Popular in Stereotypes in Communication
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Kleiss-Acres on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 471 at Washington State University taught by Alexis Tan in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Stereotypes in Communication in Communication Studies at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Com 471 Study Guide Exam 1 1 Stereotypes Prejudice Discrimination De nitions a Stereotypes i Belief that a group has certain attributes b Prejudice i Negative feelings towards a group and its members ii Based on incomplete and biased information c Discrimination i Action that denies social participation or human rights to categories of people based on prejudice 2 Incidents described in the book are examples of a Not prejudice b Commonsense responses to the realities they were facing c Innocent responses to the situation without any malicious intent 3 Masking unconscious biases a When interviewing college students facetoface methods brought out more biases b quotI am not prejudice butquot i Rhetorical strategies interracial marriage debate 1 Apparent agreement a A formal statement of support 2 Apparent admission a Qualifying support by citing instances of nonsupport b quotlfl had a concern yes it would be for the childrenquot 3 Displacement a Concerns for the children and for how interracial marriages would be accepted in some places 4 lndirectness a Interracial marriage is ne quotas long as they are really happyquot 4 De nitions of Communication a Cooley i The mechanism through which human relations exist and develop ii Expressions tones and attitudes b Shannon amp Weaver i All procedures by which one mind can affect another ii Involves not only written and oral speech but also music pictorial arts theater and the ballet c Stevens i Discriminatory response of an organism to a stimulus in the environment ii Occurs when some environmental disturbance impinges on an organism and the organism does something about it d Lasswell i Process of sharing information ii Specifies source message channel receiver and effect e Schramm i Sharing of information 5 Common elements in classic de nitions a Concern with effect or response i Communication occurs only if the organism reacts to the message in some way b Effect is the main element in these models 6 Transactional Model of Communication a Communication is a transaction i Source and receiver participate to gain quotsomethingquot b Communication is purposive goal directed c Communication is circular interactive 7 Communication Goals a Source i To inform ii To teach iii To persuade iv To please to satisfy receiver needs b Receiver i To learn of threats and opportunities to understand the environment ii To acquire skills and knowledge to learn community values behaviors and rules iii To reach decisions to make choices iv To enjoy relax be entertained be distracted from problems 8 Unconscious Communication a Subtle unintentional unconscious involuntary cues that provide information to another persons b Cues often convey emotion c Cues can be verbal or nonverbal d In uenced by suppressed thoughts and experiences and implicit biases e Primed by the presence of a stimulus eg a quottargetquot person 9 Encoding a Transforming the response to a stimuli into signs b A sign represents the response conveys meaning i Verbal or nonverbal c Meaning of signs are in uenced by culture d EX using words to convey a message 10 Signs Physical representation of a source39s response to a stimuli Object existing in the real world meaning that both source and receiver can see touch hear or otherwise consciously know that it exists 11 Linguistic Category Model a Descriptive Action Verb i Refers to speci c behavior without interpretation ii EX John shoves Bill b Interpretative Action Verb 69 12 i Refers to a speci c behavior with interpretation ii EX Susan caresses Jim State Verb i Infers an actor39s cognitive or emotional state in describing motivation for a speci c behavior ii EX John despises Bill Adjective i Refers to an actor39s character trait or internal disposition without referring to the speci c behavior ii EX John is aggressive Nonverbal Communication Facial expressions I Voluntary or involuntary movement of the mouth lips eyes nose forehead and jaw ii Human face is estimated to be capable of over 10000 different expressions iii Negative emotions 1 Tightening of the jaw 2 Furrowing of the forehead 3 Squinting of the eyes 4 Lip occlusion making lips thinner pursing iv Positive emotions 1 Loosening of furrowed lines on the forehead 2 Relaxation of muscles around mouth 3 Widening of the eyes v Not an exact science and should not be overinterpreted Paralinguistics i Variances in vocal delivery that are separate from the verbal message ii Tone of voice loudness in ection and pitch iii In uenced by culture Gestures i Conscious or unconscious movements of the hands arms body head face and eyes ii Used to convey messages and meaning independently of words iii Culturespeci c iv EX western cultures gesturing with the hand is an acceptable sign to quotcome here pleasequot The same gesture is offensive in many Asian countries because it is used to call dogs Body language and posture i Slouching towering putting shoulders forward arm crossing etc ii Conscious or unconscious iii Signi es emotions difference in status attention level or interest Proxemics i How people use and perceive the physical space around them ii The less space between source and receiver the more intimate the interaction is iii Culturespeci c iv Preferred distance for communication is much closer for Latin Americans French Italian and Arabs than for White Americans f Eye contact and gazing i Looking at another person while talking and listening ii Western cultures 1 Longer gazemore liking and intimacy 2 Studies nd that many women avoid eye contact with the opposite sex because it may be misinterpreted as a sign of attraction iii Hispanic Asian Middle Eastern and Native American cultures 1 Eye contact sign of disrespect or rudeness g Haptics i The study of how touching in communication adds meaning to words ii Interpretation of the meanings of touch depends on the context of interaction playful hit vs aggressive punchslap iii Culturespeci c 1 Japan bow of the head 2 Middle East slight kiss on the cheek between men 3 Islamic countries any form of touching between men and women in a business or social context is generally inappropriate or even forbidden 13 Visual Communication a Transmittal of meanings by using still and moving images received by the eye b Americans are exposed to about 5000 visual images in a day i Magazines newspapers books posters billboards television movies internet c More powerful tool for communication because pictures have a direct route to longterm memory each message storing its own information as a coherent chunk or concept d A large number of images can be transmitted in a short time e Project greater realism emotion are more readily aroused by photos and moving images than by words f Visual images are capable of evoking involuntary responses in receivers 14 Noise a Any cause of message distortion as the message is transmitted from source to receiver b Selective exposure i The receiver has the choice to attend or ignore the message ii We will attend to and not reject messages that we agree with have high rewardlow punishment c Selective perception i How the message is interpreted ii Culture and selfinterest of receiver in uence perception d Selective RetentionRecall 15 16 17 18 i People are more likely to accurately remember messages that are closer to their interests values and beliefs than those that contrast with their values and beliefs Levels of Analysis Communication lntrapersonal i How the source encodes the messagehow the receiver decodes the message Interpersonal i How the social context other people in the immediate environment of the source or receiver affects the encoding and decoding of message that in uence of other people Social System i The social structures that control individuals looks at how messages are encoded and decoded by social systems ii How TV and newspapers produce entertainment and news for their audiences Cultural i Like social system but focuses on one process the transmission of culture ii Analyze how culture is transmitted through communication and how culture affects communication Communication and Prejudice Human beings are nurtured to be prejudiced by their communities for a variety of reasons mostly having to do with selfpreservation and self enhancement Forms of Prejudice Antilocution i Mildest form of prejudice ii Talk or conversations that express unwarranted negative feelings about other people because of their membership in a group Avoidance i A voluntary separation of the prejudiced individual from the targets of prejudice Discrimination i When people actively exclude members of another group from access or participation in desired activity Physical attack i When individuals or groups injure other people because of their membership in another group or destroy property of the targeted group Extermination i Systematic and planned destruction of a group of people based on their group membership Links between Prejudice Stereotyping and Discrimination A belief a stereotype that a group has a negative trait leads to a negative feeling prejudice about the group which leads to increased scrutiny of said group discrimination 19 20 Research has not established a strong link between these three components Levels of Analysis of Prejudice Individual level I Analyze how a person acquires maintains and might change negative feelings toward a group and how these feelings are generalized to all members of the group ii Information acquired through the media other people and interpersonal contact iii Focus on how individual acquires and processes information Interpersonal Level i Focus is on use of language in facetoface and virtual through the internet conversation with other individuals usually like minded individuals ii In conversations with others individual seeks validation of hisher prejudices iii Negative feelings and stereotypes directed toward target group are sharpened and exaggerated Group level I Individuals come together informally to pursue common goals in support of their prejudices ii Often happens after facetoface conversation in which their prejudices are reinforced iii Expressed in overt actions aimed at harming the target of prejudices Institutional level i Includes local and national governments business education and the media ii Analyze how formal structures and organizations of society practice maintain and change policies and actions based on prejudices Social Identity Theory Large part of who we are is based on group memberships and that we enhance our selfworth by differentiating between groups with which we identify ingroups and groups with which we do not identify out groups Based on traits behaviors and predispositions that we value Categorization i Place objected and groups in categories to simplify and make sense of a complex world ii Groups based on identi able characteristics such as race religion occupation age or gender Social Identi cation I Adopt the identity of groups to which we belong ii Conform to the norms of the groups such as opinions and behaviors iii Strength and salience of identi cation varies because we may belong to many groups 21 22 Social Comparison i Compare the groups with which we identify with other groups ii Selfesteem is tied closely to our ingroups we assign positive qualities to our ingroups and negative qualities to outgroups causing prejudices Race and Racism Race i Focus on physical characteristics of genetic origin such as skin pigmentation nasal index lip form Ethnicity i Focus on shared social and cultural heritage Problems in using race as a biological category i Human beings share 999 of our genes ii Within a racial category there are nongenetic differences such as languages and values iii In the US race and ethnicity are often used interchangeably 1 Racial physical characteristics are readily visible therefore a convenient way of classifying people Racism i The exercise of power against a racial group de ned as inferior by individuals and institutions with the intentional or unintentional support of the entire culture ii Levels of racism 1 Individual racism a One who considers human groups de ned by essential racial characteristics are inferior to whites because of physical traits 2 Institutional racism a Established laws customs and practices which systematically re ect and produce racial inequalities in American society 3 Cultural racism a Cumulative effect of racialized worldview based on belief in essential racial differences that favor the dominant racial group over others AP Poll i Online survey in 2012 ii Showed that 4 years after we elected our rst African American president racial prejudice at the individual level was more widespread than when Obama was rst elected in 2008 How can cultural racism be minimized i Change in power ii Change in values education media iii Change in laws and policies Gender Expressed in quotsexismquot i Speci c acts or behaviors that denigrate women In the united states studies have shown that women are judged to be less competent than men in maledominated jobs that typically pay 23 24 25 or a C d more and are more prestigious such as medicine science and engineering Women are also perceived to be less capable of malestereotypic behavior such as being assertive goaloriented and analytical Sexual Orientation Prejudice directed at gays and lesbians is often referred to in research as heterosexism And ideological system that denies denigrates and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior identity relationship or community According to the AP gay bashing has increased in New York in recent years quotWe re here We39re Queerquot Homophobia39s got to goquot protest in Manhattan Ageism Prejudice toward people perceived to be old Prejudice and discrimination against older people on the basis of age Problems de ning what classi es and quotelderlyquot person i Developing countries elderly 65 ii Young people consider 6069 years as elderly iii Old people de ne 80 years as elderly Measures of explicit Prejudice Direct questions about how respondents feel about a group The Bogardus Social Distance Scale I General measure of prejudice that can be applied to any out group ii Scale assumes that social distance how far or near an individual is willing to accept a member of an outgroup into hisher social group is an indicator of prejudice iii Closer the distance less prejudice and vice versa Close relatives by marriage score 1 Close personal friends score 2 Neighbors on the same street 3 Coworkers in the same occupation 4 Citizens in the same country 5 Visitors in country 6 Exclude from country 7 The Moder Racism Scale MRS i Measures White American39s prejudice against Blacks ii Whites who endorse modern racism believe Racism against blacks is a thing of the past Blacks are too pushy and demanding of their rights This pushiness results in the use of unfair tactics The advances and gains blacks have made are undeserved The Symbolic Racism Scale SRS i Worded to lessen tendency for respondents to give socially acceptable responses PPPPPH DWNH ii Make it more adaptable to other racial minority groups by substituting the group of interest for quotblacksquot in the questionnaire items iii Shown to be reliable iv EX quotIt39s really a matter of some people not trying hard enough if blacks would only try harder they could be as well off as whitesquot 1 Strongly agree somewhat agree somewhat disagree strongly disagree e ColorBlind Attitude Scale CoBAS i Measures quotcolorblindnessquot in American society 1 A constellation of attitudes that say race should not and does not matter ii Does not directly measure racial prejudice and is an attempt to measure a mindset that theoretically predicts prejudice and therefore should be less susceptible to socially desirable responses iii Measures three attitudinal dimensions 1 Unawareness of racial privilege 2 Unawareness of institutional discrimination 3 Unawareness of blatant racial issues iv A colorblind person does not think there is a problem of prejudice and discrimination against some racial groups in the US and this unawareness is indicative of racial prejudice f Attitudes Toward Women Scale AWS i Measures attitudes toward the rights and roles of women ii EX of a question 1 quotswearing and obscenity are more repulsive in the speech of a woman than a manquot a 0 strongly agree 3 strongly disagree 9 The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory ASI i Measures hostile and benevolent sexism toward women 1 Benevolent subtler modern sexism ii quotB No matter how accomplished he is a man is not truly complete as a person unless he has the love of a womanquot 1 B benevolent sexism 2 Agree stronglydisagree strongly iii quotH Many women are actually seeking special favors such as hiring policies that favor them over men under the guise of asking for quotequalityquot 1 H hostile sexism 2 Agree stronglydisagree strongly h Modern Homophobia Scale MHS i Measures prejudice against lesbians and gay men ii Improvement on previous scales because it acknowledges the difference between gays and lesbians instead of referring to them as quothomosexualsquot i Fraboni Scale of Ageism FSA i Measures prejudice toward the elderly 1 Attitudes and beliefs towards elderly people 26 Implicit Prejudice a Biases for or against people or objects that are not under the conscious control of individually making the evaluations i Unthinking automatic impulsive intuitional b Implicit Associations Test IAT i Measures how we unconsciously and automatically assign positive or negative feelings or attitudes and traits or stereotypes to groups of people and objects ii Timed associations between quottargetquot group and positive or negative words and objects iii Criticism 1 Sensitive to social context a People s scores change depending on external in uence iv Response to criticism 1 Continues to be a major in uence in current research on prejudice because it is a better predictor of discriminatory or other prejudicial behaviors than explicit prejudice is
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