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Human Anatomy Week 2

by: Julio Avalos Ibarra

Human Anatomy Week 2 Bio 220

Julio Avalos Ibarra
GPA 3.4
Human Anatomy

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Human Anatomy
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julio Avalos Ibarra on Monday February 16, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 220 at San Francisco State University taught by in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 201 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biology at San Francisco State University.


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Date Created: 02/16/15
BIOL 220 STUDY GUIDE FOR WEEK 2 Cell Functional unit of life Tissue A group of cells and their surrounding matrix that work together to perform a particular function Histology process of looking at anatomical structures too small to see with the naked eye Differentiation Cell eXpression of a particular subset of genes to allow cells to perform specialized functions Light Microscope nucleus nucleoli chromatin staining dark cytoplasm plasma membrane granules in cytoplasm Transmission Electron Microscope organelles Scanning Electron Microscope surface structures like surface of moon Immuno uorescent Microscopy specific structures within cells are stained using our knowledge of immunology 3 Main Parts of Cell Plasma Membrane serves as a selective barrier Acts as a barrier separating inside and outside of cell Controls ow of substances in and out of cell Helps identify other cells e g immune cells Participates in signaling between cells Cytoplasm consists of organelles in a uid portion called cytosol Nucleus a large organelles housing most of the cell s DNA Maior functions of organelles Centrosomes Function to build microtubules needed to form mitotic Located near the nucleus Consists of two centrioles and pericentriolar material Centrioles consist of 9 clusters of 3 microtubules Percentriolar matrix rich a in a protein called tubulin needed to make microtubules Ribosomes The site of Protein Synthesis Associated with endoplasmic reticulum synthesize proteins that will be inserted in plasma membrane or secreted Free ribosomes synthesize proteins used in the cytosol Endoplasmic Reticulum Network of membrane enclosed sacs connected to Nuclear envelope and extending through cytoplasm Rough ER synthesizes glycoproteins and phospholipids Smooth ER no ribosomes on surface synthesizes fatty acids and steroids Golgi Complex Modifies sorts packages and transports proteins received from the rough ER Forms secretory vesicles that transport secretory proteins from the golgi complex to the plasma membrane for exocytosis or transport proteins to other organelles Lysosomes Important in destroying material of the cells e g Malformed proteins within the cell Anything that has been taken into the cell for disposal Contain enzymes that function at very acidic pH Mitochondria Mitochondria can be thought as the powerhouse of the cell This is where ATP is generated Inner membrane rich in enzymes involved in ATP synthesis Nucleus Our genetic material is housed in the nucleus in the form of DNA Each cell expresses certain genes to make the proteins necessary for the function of that cell type Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton necessary for any form of cell movement Necessary for trafficking of membrane bound organelles within the cell Forms a skeleton a scaffold to help determine cell shape and to organize cellular contents and a motor to aids in movement of organelles within cell e g during cell division or phagocytosis Responsible for as much as 50 of cell volume 4 If you are given a photomicrograph of a cell either taken at the light or electron microscopic level be capable of predicting the possible functions of the cell based on the relevant proportions of different organelles Nuclear Envelope Mitochondria chloroplasts are double membrane organelles DNA and RNA are synthesized in the Nucleus Golgi Complex is where proteins are synthesized modified sorted and packaged RNA gets out of the nucleus by active transport in which the molecules are recognized and selectively transported through the nuclear pore into or out of the nucleus Gene EXpression Transcription is when DNA makes RNA Translation is when RNA makes proteins Materials are moved from organelle to organelle inside membrane bound vesicles because of cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton holds them in place in specific locations Proteins on the vesicles and target membranes bind to each other like two sides of a zipper Vesicles are only allowed release their contents when nerve cell signals to its neighbors In ux of calcium ions and directs neighbor proteins rapidly to bind vesicles to the outer membrane of the nerve cell which opens up the zipper In endocytosis materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from plasma membrane There are three types of endocytosis receptor mediated endocytosis phagocytosis and bulk phase endocytosis In receptor mediated endocytosis On the ECF side of the plasma membrane and LDL particle containing cholesterol binds to a specific receptor and LDL compleX A protein called clathrin attaches to the membrane and many of them come together to invaginate or fold inward having a basketlike structure Vesicle formation occurs and the membrane pinches off Immediately after it is form the clathrin uncoats and help form other coats around on other vesicles It then fuse with another vesicle known as endosome Receptors return to the plasma membrane bringing another LDL particle Transport vesicles then bud off the endosome and fuse with lysosome In bulk phase endocytosis Microvillus all W MICROFILAMENTS f a a Microfilament Nucleus 13 The plasma membrane folds inward and forms a vesicle containing a droplet of ECF It then INTERMEDIATE f5 97 pinches off from plasma membrane and enters FILAMENTS W b Iptermedlate the cytosol It fuses With a lysosome and 39ame smaller molecules leave the lysosome to be mm W MICROTUBULES Ii L j U k l 15x7 ml J l used somewhere else in the cell Centrosome Secretory cells and nerve cells carry out exocytosis Secretory cells that liberate digest enzymes hormones or other secretions Nerve Cells that release substances are called neurotransmitters 9 Igure 3 1 3 Principles of Anatomy and Physiollogy 1 Title 2006 John Wiley 8 Sons 3 types of filaments Microfilaments thinnest Made of a protein called actin Polymerization of actin needs monomer G actin and ATP energy requiring process Intermediate filaments Remain filamentous even with changes in pH electrical stimuli or protein dissociating agents Microtubules made mostly of a protein tubulin Interphase Period between cell divisions chromosomes not visible under light microscope G1 Phase Metabolically active cell duplicates most of its organelles and cytosolic components replication of chromosomes begins S Phase Replication of DNA and centrosomes G2 Phase Cell growth enzyme and protein synthesis continues replication of centrosomes complete Mitosis Nuclear division distribution of two sets of chromosomes into separate nuclei Prophase chromatin fibers condense into pair chromatids nucleolus and nuclear envelope disappear each centrosome moves to an opposite pole of the cell Metaphase centromeres of chromatid pairs line up at metaphase plate Anaphase centromeres split identical sets of chromosomes move to opposite poles of cell Telophase Nuclear envelopes and nucleoli reappear chromosomes resume chromatin form mitotic spindle Mitosis the division of cells Diploid 2 sets of chromosomes Haploid 1 set of chromosomes There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in an adult cell excluding gametes 12 What do cells look like at the light microscope level during interphase and the different phases of mitosis Describe what is happening with reference to the centrosomes Tissue a group of cells and material surrounding those cells that work together to form a particular function Epithelial tissues covers surfaces lines cavities and forms glands Connective tissues supports and protects other tissues Muscle tissues causes movement Nervous tissues receives and generates nerve impulses No of Layers id luluI Simple one layer 7 H r a J E E V gtH rimml Stratified more than one layer Sum Pseudostratified not all cells reach the surface Types of cells at surface m 3 IV Fm 55 Squamous 539 Em EM link LE Cuboidal it 5 7 Columnar Specialized structures at apical surface eg cilia 15 Be able to predict what type of epithelium you might expect to be present depending on the speci c functions Hemidesmosomes are present in the basal membrane Tight Adherens desmosomes and Gap junctions may be present in the lateral Tight Junctions consists strands of transmembrane proteins that fuse together the outer surfaces of adjacent plasma membrane to seal off passageways between adjacent cells Adherens junctions contain plaque a dense layer of proteins on the inside of the plasma membrane that attaches both to membrane proteins and to microfilaments of cytoskleleton Transmembrane glycoproteins called cadherins join the cell each cadherin connects to a cadherin of an adjacent cell similar to the way a belt encircles your waist Desmosomes contain plaque and have transmembrane glycoproteins cadherins that extend into intercellular space between adjacent cell membranes and attach cells to one another Attaches to cytoskeleton s intermediate filaments that consist protein keratin This contributes with stability of cells and tissue Gap junctions consist membrane proteins called conneXins form tiny uid filled tunnels called connexons that connect neighboring cells Small molecules and ions call pass but the passage of large molecules is prevented Small gap allows for communication Gap Junctions transport ions and other small molecules between cells Transfer of nutrients and maybe wastes takes place through gap junctions in avascular tissue such as lens and cornea of the eye A specialized connective tissue on which epithelia sits also surrounds muscle cells Basement membrane can become thickened in some diseases such as diabetes mellitus the inside space of a cellular component or structure Apical surface in contact with air or uid Basal surface in contact with basal lamina Lateral surface in contact with adjacent epithelial cells Apical free Lateral surfaces surface Epithelium Basal lamina Basement Retlcular Iamlnai membrane Connective T tissue Nerve Blood vessel Figure 42 Princilplles of Anatomy and Physiology 11 1 1e 2006 Jolhrm Wiley 8 Sons


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