozone layer to protect from UV radiation Atmosphere of H20 H2 CH4 NH3 C02 CO N2 and H28 The diversification of life on Earth began over 38 billion years ago Earth is about 4546 billion years old Life on Earth originated 30540 billion years ago for the first two billion years the only organisms present were microscopic unicellular and aquatic Spontaneous Generation life could arise from nonliving matter Biogenesis all life today arises from the reproduction of existing life What happened 1 the production of small organic molecules 2 joining molecules to form polymers 3 find a way to reproduce 4 packaging these molecules to form protobionts The first genes were short strands of RNA Have a genotype and phenotype the way they fold the information they contain Some RNA strands multiply faster than others advantages over other organisms Mutations sometimes present Thomas Cech discovery of ribozymes Prokaryotes 3520 billion years ago Prokaryotes dominated Earth Bacteria and Archaea Chemoheterotrophs consume organic molecules for their energy source Problem running out of ATP Solution GLYCOLYSIS Diversity of Prokaryotes Anaerobic heterotrophs and autotrophs Aerobic heterotrophs and autotrophs Eukaryotes Evolved from anaerobic heterotrophic Archaea prokaryotes Eukaryotic Cell membraneenclosed nucleus endomembrane system mitochondria and chloroplasts cytoskeleton 92 flagella multiple chromosomes of DNA with organizing proteins life cycles with mitosis meiosis and sex Three Trends 1 evolution of colonial prokaryotes which form filaments or sheets of cells 2 arising of complex communities of prokaryotes 3 assigning of different functions within single cells Autogenic Origin modification of the plasma into different structures of the cell Ex Nucleusendoplasmic membrane system Nuclear envelope and endomembrane system was formed due to the infoldings of plasma membrane Endosymbiotic Origin endocytosis of prokaryotes that develop into organelles Ex Mitochondria and Chloroplasts Mitochondria and Chloroplasts developed from endosymbiotic bacteria Endosymbiotic Theory mitochondria and chloroplasts were prokaryotic cells which were consumed by another prokaryote eukaryotes with organelles mutually beneficial symbiosis Evidence of Endosymbiotic Theory 1 organelles and bacteria are similar in size 2 enzymes are similar for both organisms 3 replication by mitochondria and chloroplast resembles binary fission in bacteria 4 both organelles have tRNA s ribosomes and transcription factors
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