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PSY 250 Exam 5 Study Guide (Chapters 13-15)

by: Kristen Shelton

PSY 250 Exam 5 Study Guide (Chapters 13-15) PSY 250

Marketplace > Central Michigan University > Psychlogy > PSY 250 > PSY 250 Exam 5 Study Guide Chapters 13 15
Kristen Shelton
GPA 3.94

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Color Coded A lot was covered in lecture that was in the book. However I recommend still going through the book! :)
Abnormal Psychology
Deskovitz, Mark
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Shelton on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 250 at Central Michigan University taught by Deskovitz, Mark in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Central Michigan University.

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Date Created: 04/19/16
PSY 250 Exam 5 Review (Covering chapters 13, 14, 15)                                                                                                                                            Chapter 13  – Schizophrenia & Other Psychotic Disorders I. Base Rates & Age Onset a. 1% i. consistent across the majority of cultures b. starts in early adulthood  i. 18­30yrs ii. peak is in early 20s c. men i. 20­24yrs ii. steep decline afterwards iii. rarely seen past 40yrs d. women i. 20­24yrs; 45­50yrs; & close to 60yrs ii. female hormones could be a protective factor 1. estrogen levels a. if high = protective b. if low = not as protective e. more men than women  i. ratio is 3 men: 2 women ii. males tend to have more severe forms of schizophrenia f. environmental influences raise & lower base rates II. Symptoms  a. Hallucinations b. Delusions c. Disorganized speech/behaviors d. Positive symptoms: adding something i. Delusions, hallucinations ii. Delusions: violate reality 1. 90% w/ schizophrenia experience delusions 2. common themes of delusions: a. thoughts being broadcasted b. everyone is watching you 3. has a genetic base 4. environment contributes a little iii. hallucinations: false sensory perceptions 1. 39% experience visual hallucinations a. not head­on b. usually peripheral: seeing things off to the side; then  turning and noticing it isn’t there 2. 75% experience auditory hallucinations a. happens in language production system of the brain b. person has a hard time distinguishing thoughts from actual  sounds c. usually negative & commanding e. negative symptoms: withdrawal of something i. disorganized speech 1. word salad: confused or unintelligible mixture of random  words/phrases ii. disorganized behavior 1. catatonic: motor immobility; cannot move body 2. flat affect (flat emotion) iii. alogia: very little speech (Clinical Psychology p. 450)  iv. avolition: inability to initiate or persist in goal­directed activities (Clinical  Psychology p. 450) III. Subtypes of Schizophrenia a. Paranoid Schizophrenia: the clinical picture is dominated by absurd and illogical  beliefs that are often highly elaborated & organized into a coherent, though  delusional framework b. Disorganized Schizophrenia: which is characterized by disorganized speech,  disorganized behavior & flat or inappropriate affect c. Catatonic Schizophrenia: involves pronounced motor signs that reflect great  excitement or stupor d. Residual: has no positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations) & some negative  symptoms still exist (disorganized speech/behavior) e. Undifferentiated: no clinical diagnosis/unable to differentiate IV. Other Psychotic Disorders a. Schizoaffective Disorder: combination of psychotic symptoms and a mood  disorder i. Bipolar ii. Major depressive iii. Manic  b. Schizophreniform Disorder: short psychotic episodes; one month – 6 month  duration; delusional/hallucinations; could be caused by stress c. Delusional Disorder: hold beliefs that are considered false & absurd by those  around them; may behave quite normally; d. Brief Psychotic Disorder: less than a month duration; very brief psychotic  episodes; related to drug or stress reaction; higher functioning; sudden onset of  psychotic symptoms/disorganized speech/catatonic behavior; may never have  another episode again once this is over V. Causes a. Genetic i. Identical twins have a much higher rate – 20%  ii. Dizygotic twins – 6% iii. General population – 5% iv. Blocking dopamine v. Different environments influence base rates & severity of symptoms vi. Blood relationships b. Prenatal i. Viral infections ii. Birth complications iii. Nutritional deficiency c. Genes & Environment i. ADHD  ii. Facial abnormalities iii. Social isolation iv. Inattention  v. Cannabis abuse 1. Do not cause schizophrenia; only exacerbates delusions &  hallucinations 2. Mildly alters perception 3. Not a causing agent vi. Link b/t psychotic break and bad drug reaction 1. Those who have had a negative reaction to a recreational drug are  at higher odds of developing schizophrenia ONLY if they were  already on the schizophrenia spectrum 2. Not a direct causer, only exacerbates symptoms  d. Biological i. Many genes working together to confer susceptibility to the illness e. Psychosocial Cultural Aspects i. Environment don’t cause it; just exacerbates it ii. EE (expressed emotion) 1. Emotional over­involvement 2. Includes positive & negative emotions a. High hostility 3. High EE in families = worse symptoms 4. Family is not to blame 5. Results in higher relapse & hospitalization f. Cultural Aspects i. Urban living has a higher % of schizophrenia ii. People who immigrated to a new country tend to have higher % 1. They look physically different from others 2. Higher social pressures to fit in VI. Treatment & Clinical Outcome a. 33% of those treated have a good recovery b. 12­15% require hospitalization i. mainly those who are catatonic c. 30% have prominently negative symptoms (disorganized speech and/or behavior) d. pharmacological approaches i. antipsychotic drugs – treatment of choice 1. block dopamine st 2. 1  generation of antipsychotic drugs worked fine but had lifelong  & permanent side effects 3. 2  generation of drugs had better impact on positive symptoms  (delusions & hallucinations) ii. Psychosocial Approaches 1. Family therapy 2. Case­management 3. Help w/ day­to­day operations 4. Cognitive therapy is usually used w/ meds Chapter 14 – Cognitive Disorders I. Dementia a. Loss of memory & significant cognitive decline specifically function, language,  and/or social cognition a. Vascular Dementia 1. Heart attack, stroke 2. Not progressive – only happens once b. Causes 1. HIV II. Alzheimer’s  a. Slow forgetfulness, difficult complex functioning, can forget who you are  & who others are b. Can get so bad that reality is nonexistent c. Age 60 – less than 1% have it d. Age 85% ­ 40% have it 1. Age 85 – 50% have some type of dementia e. Causes:  1. Living longer – see it more often 2. Mainly genetic 3. More likely to get it if blood parents have it f. Treatment 1. ACH blockers 2. Supportive environment  III. Brain Damage a. Minor Head Injuries a. Bumps on the head b. Retrograde/Anterograde Amnesia a. Can affect everyday actions previously learned (retrograde) or the ability  to learn new info (anterograde) c. Outcomes/Treatments a. Unconscious for a long time  severe brain injury b. A couple minutes  mild brain injury c. Support from others d. Stable work environment e. Have the motivation to recover f. Developmentally appropriate recovery exercises 1. Not having them walk long distances right away 2. Keep it simple to ensure recovery and improvement g. Comorbid with depression Chapter 15 – Childhood Disorders I. ADHD a. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder i. 3­7% on average ii. 10­15 points lower IQ b. Symptoms i. Fails to pay attention to details ii. Fails to follow instructions iii. Loses things iv. Easily distracted v. Talks excessively vi. Bursts out talking vii. Off task c. Treatment i. Stimulant medication 1. Adderall 2. Ritalin a. Improves focus d. Not diagnosed well i. Diagnosed by teachers usually II. Conflict Disorders a. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) i. Less severe ii. Symptoms 1. Negative 2. Starts arguments b. Conduct Disorder i. Pre­disorder to psychopathy ii. Symptoms 1. Aggression towards others 2. Trouble with the law (vandalism, stealing) 3. Obstruction of property 4. Theft iii. Seen in more men than women iv. Treatment 1. Not a lot of good/reliable treatment 2. Boys homes 3. Juvenile homes a. Expensive  4. Therapeutic foster homes a. Trains the parents on how to handle the kid 5. Find a child’s passion and train them in that a. For example, music c. Anxiety Disorders i. Different from adults ii. Born with certain temperaments that are precursors for anxiety 1. Phobia 2. Fear 3. Worry iii. Separation Anxiety Disorder: fear of being separated from parent 1. Being kidnapped 2. Or lost iv. Children can also have panic attacks v. Treatment  1. It is hard to treat children for anxiety/fear­based disorders 2. Cognitive­Behavioral Therapy with parents present works for the  most part a. CBT is tailored to the child so as not to make it worse d. Childhood Depression i. Adult form of depression is developed in the later teens ii. 13yrs and under – 2.8% iii. 13yrs and older – 6% iv. mood fluctuations 1. usually from environmental stressors 2. biological disposition v. cannot treat w/ meds 1. have to be careful about this with children 2. use more behavioral treatments a. be active b. be social c. children usually will resist this type of treatment e. Symptom Disorders i. Nocturnal Enuresis: bed wetting 1. Is messy 2. If diurnal: behavior; control issues 3. If nocturnal: nonbehavioral ii. Treatment 1. Find what happens before episode occurs 2. Find out how parents/other older figures react to it 3. Behavioral treatments f. Pervasive Developmental Disorders i. Autism Spectrum Disorder 1. No emotional reciprocity 2. Nonverbal 3. Social impairments range from severe  not so severe 4. Patterns of behavior/interests 5. Strict routines that they follow 6. Don’t like to change these routines 7. Don’t like loud sounds 8. Language issues 9. Intellectual decline ii. Causation? 1. Vaccinations? 2. Genetic  iii. Treatment 1. Meds for aggressive behaviors 2. Communication boards 3. Behavioral treatments III. Learning Intellectual Disorders a. Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation) i. 70 IQ = mild ii. 25 IQ = severe b. Learning Disorders i. Test scores below IQ ii. Dyslexia: reading disorder iii. Treatments 1. No good treatments 2. Show appropriate ways to respond 3. Trains parents and child 4. Prepares a sense of control 5. Child therapy is frustrating iv. Disorders have not disappeared v. Causes 1. Parents have child w/ 70 IQ = less intellectual disorders


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