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Exam Four Modern Bio

by: Claire

Exam Four Modern Bio 1320

Marketplace > Texas State University > Biology > 1320 > Exam Four Modern Bio
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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on the exam with example questions
Modern Biology 1
Professor Davenport
Study Guide
Bio, Modern, exam
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claire on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1320 at Texas State University taught by Professor Davenport in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Modern Biology 1 in Biology at Texas State University.


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Date Created: 04/19/16
Biology 4/15/16  Which of the following is not true regarding why pea plants are a great organism to study for genetics?  They don’t reproduce too quickly  Review of important terms  Gene and allele  Two of every gene but many alleles  Homozygous and heterozygous  Homozygous means same  Heterozygous means different  Dominant (P) and recessive (p)  Genotype and phenotype  Genotype is what I have  Phenotype is what I show  Do Punnett Square Practice online  Sex linked genes  Sex is determined by sex chromosomes  Not everyone fits into these 2 categories  Sex is not gender  Female (XX) 50%  Male (XY) 50%  Are found only on the X or on the Y sex chromosomes (not both)  Some genes found only on the X chromosomes are important to both sexes  Everyone needs at least one X chromosome to survive  Genes for color vision, blood clotting and certain proteins in muscles  Males only have one copy of the X chromosome  Females (XX) can be homozygous or heterozygous for a characteristic  If heterozygous the dominant allele shows up  A gene on the X chromosome codes for the protein in the eye that detects red and green = sex-linked genes  Inheriting sex linked genes  XR = dominant allele = color vision  Xr = recessive allele = R/G color blind  Females can have [XR-XR] or {XR-Xr} or [Xr-Xr]  For males there is no option for a dominant allele (XR) to mask a recessive one  Males are 16 times more likely to be color blind than females  Only inherited it from his female parent ONLY – the male parent can have regular color vision  A male with harmful sex-linked gene on the X chromosome will pass the gene to ALL of his female offspring and NONE of his male offspring.  He only passes the Y to males so there is no chance of the males getting the harmful gene  He will ALWAYS pass the X to his female offspring so it is 100%  A female that is heterozygous for a harmful sex-linked gene on the X chromosome will pass the gene to HALF of her female offspring and HALF of her male offspring.  There is a 50-50 chance of passing it to a male or female because both have an X chromosome  Non-Mendelian rules  1. Some allele are not dominant and recessive, but are incompletely dominant over others  When the heterozygous phenotype is an intermediate between the 2 homozygous phenotypes. The pattern of inheritance is called INCOMPLETE DOMIANCE  2. A single gene may have multiple alleles  The human blood types are an example of multiple alleles of a single gene  Human blood type has three possible alleles: A, B, O  There are 6 possibilities  AA, BB, OO, AB, AO, BO  3. Some alleles are codominant: both are expressed in entirety  Human blood types are another good example of this A and B are codominant over O which is recessive  Leads to an extra phenotype: blood type AB  4. Polygenic inheritance  Many genes but only affects one trait  5. Pleiotropy  1 gene doesn’t only have 1 trait sometimes 1 gene affects many traits  Jane has blood type A while John has the blood type B. Jane has FIVE children, but john is only the father of FOUR. Which child is definitely not John’s? Hint = Make a Punnett square  Josh = AO  Jess = AA (there is no possible way to get AA)  Jeb = OO  Jordan = AB  Jenn BO  The alleles for curly hair and straight hair exhibit incomplete dominance. If a child has curly hair, which of these could be true of her parents? Hint = make a Punnett square  One has straight hair and one has wavy hair  One has straight hair and one has curly hair  One has curly hair and one has wavy hair (in the Punnett square there is no straight hair)  Both have straight hair  None of the above are possible  Carrier = heterozygous for a regular and a recessive allele, but unaffected – showing a regular phenotype (WILL BE ON THE EXAM)  Jane is a carrier for the recessive allele that causes cystic fibrosis and John is also a carrier. They want to have a child, but are concerned that it will be born with cystic fibrosis. Should they be worried? Hint = create a Punnett square!!! Very helpful with these problems  No – it is impossible  Slightly there is a 25% chance  Yes. there is a 50% chance  Very there is a 75% chance  Extremely there is a 100% chance


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