APR 231 TEST 4 STUDY GUIDE
APR 231 TEST 4 STUDY GUIDE APR 231
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Small on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/19/16
TEST 4 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 17 25% of the final test is all websites Today's Modern Corporation • Large: Wal-‐Mart $469 billion Corp PR 2015 • Remoteness: Around World • Distrust : 31% very little confidence in big business • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) • Role of PR o Adopt ethical principals o Pursue transparency, disclosure o Make trust key of governance o Payoff: avoid reg, employees morale, bottom line Media Relations • Mutual animosity • Key: Need each other • Managers complaints o Inaccuracy o Incomplete coverage o Inadequate research o Anti-‐business bias Reporters Complaints • Uncoorperative, barriers • Uninformative releases • Misunderstanding balanced coverage • Need fact-‐based messages Customer Relations • We rely on customers to operate • Positive experience: tell 11; Negative tell 17 • Recalls • Integrate customer relations and PR • Monitor customer feedback: e-‐mail, calls, surverys, Twitter, Facebook • Reach diverse markets: US 5% Asian, $700 bill. Buying power Customer Relations • Consumer activists: Ex. PETA Tyson Foods, KFC; Coke and Obesity • Corporate PR and consumer Activists • DO: work with ones that want solution; transparency; action • Don't: No emotion; no agree to threats; don't expect immediate results • Consumer boycotts: refusal to buy the products or services of an offending company Employee Relations • Crucial audience • Issues: Layoffs, outsourcing/off shoring • Inform employee first; limit misinformation • Sexual harassment: Policy and liability issues • 100 Best Companies o Telecommuting/ Flextime o EAP o Elder care o Child care o Job Sharing • In investor regulations, a company must disclose information that is adjudged to be material to an investor's decision to buy, sell, or hold stock Marketing Communications • Marketing PR (MPR): the process of planning, executing, and evaluating programs that encourage purchase and customer satisfaction through credible communication of information and impressions that identify companies and their products with the needs, wants, concerns and interests of the consumers. Marketing Communications • Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC): work with advertising, marketing, direct mail. Sales, and promotion • Product Publicity: builds credibilty • Product Placement: Integrate into show • Cause-‐related marketing: Ex. Yoplait, 10 cents per lid to breast cancer • Corporate sponsorships: $10 bllion o Sports: visibility o Cultural: hit option leaders Enviornmental Relations • Strong pressure on companies • NGO: nongovernmental organizations • Work toward cooperation, partnership • Corp and Enviornmental groups • PR Role o Present accomplishments o Inform management of perceptions o Conduct campaigns within company o Enviornmental audit o Campaign: positives, crisis plan Corporate Philanthropy • Individuals give most (72%); Corporations (6%) • Company: don’t do just for publicity; do it to build business, brand and stakeholder relations • Corp. give 5%; tax laws • Strategic Philanthropy – Reputation, brand recognition – Increase media opportunities – Improve community/gov relations – Facilitate employee recruitment, retention – Enhanced marketing – Access to research and development – Increased profitability Chapter 18 Cult of Personality • What is a celebrity? – Person well known within a variety of fields • Fuels the entertainment industry • Fodder for mass media The Public’s Fascination with Celebrities • Wish fulfillment: dream of glory • Hero-‐worship: Yearn for heros • Vicarious sense of belonging • Desire for entertainment Promoting Entertainment Event • Publicity to stimulate ticket sales: Focus on personalities, style, history • Ex. Play: announcement, leads, rehearsals, opening date, features, interviews, photos of rehearsal, opening, review, web, blogger, social media • Movie: Drip-‐by-‐drip; unit man or woman • Planters, bookers, exclusives, ticket give-‐aways, product placements, merchandizing The Business of Sports • Emerging sports, competition • Player focus, star/hero • Business issues: Labor • Community Relations • Growth of Web information Sports Publicity: MUSTS for Sponsorships • Media Appeal • User Friendliness • Sales Appeal • Thematic Applications • Special Event Travel Promotion • 8% of world workers; 9% of global gross domestic product (GDP); 10% in US, higher in others (Spain 15%); 10% of world’s workers by 2022. • Three phases: • Stimulate desire • Arrange to reach it • Comfortable, entertain Stimulate • Travel articles, brochures, videos, WWW, conventions: <34 87% use Facebook for travel inspiration • Travel writers/freelancers; “Familiarization Trip” • Promos with hotels/airlines • Social media, YouTube, Apps (Miami C&VB) • Events: Bahamas 200 bathing suit in Times Sq. • Appeal to target markets – Packaging: Transportation, housing, meals, entertainment Ex. ND Alumni – Appeals to seniors: largest; cruises Chapter 19 Government Organizations • Federal, state, local governments and agencies • Primarily disseminate information; help communicate with constituents • Promote policies of current administration • Seek citizen support • Also promote services, fund-‐raising, news of success and crises, campaigns for social issues, long-‐range plans The White House • President gets more media attention than Congress and agencies combined • Reagan Master communicator, symbolism, down to earth • George Bush Sr.: friendly but formal, enthusiasm • Bill Clinton: Populist, one-‐on-‐one master • George Bush Jr. Tight control, limited access • Barack Obama: Heavy use of TV, intellectual, too much style focus Congress • House and Senate are major information disseminators • 2009-‐2011: 1.27 billion pieces of mass comm. @ $131.5 million • Press secretaries: coordinate PR; counsel • Releases, newsletters, recordings, brochures, taped radio interviews, e-‐mails, electronic newsletters, videos (YouTube) • Franking privilege: money to communicate to constituents; helps sitting member Federal Agencies • Typically called Public Affairs Officers or Public Information Specialists • Represent federal agencies: Ex. US Dept of Defense, one of the largest PR efforts • Functions: answer press and public, releases, newsletters, speeches, brochures, special events, counsel top management, research/design campaigns • Longest running: DOD, “Hometown Releases” • DOD: embedded journalist, pay for play, recruitment services, work with movie industry: Iraq newspapers • Other Federal Agencies: Strong information providers EX. CDC, Swine Flu State Governments • Each 50 have similar model: executive, congress, agencies • Use outside firms: Request for Proposal (RFP) • States also compete and develop campaigns to encourage tourism, attract new residents, advance interests of the state • Public information and education, such as health and safety Gov. Relations by Corporations • Typically called public affairs specialists • Gather info • Disseminate management views/Work with gov • Government projects • Motivate employees in political process • Use of trade association: Ex. 300 in Alabama • 67% of responding companies use trade associations to monitor Washington; 58% make frequent trips to DC; 45% have company office in DC • 90% communicate with employees about gov. affairs; 40% do it with retirees, customers, others Lobbying • Government relations specialty • President Ulysses S. Grant: meet in lobby of Hotel Willard • Defeat, pass or amend legislation and regulatory policy • Federal: registered • All levels: federal, state, local • Ex California: 1,700 registered lobbyists • DC: 100,000 lobbyists including support staff Lobbying • $9 billion industry • Foreign Governments and Interest: Ex. American-‐Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIP AC) • Budget of $60 million, 275 employees, $130 million endowment, $80 million new building on Capital Hill Pitfalls of Lobbying • Legislators and government officials: leave job, lobby • 55% of current lobbyists are former employees of US Congress; 26% former employees of executive branch; 23 lobbyists for every member of congress • Ethics In Government Act: Former federal agency personnel: wait one year before lobbying their former agency; no time limit for US Congress • EX. Rep. JC Watts Chapter 20 Definition: 2 Ways • Planned and organized effort of a company, institution or government to establish mutually beneficial relationships with the publics of other nations • PR practices of another country’s companies (Ex. German co.) International Corporate PR • 30% of US profits from international; Coke 70% • 15%-‐20% of a US company’s stock held abroad • Large PR firms: 30%-‐40% fees outside • Internet: Fueling change, Ex. Hill&Knowlton satellite transmission system Hofstede’s 5 Cultural Dimension • Power distance: tolerance to unequal distribution: accept Mexico, France; reject US, Australia • Individualism: self vs. group: Collective Asia; Self US, Canada • Masculinity/Femininity: cognitive vs. compassion: German masculine; Sweden feminine • Uncertainty avoidance: tolerate ambiguity; Tolerate Great Britain, US; Problem with it Japan, Belgium • Long-‐term vs. Short-‐Term Orientation: view of future, long or short: Short US; China, Japan Long Foreign Corporations in the US • Biggest: UK, German, Swiss and Japanese companies: Lobbying and General PR • Hold off protectionist moves • Legislation affecting sale of products • Info on social, political, commercial • Expansion of markets • Deal with crisis situation that threatens organization • Foreign Agents Registration Act of 1938: actions, comp, expenses • Why – Advance political objectives – Assess US reaction – Advance commercial objectives – Assist in communications in English – Win understanding and support of issues that undermine interests – Modify laws and regulations inhibiting activities in US American Public Diplomacy • USIA: Flow out of CPI and OWI Chapter 21 Nonprofit Sector • 2 million such groups in US; 6.5 million work in nonprofit sector • Serve public interest • Enhance members or conditions • Tax exempt; don’t distribute money to owners, shareholders • Lower pay in field • Often in conflict with other nonprofits for money; conflict with other over issues Professional Associations • Members of a profession or skilled craft • Set standards • Code of ethics • Requirements for admission • Continuing education • Some power to license/censure • Ex. AMA, ABA; PRSA, Professional Associations • National and international in scope • District, state, local chapters • Variety of PR Techniques • Government relations/lobbying • Services to members, public • PAC contributions Trade Groups • Members are companies of a particular trade, not individuals • 6000 Trade and Professional Assn. in US • 1/3 in Washington • Ex. National Soft Drink Assn., National Assn. of Home Builders • Do: Monitor legislature, lobby for legislation, communicate to members, liaison with government, promote industry Advocacy Groups • Action for social causes: environment, animal rights, family, gun ownership, etc. • Ex. Greenpeace, PETA, NRA, AFA, GLAAD, MADD, National Wildlife Foundation • Activist: confrontational advocacy groups: ELF, Greenpeace Methods of Operation • Lobbying: National, state, local • Litigation: Sierra Club Spotted Owl • Mass demonstrations: Spike trees; stay in tree tops • Boycotts: NAACP and South Carolina • Reconciliation: Environmental Defense Fund and McDonald’s • Fund-‐raising Social Service Organizations • Dual role: service and advocacy • Social service: American Red Cross, Goodwill • Foundations: philanthropic, Gates $60 billion; Ford $11 billion • Cultural: Symphony, National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) • Religious: Southern Baptist Convention PR Tactics • Publicity • Creation of Events • Use of Services • Creation of Educational Materials • Newsletters • Also Volunteer Services Health Organizations • Hospitals: nonprofit, some for-‐profit • Health Agencies: Private and Government Health Agencies • Serve by providing health care, funding of health initiatives, and oversight • Medicare, Medicaid, Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) • Non-‐profit: Ex. American Heart Association, American Cancer Society • Department of Health and Human Services (HHS): 1/4 federal spending, nearly $1 trillion budget, 300 programs • Health Campaigns: To prevent, respond to diseases; promote health and quality of life, Ex. CDC, NIH Educational Organizations • Varied: College/university, high/ elementary, child care, trade, special needs • Most non-‐profit; For-‐Profit, Ex. Virginia College, DeVries • CASE: Council for the Advancement and Support of Education (trade group for higher education) Higher Education Audiences • Faculty and staff • Students • Alumni and other donors • Government • Community • Prospective students Fund-‐Raising and Development • Individuals: 72.3% of giving, $229 billion; Foundations 14.5%), Bequests (7.5%), Corporations (5.7%) • 3 biggest recipients: Religion (32.2%), Education (13.2%), Human Services (12.8%) • Motivations for Giving: – Assist less fortunate, personal satisfaction, religion – Ego satisfaction, Peer pressure Fund-‐Raising Methods • Corporate and Foundations: Corporate match programs • Structured Capital Campaigns: Wing to hospital • Direct Mail: Declining, cost, Internet based marketing • Event Sponsorship: March of Dimes, WalkAmerica in 1,100 cities • Television Solicitations: Jerry Lewis Marathon, Hurricane Katrina Fund-‐Raising Methods • Telephone Solicitations: Universities, relatively inexpensive • Endorsements and Tie-‐Ins: American Heart Association (License name), Share profits (Newman’s Own), Operate Business (Chicago Symphony Store) • Online and Social Media: Inexpensive, people wary; Cell phone text giving
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