Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide ANTHROP 2200
Popular in Intro the Physical Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Naomi Kolovich on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTHROP 2200 at Ohio State University taught by Dawn Kitchen in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 336 views. For similar materials see Intro the Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Anthropology 2200 Exam 1 Study Guide e study of humankind everywhere throughout time 1 2 3 4 Culture study all aspects of human behavior in all time places Archaeology study materials left behind study early cultures and lifeways and explain human behavior Linguistic study origin of human speech and language study language development over time Physical studies humans as biological organisms genetics paleoanthropology study of bones amp fossil record primatologists Evolution change in allele frequencies in a population over time People to Know 1 2 believed earth wasn t the center of the universe 1St scientist to formally attempt to explain species overtime Inheritance of acquired traits believed the traits inherited were the ones physically seen ex cat looses leg and has 3 legs offspring will only have 3 legs known as the father of geology uniformitarism theory that earth s features are a result of a longtime process that help shape the earth helped Darwin publish Had the same idea as Darwin not as fully developed and Darwin took Wallace s findings and put them with his own publications 5 Differential reproduction competition Inspirations to Darwin 1 Lyell amp Geology if the Earth can change Darwin witnessed an earthquake and saw the earth physically change animals can also change Fossils fossils that look like creatures that exist today but are differentlarger Finches finches that looked like mainland finches on the Galapagos islands but have different adaptations for each island they were on some had larger beaks some had smaller beaks Malthus amp competition nature shapes species based on who survives and reproduces due to environmental factors those suited better for arctic temperatures ex layer of blubber will survive and pass down those traits Convergent Evolution distantly related animals under similar selection pressures evolve to become similar come together Divergent Evolution closely related animals under different selective pressures evolve to become different come apart 3 Requirements for Evolution by Natural Selection 1 Variation exists mutations 2 Traits are inherited heritability 3 Differential reproduction competition those with the traits better suited for survival will eventually pass on those traits Evidence for Evolution 1 Structural homology different animals have the same similar bones but we use them differently ex whales have a small pelvis thigh bones 2 Developmental homology development in the womb starts out the same for all creatures 3 Genetic homology related animals share large amounts of DNA ex humans and chimpanzee DNA is 9598 similar more similar to each other than either is to the gorilla Macroevolution speciation changing into a completely new species Microevolution changes within a population Important to know mutations are random natural selection is not random Structures of Eukaryotic Cells 1 Mitochondria structure that converts energy from nutrients into a form that is used by the cell 2 Ribosomes contain transfer RNA where translation occurs Proteins form here Somatic cells body tissue cells 2 copies of each chromosome in every cell Gamete cells Sex cells one copy of each chromosome in a cell needs to meet up with a gamete from the opposite sex DNA Replication Process 1 Enzymes break down bonds between bases 2 Unattached nucleotides pair w complementary nucleotide 3 New strand of DNA is created Messenger RNA mRNA carries quotmessagequot out of nucleus to ribosome since DNA cannot leave the nucleus Takes care of transcription Assembles on DNA bases Transfer RNA tRNA works in the ribosomes takes care of translation Changes the language of DNA into the language of amino acids and creates proteins Transcription Unzips DNA mRNA attaches itself and copies the code for a specific protein ex skin hair from the DNA nucleotide bases instead of thymine RNA uses uracil so A s pair with Us instead of T s mRNA leaves the cell and takes the information out of the nucleus Translation tRNA changes the nucleotide code into amino acids to create proteins in the cell s ribosome Genetic Mutations slight change in the DNA sequences changes which protein is to be made Some mutations can be harmful some can be beneficial others are neutral in some instances many different codes can create the same protein Mitosis division in somatic cells necessary for regrowth regeneration of new cells Results in 2 identical daughter cells genetically identical to the original cell chromosomes duplicate goes from 23 pairs to 46 pairs copies remain attached to each other copied chromosomes 46 align in the middle of the cell doublestrands pulled apart and move to opposite ends of the dividing cell ce11 membrane pinches amp 2 new cells exist each with 46 single stranded chromosomes and then goes to 23 pairs BASICALLY DNA REPLICATES ITSELF AND THEN SEPARATES INTO 2 NEW IDENTICAL CELLS Meiosis production of gametes sex cells characterized by 2 divisions that result in 4 daughter cells each containing 23 chromosomes half the original number DNA replicates 46 double stranded chromosomes 23 homologous pairs line up in the center of the cell homologous pairs are pulled apart results in 2 cells each with 23 DOUBLE STRANDED chromosomes chromosome 123ect ONE FROM MOM ONE FROM DAD process is repeated double strands pulled apart just like mitosis end result 4 daughter cells each with 23 SINGLE stranded chromosomes Mendel s 3 Laws 1 Law of Segregation also known as principles of segregation variants of genes for a trait remain separate throughout generations Genes are separate not blended together offspring acquire one factor from each parent 2 Law of Dominance amp Recessiveness Dominant alleles mask the presence of recessive alleles a Homozygous both allels are the same TTtt this is how recessive traits show up if they are homozygous recessive b Heterozygous alleles are different Tt dominant will always mask recessive in this case 3 Law of Independent Assortment distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes does not in uence distribution of another pair genotype genetic make up TT Tt tt pheonotype physical appearance of an organism due to the genotype Recombination exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis if two genes are close in loci location of the gene on the chromosome the less likely they are to recombine Polygenetic continuous traits in uenced by genes at 2 or more loci Creates a bell curve shape ex hair color stature eye color Pleiotropic discontinuous traits in uenced by one gene either have it or you don t example tongue rolling ability sickle cell anemia Methods of Evolution 1 Genetic Drift random change in allele frequency of a population from one generation to a next due to chance Greater impact in small populations a Founder effect small subgroup of population becomes reproductively isolated 2 Gene Flow increase genetic variation within a population movement of allele from one population to another through reproduction increases variation WITHIN a population new traits are coming in decreases variation BETWEEN population b c of reproducing 3 Mutations change in allele frequency in DNA only source of NEW genetic variation 4 Natural Selection Gradual process by which heritable traits become more or less common in a population i THESE ARE NEEDED FOR NATURAL SELECTION TO OCCUR heredity traits are inherited variation exists mutations competition differential reproduction NATURAL SELECTION IS THE ONLY NONRANDOM FORM OF EVOLUTION Artificial Selection humans decide what traits are allowed to be passed downwho is allowed to reproduce in order to change the frequency of alleles ex dog breeds pink pigeons
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