Psychology 100 Exam 1 Study Guide
Psychology 100 Exam 1 Study Guide 411739
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Pooja Patel on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 411739 at Pennsylvania State University taught by in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 147 views.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Exam 1 Study Guide History of Psychology 0 De nition psychology is the scienti c study of behavior and mental processes 0 DEBATE Head versus Heart PAHG 0 Early Egyptians suggest that the heart was seen as more important than the brain Heart as quotfeather of truthquot if your life was free of sin l light as the feather of truth 0 Process of trepanation drawing holes in people s heads dates back over 10000 years 0 PLATO rational and critical thinking comes from brain emotions come from heart 0 ARISTOTLE opposite of Plato heart is more centrally organized blood in heart was hotter than blood in brain 0 HIPPOCRATES BFBS brain was major controlling center four main uids are blood em bile and spit o GALEN brain was central organ would reach into chest and grab heart to see what happens Ventricular Theory hollow cavities in the brain that produce spinal uid l concluded that the holes were where the soul was 0 DEBATE Localization versus Holism DGFFampHB o DESCARTES dualism approach to scienti c study mind and body are separate entities mind was something you can t see and body is a machine that carries out orders from the mind the body is an automaton with tiny tubes or BALLOONS running into muscles 0 GALL phrenology skull features represent underlying brain development memory is right behind eyes bumps on your head personality 0 FLOURENS conducted experiments or pigeons to support holism took out different amounts of brain and seeing how they changed concluded that amount of brain taken out mattered more than part of brain 0 FRITSCH AND HITZIG experimented with motor cortex of dogs Hitzig used electrical stimulation Fritsch applied direct pressure on brain worked together and opened dogs skull and zapped parts of brain 0 BROCA concluded speech was on left side of brain DEBATE War of Soups uids and Sparks electrical GL 0 Communication by uids or electrical in nature 0 Mike the Headless Chicken died because he choked on food lower brain stem was still in tact o GALLEN frogs legs believed muscles contained animal electricity 0 LOEWI conducted experiment with frogs hearts to demonstrate chemical interaction between nerves l discovery of rst neurotransmitter SOUP theory Birth of Psychology as a Science Structuralism WT o WUNDT Father of Psych Mental process time between ball dropping and pressing button is how long it takes for brain to react Mind consists of basic elements analyzed via objective introspection o TITCHENER lntrospect about physical objects AND thoughts Mind periodic table what are the elements of the mind and how can we map this out Functionalism 0 JAMES First American Psychologist Stream of thought vs elements of the mind Focus on adaptation living working playing what is its purpose or function in the real world Psychoanalysis o FREUD Unconscious mind in uences our body and what we re thinking Psychoanalysis insight therapy for fear and anxiety 0 Behaviorism 0 Major focus in on rewards and punishments in shaping of our behavior Psychology Now Contemporary Perspectives Sociocultural relationship between social behavior and culture Humanistic people have the freedom to choose their own desUny Biopsychological attribute human and animal behavior in biological events 0 Cognitive includes the study of memory intelligence perception problem solving and learning Evolutionary through the process of natural selection how certain processes have developed to aid in survival Experimental Designs Independent variable any variable manipulated by the researchers in the experiment Dependent variable the outcome variable being measured in the experiment Experimental group the group receiving the signi cant manipulation in the experiment Control group the comparison group that is treated as similar to the experimental group except for the manipulation Experimenter Effect when the researchers expectations signi cantly in uence the outcome of the study 0 EX Case of the MazeBright Rats if you think you had a brighter rat you interpret the behavior to be as smart and bright Researcher Participator Bias when the participant changes their behavior based on their expectations of the study 0 EX Hawthorne Effect Placebo Effect you THINK you re receiving something so you convince yourself that something is happening 0 EX given headache medicine placebo person says headache was reduced Nocebo Effect telling people they re going to get a mild shock that won t cause pain but could cause headaches people got headaches although there actually wasn t a correlation Single Blind Experiment where the participant doesn t know whether they are in the experimental or control group Double Blind Experiment experiments were both the researchers and research participants are blind about whether the participants have received treatment or placebo Psychology Research Methods Naturalistic Observation observing from a distance so they can act naturally Laboratory Observation having complete control but not realistic natural observation Survey interviewing or questionnaires can be inaccurate Case Studies indepth observations of individual persons very small sample size and makes it hard to generalize population Biological Perspectives Division of the Nervous System Central Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Autonomic Somatic Parasympathetic Sympathetic Central about 95 of cells in nervous system Peripheral other 5 Autonomic regulating internal subsystem or autopilot subconsciously do it Parasympathetic turns everything back calms you down heart starts to reregulate body cools down Sympathetic body s alarm system ght or ight Dendrites receive messages from other cells Cell body the cell lifesupport center Axon passes messages away from the cell body to other neuron muscles or glands Myelin Sheaths covers the axon and helps speed neural impulses Neural Impulse electrical signal traveling down axon lntraneuronal Communication Resting potential no incoming information slightly negative charge All or none phenomenon Refractory periods faster rate stronger signal how many neurons red increases intensity therefore more pain lnterneuronal Communication Neurotransmitters chemical messengers that traverse the space between neurons binds to receptor sites on the receiving neuron in lock and key fashion Excitatory neurotransmitter causing receiving cell to re quotexc edquot Inhibitory neurotransmitter causes receiving cell to stop ring inhibits Agonists assistsenhances neurotransmitter effect on receptor sites Antagonists blockreduces cell s response to other neurotransmitters o EX shot to numb skin means blocking pain to relax them Major Neurotransmitters and Their Functions Serotonin involved in mood sleep and appetite Acetylcholine involved in memory learning and controls muscle contractions 0 Alzheimer s Disease memory loss 0 Dopamine involved in controlling movement and sensations of pleasure 0 High levels related to Schizophrenia 0 Sex or chocolate 0 Addicting drugs release dopamine 0 Drug can destroy all neurons that release dopamine l frozen statues o GABA involved in sleep and inhibits movement 0 Drinking alcohol is GABA agonist puts you to sleep faster and lose control of movement The Brain Stem Medulla nonconscious bodily functions re ex of vomiting vita functions such as breathing and heart rate blood pressure etc do NOT want to damage this area Pons important for states of consciousness as well as a highway for sensory and motor information Cerebellum the quotlittle brainquot attached to the rear of the brainstem o Helps coordinate voluntary movement including balance accuracy and timing of movements 0 Alcohol as a GABA agonist which can stop motor functioning of the cerebellum Subcortical Forebrain 0 Thin layers of the brain under the cortical layer 0 Thalamus main relay station for majority of sensory information Hypothalamus plays a crucial center for modulating and regulating a large number of behaviors from sleeping to eating Limbic System loosely de ned group of structures involved with emotion and learning 0 Hippocampus memory l damage results in failure to create new memories 0 Amygdala regulates aspects of anger aggression and fear responses Abnormalities can lead to irrational violence l violent man had tumor pressing against amygdala Capgras Delusion the amygdala also appears to play a role in emotional tagging of memories man thought his mother was an imposter of his mother Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex quotFind POTquot 0 Frontal problem solving Parietal side attention space movement Occipital back vision 0 Damage can result in partial or complete blindness Temporal hearing 0 Processing sound and language storage of new memories
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