Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide Comm 410
Popular in International Mass Communication
Popular in Communication
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maggie MacDonald on Tuesday February 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comm 410 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Applequist in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 373 views. For similar materials see International Mass Communication in Communication at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/15
COMM 410 EXAM 1 WEEK 1 Five Important Factors in International Communications 1 Border 2 Control 3 Con ict 4 Communication 5 Empathy Two ways critical thinking is used in this class 1 By understanding that many of our quotrealitiesquot are socially constructed 2 By understanding the danger of a single story Four basics of critical thinking 1 Identify and challenge assumptions 2 Have awareness of your place and time in culture 3 Search for alternative ways of thinking 4 Develop re exive analysis What is international communication about Sharing knowledge ideas and beliefs among the various peoples of the world and the exchange of info across great distances for a variety of purposes Can be a contributing factor in resolving global con ict and promoting mutual understanding Extends the ow of info of communications across borders can be geographical cultural or political borders Two Factors in the Partisanship in US 1 Media 2 Money What is the event that changed politics Nuch Gringwhich Citizens United in 2010 2 Decided Corporations were seen as people and have the rights of people including 1st amendments lmportant because corporations can spend unlimited amounts on election campaigns WEEK 2 Thussu39s Key Point 1 nnovations in communications technology allowed international links to be established which consolidated colonial empires and permitted trade to grow The Telegraph 4 lnvented by Samuel Morse in 1837 Allowed for rapid transmission of info By the 19705 most countries used the telegraph Particularly important for two areas business amp military operations British Empire the US and Communication Cables Two countries owned nearly 75 of the world s communication cables by 1892 amp continued to by 1923 Two other countries owned below them the French Empire and Denmark Domination in International Communication 2 British Empire dominated international cable ownership US dominated telephone ownership What is Responsible for the Advent of Popular Media 2 lnternationalization of news agencies and lms Advertising becomes increasingly important in international communication What is the Development of International Communication and its Networks Tied to 2 The growth of capitalism The pursuit of empire power Process of Expanding Empire 3 Colonization something big going in and taking more Growth of International Commerce ndustria Revolution What is the Effect of Having Increased Communication Technology Rely on it more Three Examples of Increased Communication Technology from Thussu 1 Telegraph increased alignment between domestic business interest and national interests bc both pro ted from communication network developments 2 News Agencies rise of corporate commercial communication interests led to development of the news cartel where the news became a pro tmaking venture 3 Advertising as Communication serves to mobilize public opinion and ends with a purchase if effective The Cold War A clash over two contrasting views of society MarxistLeninist communism vs capitalist individualism Why did the US Hate Communism Threatened private interests saw it as a threat to their society and capitalism Major propaganda campaign against communismsocialism in the US throughout the 20th century Soviet vs US Propaganda During Cold War Soviet heavy verbalwritten attacks about imperialism which capitalism thrives upon US often relied upon protection of our freedoms Example of Nazi era propaganda in Class 1943 American animated propaganda short lm produced by Disney of Donald Duck Third World 4 Label was a product of the Cold War 0 1st world capitalist US 2nCI world Soviet West would support 3rd World dictators if they aligned with the Wests interests Key for the West was to keep a relationship so they could technologically invest in communications infrastructures in these countnes Third World countries often became pawns in Cold War politics NonAligned Movement in the UN 3 Caled for a New International Economic Order 0 A democratic interdependent economic order based on equality and sovereignty First time we saw a call for something that was equal Led to the New World Info and Communication Order New World Information and Communication Order 5 US not interested because we were already a superpower at this time Looked beyond EastWest blocs to consider the NorthSouth divide Though it was idealistic it was at least a move to rede ne international relations Brought attention to 0 Links btwn transnational communication systems 0 Structural inequalities in international communication 0 Need for utilizing communication technologies in pursuit of development A vision that recognized how international information networks in their contemporary form perpetuated and strengthened inequality in development how this has negative effects on polity economy and society in developing nations MacBride Commission 19771980 3 Justified the need for NWlCO West criticized the report and said it was Sovietinspired amp leaned toward communism fear tactic Reagan administration and US business lobbyists help to kill its potential by using economic and political sanctions to block the development of its initiativesUS was threatened as a superpower Four Aspects of Global Communication Examined in the MacBride Commission 1 Current state of world communication 2 Problems surrounding a free and balanced ow of information and how the needs of developing countries link with this ow 3 How a NWlCO could be created in light of the NlEO 4 How the media could become the vehicle for educating public opinion about world problems Results at the End of the Cold War 1989 4 Viewed as the triumph of neoliberal policies and capitalism Led to a shift in conceptualizing in the world you were either 1 2nCI or 3 which also led to a shift in international communications debates Moved from a discussion of news and info ows to global telecommunications and transnational data ows Accelerated global media privatization Perception of Information and Communication Today Primariy perceived as commodities taking something that isn t intended to be sold under global capitalism Dominate Player in the Global Community The US with regard to organizing the power grid of the World Info and Communications Order What are we a part of as citizens of America Citizens of a new and more complex empire Four Things That Stimulate the Development of Communication According to Palmer 1 Suggests representation is a big part of communication 2 Encounters between societies and cultures are driven by trade or conquest in pursuit of empire building 3 Suggests how economics have often stimulated cultural interactions and the development of communication systems 4 Codes and their standardization are tied to cultural power who gets to dictate the rules of the communication game ls information a public service or a commodity What is the quotglobal communityquot How is the quotglobal communityquot organized and what are our responsibilities to it WEEK 3 What is Theory Something that has been researched but not necessarily proved Two Main Approaches to International Communications 1 Political Economy concerned with the underlying structures of economic amp political power relations 0 Rooted in Marxist critique of capitalism quotThe interests of the ruling class are the ruling interests of societyquot Considers question regarding how a pro t motive and commodi cation of ideas impacts communication practices 0 Examines patterns of ownership 0 The interests of the ruling class are the ruling interests of society 2 Cultural Studies how meanings are contested 0 View individuals as agents that impact the construction of dominant ideas Rooted in popularmass culture in England How Would Each of the Approaches to lnt39l Comm Look at Disney Poitica economy would see who owns Disney Cultural studies would look at what Disney represents amp the content of their lms What does Madikizia amp Bornam Adress and what do they Postulate Address the concepts of First Second and Third World countries s America becoming a third world country Modernization Theory 3 When a more af uent country goes in and tries to help a third world country Woud help transform them from traditional to quotmodernquot societies Uses International Communication to spread modernity an expansion of Western economic political systems and values Dependency Theory 4 Critique of modernization theory Moves to an international level of analysis Stated that Western TNCs exercise their control w help of gov t over developing countries by setting the terms for global trade dominating markets resources production amp labor 0 These terms help keep the dominant nations in a position where developing nations become dependent Neocoonia relationship TNC s control terms of exchange and structure of the marketdeepening inequality between countries Structural Theory of Imperialism 4 Poitica and economic dominance of the CN center nation over the PN periphery nation inferior in some way to CN changes the value systems of societies on the periphery Looks at the role of external forces in the social and economic development of countries on the periphery Not concerned w the already existing status in the PNthe previous state of PN before the CN only looking at the dominance This theory assumes that all relationships and interactions btwn the CN and PN are unequal and does not account for the possibility of equality World System Theory 6 Considering everything amp taking it all into account in terms of context Linked to dependency theory Acknowledges the emergence of a new social system a global or world system in the current world order Economic political cultural and scienti c forms of interaction all from the quotworld systemquot Allows for the possibilities of equal relationships to exist more about the interaction between nations Accounts for CN and PN like the Structural theory but adds Semi periphery zones SP 0 SP nationsstates that can compete with the CN in certain aspects but may resemble the PN in other aspects Hegemony 6 Gramsci Power or dominance of one group over another contemporary communication technologies have made the manner of social domination more subtle lt s a process ie past 10 yrs US has owned the media Messages supportive of the status quo ideology emanate from schools businesses political orgs trade unions religious groups the military and the mass media ie hegemonic kids say the pledge allegiance every morning at school These messages mutually reinforce the processes of ideological in uence Hegemony installs ideology WEEK 3KEY TERMS IN POLITICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS Concentration When media ownership becomes more and more in the hands of a fewer corporate or individual owners ie US media is owned by 5 or 6 corporations right now Conglomeration When a media company merges or gets bought up by another company to become a part of larger corporate networks ie NBC went into Comcast Vertical Integration When one owner owns all aspects of production amp distribution of a single type of media product ie owning studios production distribution retail outlets etc ie Disney owns the studio that produces That s so Raven distributes it on its own network sells the media product in its own stores Horizontal Integration One company acquires diff kinds of media concentrating ownership across differing types of media TV station radio station newspaper all owned by same corporation ie Disney has TV channel websites radios etc Synergy Dynamic operational strategy where components of a company work together to produce bene ts that would be less likely for a single separatelyoperated unit of a company to achieve WEEK 3 Critical Theory 4 Assoc w political economy issues of ownership amp control Posits that the means of production in society determine the nature of society Looks at the impact of mass media and the international production of cultural goods lms music magazines etc on societies Views mass media structures as oppressive believe that once culture becomes commodi ed cultural products assume an exchange value that largely replaces their intrinsic value Habermas39 Public Sphere 3 Every citizen should have an arena independent of gov t amp corporations which is dedicated to rational debate o It is accessible to entry amp open to inspection by the citizenry o It is here where public opinion is formed Public sphere is characterized by greater accessibility to info and more open debate in a space independent of state and business interests but is becoming compromised today by business interests What the Internet was supposed to be though corporations and politics took over Cultural Studies 4 Concerned with examining the role of communication and media in the process of the creation and maintenance of shared values and meanings Rooted in the study of popular and mass culture in England and their role in the reproduction of social hegemony and inequality Construction of meaning in media texts How do media texts acquire meanings Meaning as subjective and agents as activeinterpreting texts agents have power Two Theories that Help Frame RealWorld Phenomena esp in relation to history of International Communications 1 Modernization 2 Dependency lWill often see both at play Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 Mexico signed over land to the US Gave people a year to decide whether they wanted to stay and become citizens or move back to Mexico and remain Mexican Development of Spanish Radio 3 In the 205 and 305 stations sold blocks of time during off hours 19405 the rst Spanish language radio station 1962 TX Station KGBS drops English content for all Spanishlanguage content owner went on to own the Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation soon after Popularity of Spanish Format Radio Stations in US Third most popular behind Country and NewsTalk Who sponsors NPR amp PBS and why is this relevant The government Relates to world system theory US the dominant is subsidizing TV that supports Mexico the periphery Novelas Super dramatic soap operas popular in Spanish speaking countries Ugly Betty was a Novela in Columbia in 1999 US adapted it in 2006 CodeSwitching in Media Sometimes in shows the characters go off in a different language amp don t have subtitlessometimes they are saying stuff that is actually important Begs the question who is the media for US Media Compared to Other Countries Examples of Time magazine covers suggest we are sheltered WEEK 4 In order to keep ideologies in place what do we need to have Hegemonies can be considered the symptoms of ideologies that also work to preserve ideologies Ideology De nition A way of thinking that is put out by a dominant group and is made to seem natural or like common sense to a subordinate group the effect Hegemony De nition The process of a dominant group having power sway or in uence over a subordinate groupreaffirm the ideology the process Three Key Things About Ideology 1 Ideologies are comprised of several key concepts or ideas that work together as opposed to a single notion 2 While individuals can perpetuate ideological viewpoints they are not solely responsible for creating the ideology 3 Ideologies stay in place because they are made to look like they are common sense and therefore go unquestioned kind of how an ideology operates The Role of Media in Ideologies 2 Media is the main source of distributing various dominant ideologies such as racism capitalism etc Mass media not only creates amp distributes dominant ideologies but it is also created by dominant ideologies How many ads do you think the average person is exposed to every day 3000 Antonio Gramsci 3 Heaviy associated with the concept of hegemony Wrote about hegemony when the Facist ltalian gov t sent him away because he was wondering why a revolution never occurred as Karl Marx suggested Theorized that the reason the revolution never happed was due to the issue of consent Gramsci says if you make ppl believe that they are the ones who are putting forth such beliefs amp ideas then there is much less of a chance that they will be upset about said beliefs and ideas Consent produces ideologies and this is when he coined the term hegemony Karl Marx 3 German philosopher Writing on how capitalism and economic relations exploit the working class Predicted that a revolution would take place where the working class would eventually overthrow those in power ie the ones bene ting from capitalism Superstructure vs Base 4 Superstructure Ideologyproducing institutions Base its economic foundation Marx looked at the base in relationship to the superstructure Gramsci looked at the superstructure in relation to the base What is the dominant ideology alluded to in the exchange seen in the Fight Club clip Consumerism The Relationship Between Ideology and Hegemony deoogy amp hegemony work handinhand with one another In order to preserve a certain dominant ideology you must have accompanying symptoms of hegemony where a dominant group of individuals have power sway or in uence over a subordinate group of individuals De nition of a Normative Theory 3 quotNormativequot means the way things ought to be or should be ldeaistic in scope Go beyond explaining and comparing seek to de ne how news media systems ought to operate according to certain guiding principles Purpose of the Four Theories of the Press Hepfu to compare our media systems with other media systems Heps to better understand how different we are from other systems and to look back on the logics of our own system Four Theories of the Press 1956 1 Authoritarian Theory describe that all forms of communication are under the control of societies elites DictatorialTopdown 0 Media regulated by state with censorship 0 Set up to protect est social order 0 Press is subject to dired or implied control over state threat of censorship hangs over means of production ie Singapore Algeria China Cuba 2 Libertarian Theorv 0 Western concept of liberal theory 0 Media is regulated by moneymaking priorities 0 One measure of freedom includes media s ability to openly criticize their government and other media sources 3 Soviet Theory Communist concept 0 Media plays the role of educator Media regulated by the state with censorship A planned system completely controlled by the government no competing media allowed Eventually broke down 4 Social Responsibility Theory 0 Capitalism Public Good 0 Media regulated by freemarket dynamic with a strong emphasis on needs and the public good Regarded the best model of the four Underlying Assumption of Four Theories of the Press Primary roles of media news and information Entertainment function is not considered Two Added Theories to the Four Theories of Press 1 Development Media Theory Transitional Capitalism Public Good Media impacted by transition to a freemarket dynamic with a strong emphasis on public need and public good A view from former quotThird Worldquot countries Development of communication infrastructures and resources are a central necessity 2 Theory Public Good Emphasizes public participation and democratic process Addresses rights of individuals to have input on their own media systems Rights to accessibility and rights to quotanswer backquot to the media What are the major shortcomings of these 6 Press Theory Models 3 Entertainment Programming is disregarded Soviet Authoritarian amp Development Model distinctions can get blurred Absoute freedom of expression in the press is a myth What Theory does the US Operate Under Today READINGS quotCommon Informal Fallaciesquot Ten Informal Fallacies 1 Begging the Question stating the conclusion as an argument 2 Ad HominemAd Feminam Attack attack the source of the argument 3 Appeal to Authoritv substitute for an argument can be leg Heg 4 Strawperson misrepresent the opposing position to make theirs stronger 5 Slippery slope claiming that point a leads to b then c then 2 which is down right wrong 6 False dilemma making you choose between 2 things when there are really many other alternatives 7 Distinction without a difference separates a label from the behavior it describes I m not a racist but 8 Post Hoc Fallacy Y followed X therefore Y must have been caused by X 9 Analogies Good and Faulty an attempt to explain Y by likening it to X 10 Fallacy of the Golden Mean assuming the truth is between two extremes quotCritical Thinkingquot Ore Four Steps to Critical Thinking 1 Identify and challenge assumptions 2 Awareness of our place in time in our culture 3 Search for alternative ways of thinking 4 Develop a re ective analysis quotThe Historical Context of International Communicationquot Thussu Effect Communication had on Society 8 Essential tool for empires to hold power Changed warfare Expediting impact on trade News agencies were successful when their empires were too Development of lm industryinternationalization of new mass culture Propaganda during Cold War Third World demands when they felt the media unfairly treated them lnternationa Commission for the Study of Communication established to bring information and communication issues to the global agenda for the rst time in 1979 quotFollowing the Historical Paths of Global CommunicationquotAllen Palmer Examined the Beginning of Communications 6 Main point communication went from nothing to everything in such little time Arabs and Greeks were rst to rise above mythological views and create a logical worldview Summarized the experience of 1st world travellers 0 Columbus Ibn Tarik Joseph of Spain Marco Polo Christian Crusades 11th century15th quotmajor chapter in international communicationquot Tools of communication historically Torch system then the Greeks torch signal system the Romans heliograph human couriers Egyptian scribes postal systems pigeons smoke signals etc 0 Then came the printing press the telegraph transatlantic lines the telephone and broadcasting Communication history factor at play for the development of world society quotInternational Comm Shifting Paradigms Theories and Foci of lnterestquotMadkizia amp Bornman Development of Global Communications nternational Communication began during the period between the two World Wars Telegraph telephone expansion of railroads commercialization of radio etc Word Powers realized use of Propaganda and in WWII int l comm developed rapidyWest began to dominate Consequences and Effects of Global Communication on the World Order Consequences o Legitimacy sovereignty and authority of nation state are challenged by communication 0 Complicated international relations by introducing nonstate actors TMC s amp NGO s Mainly positive effects on the economy society amp culture 0 Increased internationalization amp liberalization of economic activities Enabled transnational corporations to conduct activities everywhere 0 Created new spaces for exploring newalternative communities of affinity amp identity 0 quotGlobal Villagequot social relations are no longer restricted to a particular space 0 Increased interaction btwn cultures Encourages resistance foragainst globalism Global Communication vs World Communication vs International Communication Will be used interchangeably Twelve Theories in International Communication 1 The free ow of information 2 Modernization Dependency Structural theory of imperialism World system Hegemony Political economy Critical theory Public sphere 10 Cultural studies 11 Information society 12 Globalization quotHegemonyquotames Lull Hegemony De nition The power or dominance that one social group holds over others Method for gaining amp maintaining power 0 Elite can in uence media to perpetuate their beliefs Power and Class in Today39s Society Determined by ideological in uence Role of Media and Popular Culture in Hegemony Connection btwn major information diffusing and socializing institutions of society is central to hegemony Commercia hegemony changes the playing eld Less popular viewpoints are not heavily accepted in society are not frequently represented in the media amp when they are it is in a bad light quotDrawing a Bead on Global Communication Theoriesquotohn Downing Purpose of Evaluating Soviet Russia39s Media System Media researchers must be sure to fully examine all factors at play in international media Outined political power economic crisis dramatic social transitions amp smallscale alternative media om ewew
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