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Exam 1 Study guide

by: Erica Watson
Erica Watson

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Introductory Psychology
Prof Gross
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Watson on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Prof Gross in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 04/19/16
Exam 1 Study Guide NOTE:  You are responsible for all questions on the study guides.  Many of the study guide  questions below have been copied verbatim (see quotation marks) from the margins of your book.   Some questions have been rewritten to enhance clarity.  Other questions are unique to the study  guide.   Chapter 1 Study Guide:  Foundations for the Study of Psychology Explain the formal definition of psychology, including defining behavior, mind, and science. The science of psychology requires that both human behavior and the human mind be studied  scientifically.   Explain. What does dualism mean?  What was Decarte’s version of dualism?  “How did Decarte’s view pave the  way for a science of psychology?”  Yet, why was Descarte’s theory unsuitable for modern, scientific  psychology? How did Hobbes’ materialism contribute to the science of psychology? How did the early understanding of the nervous system inspire a theory of behavior called reflexology? How did the discoveries of localization of function in the brain contribute to the science of psychology?   Take note of Paul Broca’s discovery. Clarify British empiricists’ explanation for the origin of complex ideas and thoughts.  Include the role of  the law of association by contiguity in your explanation.  Contiguity refers to closeness in _____ and ___. The law of association by contiguity means ____.  Generate a novel example.  Take note that this theory  is a fundamental part of modern psychology. The opposite of empiricism is _____.  Explain the view that the ability to learn is dependent on inborn  knowledge.  Can you identify an example? Explain the theory of natural selection.  How did Darwin’s theory of natural selection provide insight on  the origin of a priori knowledge?  Can you identify an example in humans?   The scope of psychology includes different levels of analysis: neural, genetic, evolutionary, learning,  cognitive, social, cultural, and developmental.  Acquaint yourself with each of these levels.   Why might it be more difficult to read the textbook than to read your favorite novel?  Should you try to  memorize the material in the textbook?  Should you simply accept the claims of the author of the  textbook?  “How can you use the focus questions in the book to make your reading more thought­ provoking and effective?”  How can the section and subsection headings be used effectively as study  tools? Chapter 2 Study Guide: Methods of Psychology What does it mean to say that psychology is a science? What lessons were learned from Clever Hans?  How did the clever horse answer questions correctly?   Explain the nature of the cues from the audience, and how these cues were unveiled.   “How are facts, theories, and hypotheses related to one another in the scientific enterprise?” “How does the Clever Hans story illustrate 1) the value of skepticism, 2) the value of controlled  experimentation, and 3) the need for researchers to avoid communicating their expectations to subjects?” “How can an experiment prove the cause­effect relation between two variables?”  What are the  independent variables and the dependent variables?  Why is it necessary to keep all other variables  constant?  Clarify your understanding of within­subject designs and between­subjects designs.  “What  were the independent and dependent variables in Pfungst’s (within­subject) experiment with Clever  Hans?”  “What were the independent and dependent variables in the between­subject experiment on  treatments for depression?”  “Why were the subjects randomly assigned to the treatment conditions rather than allowed to choose their own treatment?” “What are the differences between a correlational study and an experiment, in procedure and in the types  of conclusions that can be drawn?”  Why cannot cause and effect be determined from a correlational  study?   “What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of laboratory studies and field studies?”  Take note  of the consequences of the sign used in a field experiment in the Petrified Forest National Park. Data collection methods include:  self­report, naturalistic observations, and tests.  “What are some of the  advantages and disadvantages of each method?” “How do the mean, median, and standard deviation help describe” a data set?  When comparing data sets  with the same mean, what does variability refer to? “How does a correlation coefficient describe the direction and strength of the relationship between two  variables?”  How do scatter plots show the dispersion of correlational data? Why perform inferential statistics before drawing conclusions from research data?  Clarify the  implications when a research study is statistically significant at the 5 percent level. “How is statistical significance affected by the size of the effect, the number of individual subjects or  observations, and the variability of the scores within each group?”  Clarify the distinction between  statistical significance and practical significance. “What is the difference between error and bias, and why is bias the more serious problem?”  Study Figure 2.4.  “How can a non­representative selection of subjects introduce bias” into a research study?  “What is the difference between the reliability and the validity of a measurement procedure?”  “How can  lack of validity contribute to bias?” What are observer­expectancy and subject­expectancy effects?  How can the supposed phenomenon of  facilitated communication by sufferers of autism be explained as an observer­expectancy effect?  “How  does a double­blind procedure control for both observer­expectancy and subject­expectancy  expectancies?”  Clarify the role of a placebo in research. “Clarify the ethical concerns in research regarding privacy, discomfort, deception, and animal welfare.   How do researchers strive to minimize problems related to these concerns?” Statistical Appendix Study Guide Describe the procedures for organizing and summarizing a set of scores, include ranking the scores,  depicting a frequency distribution and its resulting shapes, and calculating measures of central tendency  (mean & median).   What does measurement variability capture in a data set?   How does a percentile rank of a given score reveal how one person compares to others on a given  measure? Describe the relationship between percentile rank and a normal distribution.  What percentage of scores  fall within (+/­) one standard deviation from the mean?   Take note of Figure A.5 to understand an example of a scatter plot relating GPA to IQ.  Is this correlation  a) positive or negative, and b) strong or weak? Chapter 4 Study Guide:  Basic Processes of Learning Classical Conditioning Evolution by natural selection is a long­term adaptive process.  How is learning an adaptive process to the ever­changing conditions of daily living?  Explain what psychologists mean by learning. “What is a stimulus­response reflex?”  Clarify the role of the central nervous system, and the potential for habituation, in reflexes.   How did Pavlov discover the “psychic secretion” to be later named the conditioned reflex? Following his discovery, “how did Pavlov systematize the process of conditioning, and what names were  given to the relevant stimuli and responses?”  In Pavlov’s view, could any stimulus ultimately serve as a  conditioned stimulus? From your life, generate an example of a conditioned reflex. “How can a conditioned reflex be extinguished?”  What evidence led Pavlov and other scientists to  conclude the extinction may be followed with the passage of time by spontaneous recovery?  Following  extinction, does “the animal or human return to its original, untrained state?” What is the phenomenon of generalization, and to what extent does magnitude of the response to the new  stimulus depend on similarity between the new stimulus and the original conditioned stimulus?   “How can generalization in classical conditioning be abolished through discrimination training?”  “How  can discrimination training be used to assess an animal’s sensory capabilities?” “How have researchers shown that the meaning of a stimulus [not just the physical characteristics of the  stimulus] can provide a basis for generalization in classical conditioning?”  What made Pavlov’s findings on conditioning appealing to proponents of behaviorism?   “How did Pavlov’s S­S theory of classical conditioning differ from Watson’s S­R theory?”  For what  reason did the S­S theory not appeal to Watson and other behaviorists?  Include the concept of gravity in  your discussion.  How did Rescorla’s experiment “involving habituation of the unconditioned stimulus  [loud sound] support the S­S theory?” “How does the cognitive construct of expectancy [e.g., expectation of food after sound of bell] help  explain the ways in which conditioned responses [e.g., tail wagging, food begging, and salivation] differ  from unconditioned responses [e.g., salivation]?”  Rescorla saw the learner as “an information seeker using logical and perceptual relations among events to  form a sophisticated representation of the world.”  “What are three conditions in which the pairing of a  new stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus does not result in classical conditioning?”  Include  predictive timing, heightened probability, and blocking effect in your discussion. How did Watson demonstrate in baby Albert that the emotion of fear can be conditioned?  Did little  Albert’s fear generalize to other furry objects? How has sexual arousal and appetite has been conditioned in humans or other animals? “Why is the conditioned response to the drug­related stimulus commonly the opposite of the direct effect  of the drug?”  Explain the development of drug tolerance, and the danger associated with the drug user  taking the usual amount of the drug in a novel environment.  Explain the role of conditioned reactions as  causes of drug relapse after withdrawal.  Familiarize yourself with the concept of homeostasis (see p.  187). Operant Conditioning Classical conditioning focused on our reflexive responses to stimuli.  Operant conditioning focuses on our non­reflexive behavior to obtain certain stimuli (aka., operant responses).  Why are operant responses also called instrumental responses?   How does the “law of effect” summarize the process by which Thorndike’s cat learned to escape the  puzzle box? “How did Skinner’s method for studying learning differ from Throndike’s, and why did he prefer the term reinforcement to Thornkike’s satisfaction?” Why is money considered a “conditioned reinforcer?” “What is some evidence that people can be conditioned to make an operant response without awareness of the conditioning process,” and “how is this relevant for understanding the acquisition of motor skills?” Explain how shaping is used to train an animal to jump through a hoop or sit on command. “In what ways is extinction in operant conditioning similar to extinction in classical conditioning?” Why is a continuous reinforcement schedule more efficient at establishing the behavior initially?  “How  do the four types of partial­reinforcement schedules differ from one another, and why do responses  generally occur faster to ratio schedules then to interval schedules?”  “How do variable­ratio and variable­ interval schedule produce behavior that is highly resistant to extinction?” “How does negative reinforcement differ from positive reinforcement?” “How does punishment differ from reinforcement, and how do the two kinds of punishment parallel the  two kinds of reinforcement?” “How can an animal be trained to produce an operant response only when a specific cue [discriminative  stimulus] is present?” “How was discrimination training used to demonstrate that pigeons understand the concept of a tree?”  “What are two ways in which food­aversion learning differs from typical examples of classical  conditioning?” “How might rats learn which food contains a needed vitamin or mineral?” “What is some evidence that people and monkeys are biologically predisposed to learn to fear some  things more easily than other things?” What is a critical period, and how is this period related to imprinting in goslings? “What special place­learning abilities have been found in (a) birds that hide food and (b) Pacific salmon?  How do all examples of specialized learning mechanisms influence thought about the concept of  [relative] intelligence?” Chapter 6 Study Guide: Mechanisms of Motivation and Emotion Define motivational state/drive.  Why are drives in psychology thought of as “hypothetical constructs”?   “How do drives and incentives a) complement one another, and b) influence one another in their  contributions to motivation?”   Explain homeostasis with an example.  “How is the concept of homeostasis related to that of drive?”   “How is this relationship demonstrated in the case of a little boy who craved salt?” “What is the distinction between regulatory drive and nonregulatory drive, and how can mammalian  drives be classified into five categories based on function?” “In theory, what characteristics must a set of neurons have to function as a central drive system?”  “What  characteristics of the hypothalamus seem to suit it to be a hub of such systems?” “What are three interrelated components of the concept of reward?” “How did Olds and Milner identify reward pathways in the brain?” “What is some evidence that the medial forebrain bundle and nucleus accumbens are essential pathways  for the effects of a wide variety of rewards?” “What is some evidence that different neurotransmitters in the nucleus accumbens are involved in the  ‘wanting’ and ‘liking’ components of reward?” “What evidence suggests that dopamine is crucial to the capacity of rewards to promote new learning— that is, to serve as reinforcers?” “How does an understanding of the brain’s reward system help us to understand drug addiction and  compulsive gambling?” “What is meant by feedback control” of appetite?   “What is the evidence that the hormone PYY helps reduce appetite after a mean and that underproduction  of PYY may contribute to obesity?” “How does the hormone leptin contribute to weight regulation, and why isn’t leptin a good anti­obesity  drug?” “How do conditioned stimuli and the availability of many foods, with different flavors, contribute to  appetite and obesity?”  Explain sensory­specific satiety.   “What is the evidence that within a culture, differences in body weight result mostly from differences in  genes, but across cultures, environment plays a large role?” “On the basis of the reports of successful dieters and the advice of appetite researchers, what can people  do to maintain a lower weight?” Chapter 3 Study Guide: Genetic and Evolutionary Foundations of Behavior What amount of genetic similarity exists between human and chimpanzee DNA? Define long­term and short­term adaptation.  Which of these adaptive processes did Darwin study? How do genes affect behavioral traits indirectly, rather than directly?  Clarify how “genes can influence  behavioral traits only through interaction with the environment.”  For example, how do environmental  cues activate genes that make rats and mice nurturant to newborns?    “What is the advantage of producing genetically diverse offspring?” “What is the difference between a dominant and a recessive gene?” How do genes contribute to the variation in behavior in any animal?  “Why would it be a mistake to  conclude that fear in dogs is caused by just one gene, or that it is caused by genes and not by the  environment?”   “How are the characteristics of animals shaped through selective breeding?”   “How did Tryon produce ‘maze bright’ and ‘maze dull’ strains of rats?”  What experimental procedure  showed that this “difference was the result of genes, not rearing?”  Ultimately, why were the strain  differences “not properly characterized in terms of brightness/dullness?”  “What insight led Darwin to his theory of evolution?”  “How is natural selection similar to and different  from artificial selection?”   “How are genes involved in evolution?”  “What are the sources of genetic diversity on which natural  selection acts?” “How does change in the environment affect the direction and speed of evolution?”  “How did a study of  finches illustrate the role of environmental change in evolution?”  “What are three mistaken beliefs about evolution, all related to the misconception that foresight is  involved?” “How does an understanding of evolution provide a basis for functionalism in psychology?” “How are ultimate explanations of behavior different from, but complementary to, proximate  explanations?” “What are four reasons for the existence of traits or behaviors that do not serve survival and reproduction  functions?”  Explain vestigial characteristics by referring to Figure 3.13. After studying Figure 3.14, clarify “what evidence supports the idea that many human emotional  expressions are species­typical” (biologically­prepared; universal).  Yet, “how do human emotional  expressions illustrate the point that species­typical behaviors can be modified by learning,” and are more  easily and accurately identified by other members of their own culture than by members of a different  culture? How is biological preparedness illustrated with the examples of: two­legged walking by dogs and  humans, and by infants learning to walk and talk?   “Why is the concept of species­typical behavior relative rather than absolute?” “What is the difference between a homology and an analogy, and how can researchers tell whether a  similarity between two species in some trait is one or the other?” “How are homologies used for learning about a) the physiological mechanism and b) the evolutionary  pathways of species­typical behavior?” “How do studies of homologies between humans and other primates support the view that the human  greeting smile and the human happy smile have separate evolutionary origins?” 


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