Study Guide #2 anatomy
Study Guide #2 anatomy BIO 328
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by John Morales on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 328 at San Francisco State University taught by Gloria Nusse in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 230 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Midterm 2 study guide 1 Compare the three types of muscular tissue with their functions and special properties The three types of muscular tissue are skeletal cardiac and smooth Skeletal muscle is primarily attached to the bones striated and under voluntary control Its function is to move the bones of the skeleton Another function includes producing body movements producing heat by shivering and stabilizing body positions Contains connective tissue coverings endomysium perimysium epimysium Cardiac muscle tissue forms the wall of the heart and found only in the heart striated and involuntary Function pump blood throughout the body endomysium perimysium Smooth muscle is located in primarily in internal organs non striated smooth and involuntary Function includes sphincters that close off outlets in organs such as stomachendomysium 2 Explain the importance of connective tissue components blood vessels and nerves to skeletal muscles Connective tissue components Perimysium covers fascicles connective tissue layer that bundles groups of muscle bers into fascicles Epimysium covers the entire muscle Endomysium covers individual muscle bers Fascia a sheet or broad band of brous connective tissue beneath the skin super cial fascia or around muscles or organs deep fascia Allows free movement of muscles Tendon a cord of dense connective tissue that attaches a muscle to the periosteum of a bone some tendons are enclosed in tendon synovial sheaths which permit tendons to slide back and forth more easily aponeurosis a broad at sheet of connective tissue that attaches a muscle to the periosteum of a bone muscle or the skin 0 Nerves and blood vessels skeletal muscles gets its nutrients from blood vessels and it would not be able to function properly without it capillaries bring in oxygen and nutrients remove heat and waste product of muscle metabolism somatic motor neurons stimulates skeletal muscle to contract Arteries and veins accompany each nerve 3 Describe the microscopic anatomy of a skeletal muscle ber and the coverings 0 Growth of a skeletal muscle is achieved primarily by hypertrophy because skeletal muscle bers do not signi cantly increase in number after birth skeletal muscle tissue does have limited powers of regeneration due to the presence of satellite cells which can fuse with or replace existing skeletal muscle bers to a limited extent if signi cant skeletal muscle damage or degeneration occurs skeletal muscle tissue undergoes fibrosis the replacement of muscle ber by brous scar tissue Each muscle ber has a sarcolemma plasma membrane that surrounds the sarcoplasm cytoplasm the latter contains an oxygenbinding protein called myoglobin The sarcoplasm contains numerous myo brils The myo brils contain numerous parallel protein myo laments called thin laments and thick laments that are arranged in functional units called sarcomeres Adjacent sarcomeres are separated by Z discs lines and have regions called the A band I hand H zone and M line and a zone of overlap A band contains myosin troponin tropomyosin and titin I hand containts actin troponin tropomyosin and titin Thick laments consist of myosin molecules with heads or crossbridges Thin laments consist of actin molecules plus two regulatory proteins called troponin and tropomyosin Sarcomeres also contain structural proteins e g titin and dystrophin which keep the thick and thin laments properly aligned give the myo bril elasticity and extensibility and link the myo brils to the sarcolemma and extracellular matrix The sarcoplasm contains the sarcoplasmic reticulum SR with dilated end sacs called terminal cisterns which store calcium ions release of calcium ions into the cytosol triggers muscle contraction The sarcolemma has tunnellike infoldings called transverse tubules T tubules that penetrate into the muscle ber at right angles to the myo laments these T tubules conduct muscle action potentials which cause the release of calcium ions from the SR smallest to largest thick laments gt myo bril gt muscle ber 4 Indicate how a skeletal muscle ber contracts and relaxes by using the zones and bands in the sarcomere Sarcomere is measure from Zline to Zline The more white that is Visible in the Hzone and Iband relaxed When there is more darker lines in the hzone and Iband contraction the H and I band disappear during contraction but thin and thick laments dont change Muscle contraction occurs because myosin heads attach to and walk along the thin laments at both ends of a sarcomere and continues to pull the thin laments toward the M line This results in the thin laments sliding toward the center of the sarcomere Sarcomere shortens because the Z disc come closer together and this leads to the Whole muscle ber and muscle shortening 0 Muscle contraction is triggered When a muscle action potential is propagated along the sarcolemma through the T tubule system and to the sarcoplasmic reticulum Where it causes the release of calcium ions from the SR into the cytosol 0 Muscle tone is a sustained partial state of contraction that gives rmness to a relaxed skeletal muscle in a constantly shifting pattern a feW motor units become active While others become inactive Within a skeletal muscle This is essential for maintaining posture 5 Compare the structure and function of the three types of skeletal muscle bers slow oxidative fast oxidativeglycolytic and fast glycolytic Describe the effects of exercise on different types of skeletal muscle bers 0 slow oxidative type 1 dark red in color because it contains large amounts of myoglobin mitochondria and blood capillaries Generates ATP With high capacity mainly by aerobic cellular respiration It is called slow because it uses ATP at a slow rate Which means that it has a slow speed of contractionHigh fatigue resistance Primary function for maintaining posture and for endurance type activities 0 fast oxidativeglycolytic type Ila Typically the largest bers Also dark red because it contains large amounts of myoglobin mitochondria and blood capillaries Can generate considerable ATP With medium capacity by aerobic cellular respiration and anaerobic glycolysis Which equals to moderately high resistance to fatigue Uses ATP at a fast rate and activities associated With it includes walking and sprinting 0 fast glycolytic type IIb Appears White in color because it is lOW in myoglobin mitchondira content and lOW in blood capillaries Contains large amounts of glycogen and generate ATP With lOW capacity by anaerobic glycolysis LOW fatigue resistance Uses ATP at a fast rate and can contract strongly and quickly Used for intense activities such as weight lifting 6 Outline the arrangement of muscle fascicles and compare With name and strength of muscle Perimysium covers fascicles connective tissue layer that bundles groups of muscle bers into fascicles Epimysium covers the entire muscle Endomysium covers individual muscle bers Ensheathes a muscle ber and is composed mostly from reticular bers It also contains capillaries nerves and lymphatics Construction on muscle fascicles myo brilgt sarcoplasm gtsarcolemma gtendomysium gt ber bundle gtfascicle 7 Describe the main structural and functional characteristics of cardiac and smooth muscle tissue 0 Cardiac and smooth muscle tissue are both involuntary muscle tissues 0 Cardiac is striated and limited to the heart Which makes its main function being to pump blood throughout the body Its cardiocytes are short and thick Has intercalated disks 0 Smooth muscles are non striated Myocytes are relatively small except When in a pregnant woman s uterus Where it becomes larger 0 Both of these muscle tissue has autorhythmicity and regulated by neurons that are part of the autonomic division of the nervous system 8 Distinguish between isotonic and isometric contractions Isotonic contraction occurs When your muscles change length and produce the force necessary to move the joints in your body 0 Isometric contraction occurs Without changes in the length of your muscles or the position of your joints Chapter 11 Muscular System 1 Describe the relationship between bones and skeletal muscles in producing body movements When a muscle contracts an articulating bone moves along with it Skeletal muscles produce movements by exerting force on tendons which pulls on bones and other structures Some bones remains stationary because other muscles stabilizes it by pulling it in the opposite direction or the bone is simply immovable Muscles are attached to bones by tendons at their origin and insertion Originimmovable proximal Insertionmovable distal 2 De ne lever and fulcrum and compare the three types of levers on the basis of location of the fulcrum effort and load Lever is a rigid structure that can be moved around a xed point Fulcrum typically a joint 1st class lever seesaw and scissors can produce either a mechanical advantage or disadvantage depending on whether the effort or load is closer to the fulcrum ex head resting on vertebral column Effort gt Fulcrum gt Load 2nd class lever wheelbarrow most uncommon in the human body This lever produces the most force and always a mechanical advantage because the load is always closer to the fulcrum Effort gt Load gt Fulcrum ex Standing up on toes 3rd class lever pair of forceps most common in the body Always produces mechanical disadvantage because the effort is always closer to the fulcrum than the load Fulcrum gt effort gt load ex elbow joint and biceps brachii 3 Identify the types of fascicle arrangements in a skeletal muscle and relate the arrangements to the strength of contraction and range of motion Parallel longitudinal axes parallel to each other terminate at either end in at tendons and can be at or straplike ex sternohyoid muscle or sartorius most common Fusiform Fascicles nearly parallel to longitudinal axis terminate in at tendons muscle tapers toward tendons where diameter is less than at belly ex digastric muscle or biceps Circular Fascicles in concentric circular arrangements form sphincter muscles that enclose an opening ex orbicular oculi muscle Triangular convergent fascicles spread over broad area converge at thick central tendon gives muscle triangular appearance ex pectoralis major Pennate short fascicles in relation to total muscle length tendon extends nearly entire length of muscle Unipennate fascicles are arranged only in one side of tendon ex extensor digitorum longus Bipennate fascicles are arranged on both sides of centrally positioned tendons ex rectus femoris Multipennate fascicles attach obliquely from many directions to several tendons ex deltoid o The longer the muscle fiber is the greater the range of motion 0 An increase in the number of muscle fibers increases the strength of contraction 4Explain how the prime mover antagonist synergist and fixator in a muscle group work together to produce movement 0 A prime mover produces the desired action Antagonist produces an opposite action Synergists assist a prime mover by reducing unnecessary movement Fixators stabilize the origin of a prime mover so that it can act more ef ciently 5Explain seven features used in naming skeletal muscles Identify the principal skeletal muscles in different regions of the body by name origin insertion action 0 The seven features used in naming skeletal muscles are the c direction 0 size 0 shape 0 action 0 number of origins 0 location 0 originproximalinsertiondistal Chapter 24 Digestive System 1 Identify the organs of the digestive system Mouth Esophagus Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine colon Liver Pancreas Gall bladder Rectum Anus 2 Describe the basic processes performed by the digestive system Breaks down food into nutrients that the body uses for energy growth and cell repair Mechanical and enzymatic breakdown of macromolecules Main functions Ingestion Propulsionswallowing and Mechanical Digestionchewing Chemical Digestionacids Absorption and defection 3 Describe the layers that form the wall of the gastrointestinal tract Mucosa mucous membrane that lines the inside of the digestive tract from mouth to anus It protects the digestive tract wall secretes substances and absorbs the end products of digestion Composed of three layers epitheliuminner most layer lamina propria outside the epithelium muscular mucosae outer layer of mucosa Submucosa lies outside the mucosa It consists of areolar connective tissue containing blood vessels lymphatic vessels and nerve bers Regulates movements of mucosa and vasoconstriction of vessels Muscularis a layer of muscle that consist of smooth muscle Contains plexus of Auerbach Serosa a serous membrane that covers the muscularis externa of the digestive tract in the peritoneal cavity Secretes serous uid and composed of simple squamous epitheliummesothelium and areolar connective tissue o The adventitia is the serous membrane that lines the muscularis externa of the oral cavity pharynx esophagus and rectum o The visceral peritoneum is the serous membrane that lines the stomach large intestine and small intestine o The parietal peritoneum lines the abdominopelvic cavity 4 Describe the peritoneum and its folds The peritoneum is the largest serous membrane of the body that consists of a layer of simple squamous epithelium with an underlying supporting layer of areolar connective tissue There are five major peritoneal folds greater omentum hangs down over intestines like an apron falciform ligament attaches the liver to the anterior ventral body wall It is a broad and thin anteroposterior peritoneal fold and droops down the hilum of the liver lesser omentum Membrane that suspends the stomach and duodenum from the liver 0 mesentery connects body organs to the body wall and provides routes for blood vessels and nerves to reach digestive organs mesocolon secures the large intestine to parietal peritoneum 5 Identify the locations of the salivary glands and describe the functions of their secretions Salivary glands are found in the mouth and around throat 3 major salivary glands o parotid upper second molar secretes saliva through salivary ducts near upper teeth submandibular below tonguesecretes saliva under tongue sublingual lateral to tongue secretes saliva through many ducts in the oor of mouth Function of secretions Cleanses the mouth washes away food and bacteria moistens and dissolves food chemicals aids in bolus formation contains enzymes that break down starch lubricates the mouth 6 Describe the structure and function of the pharynx Lined with stratified squamous epithelium and mucus glands Has two skeletal muscle layers Allows passage for food and uids to the esophagus and air to the trachea 7 Describe the location anatomy histology and function of the esophagus 8 Describe the location anatomy histology and functions of the stomach Stomach has 4 main regions 0 body fundus cardia pylorus o Pylorus the region that connects to the duodenum 9 Describe the location anatomy histology and function of the pancreas secretes pancreatic juice secretes hormones glucagon insulin somatostatin histology exocrine glands 99 of cells endocrine 1 10 Describe the location anatomy histology and functions of the liver and gallbladder sac like organ thin walled cystic duct function stores and release bile 11 Describe the location anatomy histology and functions of the small intestine Histology structures that increase surface area 0 Plica circulariscircular folds Villi microvilli Anatomy 0 20 inch long 0 Largest surface area for majority of absorption 0 3 parts Duodenum Jejunum Ileum 0 Runs from the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal yalye Function Nutrient absorption mainly by Villi 90 Neutralizes stomach acids Creates alkaline environment receives digestive enzyme and bicarbonates from pancreas and bile from liver Located in the gastric region 12 Describe the location anatomy histology and functions of the large intestine Anatomy 5 ft long and 3 inches 4 colons ascending transverse descending sigmoid Function Reabsorbing water bacterial fermentation storing and getting rid of fecal matter CHAPTER 13 CARDIOVASCULAR 1Describe the location of the heart and trace its outline on the surface of the chest The heart rests on the diaphragm near the midline of the thoracic cavity in the mediastinum About twothirds of the heart s mass lies on the left of the body s midline Apex of the heart rests on the diaphragm Anterior surface is deep to the sternum and ribs Inferior surface rests on diaphragm and is between the apex and right surface Right surface faces right lung and extends from the inferior surface to the base Left surface faces left lung and extends from the base to the apex 2Describe the structure of the pericardium and the heart wall The pericardium is the uid lled sac that surrounds and protects the m It con nes the heart to its position in the mediastinum but still allows for free movement Pericardium divides in 2 portion brousampserous then later into 3 layers Fart Police Smell Villains order of layers Fibrous the outer brous sac that covers the heart and made of tough inelastic dense irregular connective tissue Rests on and attaches to diaphragm Prevents over stretching of heart provides protection and anchors the heart in the mediastinum Parietal0uter layer lines and fused to the internal surface of brous pericardium Lies between the visceral pericardium and the brous pericardium o Visceralinner layer also called the epicardium this is the outer layer of the wall of the heart Pericardial cavity a space that contains pericardial uid Layers of the heart wall 0 epicardium external layer the visceral pericardium smooth and slippery texture that covers heart39s outer surface and composed of mesothelium Contains blood vessels lymph and nerves that supply the myocardium o myocardium middle layer the muscular wall of the heart the bulk of the heart Responsible for pumping action of the heart and composed of cardiac muscle tissue makes up 95 of heart wall Striated and involuntary o endocardium inner layer thin layer of endothelium covering the inner surfaces of the heart including the valves Smooth endothelium lining minimizes surface friction as blood passes through the heart 0 Endocarditis in ammation of the endocardium and involves the heart valves 3Discuss the external and internal anatomy of the chambers of the heart 0 Receiving chambers Atria 0 Right Atrium forms right border of heart and receives blood from SVC IVC coronary sinus Separated from the left atrium by the interatrial septum 0 Left Atrium Forms most of the base of the heart Has a smooth posterior wall 0 Pumping chambers Ventricles Right Ventricle Forms most of the anterior surface of the heart Inside contains bundles of cardiac muscle called trabeculae carneae and string like chord tendinae Separated from the Left ventricle via interventricular septum 0 Left Ventricle Thickest wall because of high workload and forms the apex Has trabeculae carneae and chord tendinae VEINS ALWAYS CARRY BLOOD TOWARD THE HEART ARTERIES ALWAYS CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM THE HEART Arteries AWAY Atria receive blood from veins while ventricles eject blood from the heart into arteries 0 Right pump pulmonary pump is the weaker pump because it moves deoxygenated blood through the blood vessels of the lungs Left pump systemic pump is the stronger pump because it circulates oxygenated blood to all the systems of the body 0 Anterior surface of each atrium there is a pouchlike structure called auricle This increases capacity of atrium so it can hold a greater volume of blood 0 Series of grooves on the surface of the heart Sulci Coronary sulcus external boundary between superior atria and inferior ventricles o Anterior interventricular sulcus external boundary between right and left ventricles 4Describe the structure and function of the valves of the heart 39 HEART VALVES PREVENT BACKFLOW OF BLOOD WITHIN THE HEART Atrioventricular opens when atrial pressure is higher than ventricular pressure Tricuspid Right side 39 Bicuspid Left side Papillary muscles and chordae tendinae stabilize the aps of the AV valves and stops back ow of blood into the atria Semilunar Made up of 3 crescent moon cusps Allows for ejection of blood from the heart into arteries but prevent back ow into the ventricles Pulmonary valve Aortic valve Opens when pressure in the ventricles exceeds the pressure in the arteries 5Describe the ow of blood through the chambers of the heart and through the systemic and pulmonary circulations superior vena cava inferior vena cava coronary sinus gt Right Atrium gt Tricuspid Valve gt Right Ventricle gt Pulmonary Valve loses c02 gains 02gt Pulmonary arteries gt Pulmonary capillaries or LUNGS gt Pulmonary veins gt Left Atrium gt Bicuspid Valve gt Left ventricle gt Aortic Valve gt Aorta amp Sytematic arteries gt Systemic capillaries loses 02 gains c02 0 Left side delivers blood to the rest of the body while the right side only goes to the lungs 6 EXplain the structural and functional features of the conduction system of the heart Authorythmic cells cells that repeatedly and rhythmically generate action potentials Cardiac conduction system route that delivers action potentials throughout the heart muscle 0 Begins in the sinoatrial SA node 100 beatsmin located in the right atrial wall 0 Each action potential from the SA node conducts through conduction cells to the contractile cardiac muscle cells via gap junctions in the intercalated disks 0 Triggers contraction because it polarizes at a faster rate 0 Known as the heart s pacemaker o Atrioventricular nodes 4050 beatsmin Only connection between atria and ventricles Located in the interatrial septum Action potential slows as a result of different cell structures in the AV nod which provides time for the atria to empty their blood into the ventricles o Atrioventricular bundle BUNDLE OF HIS only site where action potentials can conduct from the atria to the ventricles 0 Right and Left bundle branches 0 action potential enters right and left bundle after conducting through the AV buundle o Purkinje Fibers 0 Leaves insulating connective tissue sheaths near the apeX and relay the action potential to the ventricular myocardium DURA MOTHER mental pouting o Depressor labii inferioris pouting buccinator sucking Sternocleidomastoid
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