Russ 280 Final Exam Study Guide
Russ 280 Final Exam Study Guide Russ 280
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This 45 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeline Lacman on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.
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FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Kievan Rus' In 862 Riurik became prince of the Kievan state o Norseman (Viking) 9 and 10 centuries – Norsemen spread into Eastern Europe o Some settled on Russian territory Riurik was invited to rule over the Russian people Riurik Igor Olga Sviatosl av Vladim ir FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Riurik’s son was Igor, who married Olga o Olga converted to Christianity o Their son was Sviatoslav His son was Vladimir, who Christianized Russia in 988 Ruled from 980-1015. Christianity Came to Russia through Byzantium Eastern half of the Roman Empire th Two Greek monks, Cyril and Methodius (9 century) – generally credited with having come up with an alphabet for the Slavs o Wanted to have Christian texts available to the Russians in their own language, so they needed to come up with a Slavic alphabet Called Church Slavonic Used for religious documents Important: So much as we give Vladimir credit for “converting” Russia, it is important to remember that this was a long process, and it began before Vladimir and continued long after him, as ongoing pagan imagery in literature demonstrates. FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE After Christianization Kiev became a very impressive city o Many churches and schools and libraries th th o 11 and 12 centuries, Kievan Rus was very much a part of Europe Novgorod, further north, was developing during this period as well Brothers fought brothers for land and treasure, and Kievan Rus was weakened o Unity of the kingdom was destroyed o Novgorod became more important than Kiev Mongols (Tatars) invaded (1237-1240) o For 2 centuries Russians were subservient to the Mongols o Russians were cut off from Europe Cultural development stalled Western Europe had the Renaissance; Russia did not The first Russian writings Church sermons Appeared shortly after (40-50 years) Russia’s conversion Primary Chronicle, written by monks, begun in approx. 1040 and continued until 1118 o First Russian historical document o Includes different types of literature Saints’ lives Story of Vladimir’s conversion FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Story of Olga’s revenge The Tale of Boris and Gleb Importance of faith, humility, kenosis (transcending self, world, with goal of union with God, divine grace. Christ seen as an example of this) Boris, Gleb, and their evil brother Svyatopolk, who murders them, are Vladimir’s sons Boris and Gleb are now saints. The Igor Tale Written when Prince Igor of Novgorod-Severskii (different Igor from the one above) embarked on a campaign with his brother, Vsevolod, against the Polovtsians/Kumans in 1185 Not a major battle Important because o In this poem o Shows the growing disunity in the Russian land Led to defeat by the Mongols Author is unknown Existed in one copy o Found in the 18 century, then burned in the 19 th o Argued that the work is a forgery, though most scholars think it is authentic Author dreams of a unified Russian land Writes of the epic qualities of Russia o Size FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Character Vivid characters o Igor impetuously goes to battle and is defeated, but escapes o Igor’s wife Yaroslavna whose “lament” is famous o Sviatoslav former warrior and unifier whose prophetic dream has been seen as the centerpiece of the text Importance of pathetic fallacy (nature is in sync with the characters’ experiences) o When Igor is wounded, leaves fall from trees Epic describes some of the disunity that would eventually lead to Russia’s susceptibility to Mongol takeover Icons icons are important in Russian Orthodoxy Nature of the world as iconic An icon points to a deeper relationship with someone Like the pictures of your family or friends you may have in your house Angel with Golden Hair Kievan School o Active from 10 century until Mongols sacked anstburned Kiev o 1 painters were Greeks or Byzantinized South Slavs o Monumental, uncluttered, and simple othDarker, more somber tones 12 century FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Virgin of Vladimir Most famous icon of Russia Brought from Constantinople in 1131 Kievan School St. George and the Dragon Novgorod School o Often include proofs of so-called “Dual Faith” o Bright colors o Increased complexity o Increased liveliness characteristic of their developing “anecdotal style” o Emphasis on drawing and line o 11 - late 15 century o Theophanes the Greek Arrived in Nogorod around 1378 o Trinity 1410 Andrei Rublev o First to purposely not include Abraham and Sarah Moscow School o Dionysius Continuation of ‘intense spirituality and delicate coloristic grace o Theophanes the Greek Moved to Moscow in 1395 Quick and skillful representation of figures Use of monochromatic colors and bright highlights FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Notes on Muscovy, Boris Godunov, The Time of Troubles, the rise of the Romanov dynasty development of the Russian state, Kievan Rus’ o Varangians came down from the North and then helped found a great state in Novgorod and Kiev o Mongols invaded and cut off vibrant Russian culture that had existed o Russian princes existed simply to pay tribute to the Mongols o Called the Mongol yoke Under this system, Kiev fell apart o Eclipsed by a newer city, Moscow Mongols dominate from late 1100s until 1380 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Princes of Moscow defeat the Mongols Moscow takes shape in 1100s as Mongols taking over o small city built with a big wall around it, thereby creating a Kremlin o Kremlin=fortress First mention of Moscow comes in the Primary Chronicle o Prince Iurii Dolgorukii lay the foundations for a wall to surround Moscow o Princes move from Novgorod to Moscow and start amassing territory. o One of most famous early princes of Moscow is Ivan Kalita (moneybags) Excellent manager Kept the Mongols satisfied with tribute Expanded Muscovite territory 1326 – Persuaded head of the Russian Church, Metropolitan Peter, to move the seat of the church from Kiev to Moscow Moscow becomes spiritual center of Russia o 1453 – Fall of Constantinople to the Turks Moscow calls itself the “Third Rome” Heir to Rome and Byzantium’s imperial and theocratic glory Another important prince – Dmitrii Donskoi o 1380 – Wins a crucial battle between the Russians and the Mongols (Battle of Kulikovo) Sung in poetry and drama etc. for centuries Ivan III’s reign from 1462-1505 o Mongols lose hold over Russian territory FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Historians consider this a new period of Russian history, that of Muscovite (from Moscow) Russia. Ivan the Terrible, Groznyi Ivan IV (=Awesome, Dreadful) 1533-1584 o 1547 – At age 16 Ivan IV crowned (as tsar)—rule effectively begins o 1547 (same year) happy marriage to Anastasia From Romanov boyar family o In first half of his rule does much to consolidate Russia & expand its borders o 1560 – Anastasia dies suddenly—poisoned? o 1564 – Abandons Moscow for small town Expresses desire to retire from throne Denounces aristocratic boyars Pattern we will see again and again Note beginning of Boris Godunov Mass confusion and consternation Pleas from boyars and people to return. o 1565 – Ivan says he’ll return if he has absolutely free reign Once back on throne, establishes oprichnina: purpose to destroy those whom tsar considered enemies--a reign of terror, killing. o 1581 – Strikes son and heir Ivan w/ pointed staff, mortally wounds him FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE 1547- Ivan IV 1453- 1380- Constantino 1547- Ivan IV Battle of marries Kulikovo ple falls Anastasia 1462-1505: Ivan III’s reign 1533-84:Muscovite Russia 1326- seat of church moved to Moscow 1560- Anastasia FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Time of Troubles After Ivan IV struggles for power o Ivan killed his oldest son o Son Fyodor takes the throne Country is really being run by Boris Godunov Becomes tsar in 1598 blamed for problems o Famine o Murder of Dmitri (Ivan IV’s 9-year-old son by 7 wife) o 1601 – A man appeared who claimed to be Dmitrii Got support of Poles o When Godunov died on April 13, 1605 his son was the successor Dmitrii was favored by the majority July 25, 1605 – He was crowned Tsar after killing all of the male Godunovs “The false Dmitrii” actually the former monk Grigorii Otrep’ev o 1606 – Murdered in coup after being declared imposter o Body burned in Red Square and the ashes were shot via cannon towards Poland o Prince Basil Shuisky, leader of the coup, became tsar next There was then Civil war, different pretenders, Poles and Swedes invaded FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE 1613 – Russians came together to select Mikhail Romanov as tsar o Romanov dynasty ruled until 1917, when the Bolshevik takeover occurred Pushkin's play Boris Godunov (1824-25), later set as an opera by Russian composer Mussorgsky, describes these events. 1598- Boris Godunov crowned Tsar 1601- fake Dmitrii appears 1606- 1613- fake Mikhail Dmitrii Romanov 1652- Nikon becomes April 1605- Godunov July 1605- fake Dmitrii FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Raskol (schism), Old Believers, Avvakum Russia got its religion from the Greeks o Cyril (from whose name we get the Cyrillic alphabet) and Methodius were Greek monks Some errors in Greek translation crept into the liturgy o Tsar at the time established a commission to make corrections o Nothing much was done until Nikon became patriarch in 1652 Started reforming the liturgy New sign of the cross: sign with 3 fingers Corrected spelling of name of Iisus Say Hallelujah 3 times Various priests and bishops accused him of heresy in 1653 One of them was Avvakum The raskol, or schism (think of Dostoevsky's hero Raskolnikov--split) happened as a result o The Old Believers (Avvakum was an Old Believer) refused to go along with the reforms Signed with 2 fingers Spelled Isus FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Said Hallelujah 2 times Rejected the Church Huge persecution followed Old Believers thought Nikon was the Antichrist th o Perhaps 20,000 of them burned themselves alive in the 17 century Avvakum was sent to various places in Siberia, including one journey headed by Pashkov, one of the early Siberia explorers o 1682 – Avvakum burned at the stake 1861 – Avvakum’s Life published o Hugely influential to 19 century writers Tolstoy, Dostoevskii just two who were struck by it and influenced by it in their own writings and thoughts The Old Belief survived and does to this day Petersburg, Neo-Classicism, Peter and Catherine, “Felicity” and Pushkin’s Mednyi vsadnik (Bronze Horseman) Peter the Great, Emperor of Russia 1682-1725 o 1692 – At age 22 takes sole power o Called Antichrist by Old Believers o New era in Russian History Turns Russia into an empire FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Transformed army, navy, judicial system, and local government o Hugely aware of need for education Russia was highly uneducated during this time Created academies and forced people to attend them o St. Petersburg Remains Russian capital and home of czars until 1917 revolution Wanted a port to link Russia to Europe Modeled on Western cities “Window to the West” “Venice of the North” Based city on classical models like Rome Peter’s daughter Elizabeth 1741-1762 o Began to subsidize the arts in Russia Followed by Elizabeth’s nephew Peter III o Married Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, a German princess Led a coup against her incompetent husband and became Empress Catherine the Great, Ekaterina II--1762-96. Catherine II (the Great), rules 1762-1796 o Learned Russian though she was foreign, and even wrote plays in Russian o Russian territory expanded greatly under her rule. Crimea o The Enlightenment (Age of Reason) is associated with Catherine Influence of French culture: Voltaire, Diderot, etc FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Corresponded with many of the leading Enlightenment intellectuals of Europe. Russia was once again part of Europe Peter had started the process after centuries of being cut off from Europe because of Mongol yoke Catherine ruled with enlightened despotism** Puts up Bronze Horseman statue in 1782 Eighteenth-Century Russian Literature o Beginning of century, literature was church-oriented Churches controlled the printing presses o End of the century: Empress Catherine the Great was writing plays, she was a patron of the arts, literature had carved out a place for itself in Russian society o Turn away from Russia’s own literary models o No attention paid to Old Russian literature Primary chronicles and saints’ lives o Not until the end of the 19th century do Russians go back to the past Derzhavin: very influenced by classical models Famous poem – Horatian ode o Modelled after Latin poet Horace o Known for his poetry praising Catherine II “Felicity” Pushkin and the Bronze Horseman: o 1799-1837 o “Father of Russian Literature” FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Makes Russian beautiful as literary language o Born into noble family Many aristocratic families were Europeanized and spoke French o Rebel internal exile meant he missed 1825 Decembrist Rebellion Exiled to modern day Muldova o 1826 – Czar Nicholas I becomes his censor Pushkin allowed to come back to St. Petersburg if Nicholas I reads all of his work and censors it o 1833- “Bronze Horseman” Ode to St. Petersburg Eugene wants to marry this woman St. Petersburg floods Goes to island to find the woman and see if she’s okay She’s dead and he loses his mind Goes to statue of Peter and blames him for the woman’s death Statue comes to life and starts to go after him and kills him Pro or Anti-Peter? Autocrat imposes something European that ends up killing innocent people o 1831 – Pushkin gets married to Natalia Goncharova Wife is rumored to have an affair and Pushkin believed it Challenged the other man to a duel January 1837- fatal duel o Baron Dontez shoots Pushkin and he dies 2 days later o With Pushkin, Russia finds its voice 1833- Pushkin 1762- writes Catherine the Great 1826- Pushkin allowed to 1725- 1692- Peter I dies Peter I takes sole FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE 1799- Pushkin j 1762-96: 1682-1725: Peter I’s Catherine the reign 1741-62: Elizabet h’s reign 1782- 1703- Bronze 1837- St. Pushkin Petersbu Horsesma 1825- 1762- Peter III Decembr rules for 6 ist Karamzin, Sentimentalism and "Poor Liza” Derzhavin: 18 century writer o Example of Neo-Classicism FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Modelling self on Classical tradition, Greece, Rome Late 18th century we move from Neo-Classicism to Sentimentalism o 1770s to 1800 Karamzin 1766-1826 o Most influential Russian 18th century prose writer o Stopped writing fiction in 1803, when he was appointed Imperial historiographer by Czar Aleksandr I Wrote 11 volumes of huge History of the Russian State o Seen as head of Emotionalism Story about emotions Narrator feels emotion at the misfortune of another Story is meant to evoke sentiment from the reader as well Stress on nature as linked to human emotions. o “Poor Liza” is perhaps his most famous work, and it proved inspirational to many other writers While the cliche elements are there: two lovers who can’t be together, one kills herself and other is remorseful to the end of his days Put elements of political commentary into his text Why can’t Liza and Erast marry? o Different classes Shocking sentence of Liza’s mother: Even peasants know how to feel FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Considered incredible at time Peasants not thought to have emotions FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE RUSSIAN MUSIC: NINETEENTH CENTURY: Modern Russian symphonic music dates back to the mid-19th century Pre-18th-century music in Russia was based on the church or folk music o Consisted of singing, rather than instruments In the 18th century music started being imported from the West o This resembles the history of literary development Mikhail Glinka, 1804-1857 o Works include: European orchestration techniques Russian folk elements o Best-known works: A Life for the Tsar (1835-1836) Based on legend from Russia’s Time of Troubles in the early 17th century o When a Russian is captured by invading Poles, he leads them away from the monastery they had demanded he show them o He knows that this will mean his death o Tsar is hidden there Ruslan and Ludmilla (1838-1842) Based on Pushkin’s narrative poem by this name Petr Tchaikovsky, 1840-1893 o Russia’s best-known composer for Westerners Some fellow-Russians objected to his inclusion of Western European orchestral traditions Works: o Piano Concerto #1 in B-Flat Major (1874) One of the most famous piano concertos in the world o Marche Slave (1876) Written on behalf of the Russian liberation of Serbia Contains the theme “God Save the Tsar” o Opera Eugene Onegin (1877) Based on Pushkin’s long poem o Swan Lake (1877) One of the best-known Russian ballets o 1812 Overture (1880) Written in honor of the Russians’ defeat of the French Contains “God Save the Tsar” as well as the French anthem “La Marseillaise” o Ballets Sleeping Beauty (1890) Nutcracker (1892) FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE THE FIVE: Russia’s nationalist school of musicians Also called “The Mighty Handful.” Goal was to compose uniquely Russian music Opposed the more European-focused “Conservatory” musicians Mili Balakirev (1837-1910) o Founder of the group o Sought for Russian music to develop not only based on European models, but also on native Russian ones o Best-known works: Overture on Russian Folk Themes Islamey Includes melodies from themes he heard in the Caucasus Aleksandr Borodin (1833-1887) o Chemist by profession o Best-known works: Opera Prince Igor Wrote over a period of twenty years Based on the Igor Tale Contains a section called the “Polovtsian Dances” Ballet that is often performed separately by symphony orchestras Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881) o Most original of the group o Army officer and alcoholic o Traced his roots back to Riurik’s dynasty of Kievan Rus’ o Influenced by folk melodies in his works o Best-known works: Night on Bald Mountain (1867) Calls to mind a witches’ Sabbath Pictures at an Exhibition (1874) Includes scenes evoking ancient Kiev Boris Godunov (1875-80) Opera we have seen partially in class Later rewritten in part by Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) o Engineer and musical scholar o Identified and classified hundreds of Russian folk songs o Works include: Scheherezade (1887-1888) Ballet based on the Arabian nights Sadko (1896) Opera based on a Novgorod folk tale Tale of the Tsar Sultan (1899-1900) Comic opera based on a poem by Pushkin FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Includes the ballet sequence “The Flight of the Bumblebee.” Cesar Cui (1835-1918) o Least-known of the group o Works: The Prisoner of the Caucasus (1859) Based on a poem by Pushkin Russian Realist Painters (2nd half of 19th century) Realist authors like Turgenev o Interest in the peasantry o Desire through literature to improve the lot of the Russian people o Calling for the end of serfdom o Asking for a new and more just order Nationalist Russian musicians o Broke away from the academy to showcase native Russian themes in their music o Mussorgsky Realist painters also attempted to paint life just as it was Peredvizhniki (the Wanderers, the Itinerants). o New movement in art o Russian artists wanted to play a role in making Russia a more liberal and just place o Painters broke from the official art academy and started their own travelling exhibitions Particularly from Itinerants or Peredvizhniki o Determined to serve the peasantry Russian Populism 1860s and 1870s Students went to the countryside to teach peasants, then directed efforts at urban populations 1,000’s of idealists went to preach in the countryside a doctrine of social progress and the common good o 1874 People and the government were baffled Students were arrested Art reflects this social trend by combining a respect for the values of peasant life and a deep desire to reform social and political life Leo Tolstoy supported these trends o Ivan Kramskoy Leader of Peredvizhniki Mission was to create a Russian rendering of Christ o Ilia Repin Most famous member Known for portrayals of what was going on in Russian society, with a political twist FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Became famous with his painting of the Volga Barge-Haulers, full of human misery 1870-1873 Series about injustice of Russia "They Did Not Expect Him," o Portrayed the return home of a political prisoner o 1883-1898 Painted famous portraits of novelist Leo Tolstoy, especially dressed as a peasant 1891-1893 o Isaac Levitan 1882-90s in particular Known for portrayals of Russian Nature o Another theme: old Russia Mystical approach to the motherland Prime example is the work of painter Vasily Surikov Major work is the Boyarina Morozova (1887) o Portrays an Old Believer being taken off to prison IMPORTANT ART Ilia Repin, Volga Barge-Haulers Ivan Kramskoy, Russian version of Christ Ilia Repin, Barefoot painting of Tolstoy FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Isaac Levitan, House With Ilia Repin, “They Did Not Broom-Trees Expect Him” Isaac Levitan, Spring in the Forest Vasily Surikov, Boyarina Morozova Isaac Levitan, Autumn Road in a Village Pushkin and Lermontov Pushkin’s “The Queen of Spades” & Lermontov’s “Taman” o Examples of Russian Romanticism Romanticism reaches its height in Russia in the 1820s o Influence of Byron and Byronism Byronic hero was a defiant, melancholy young man, apart from and misunderstood by the rest of society o Pushkin writes Byronic tales o Pechorin, hero of Lermontov’s Hero of Our Time, from which “Taman” is taken, is clearly in that same tradition o Russian Romantic writers focus on: Escapism and rebellion Social protest and individual isolation Exotic settings Madness and murder o Adapted these themes to a Russian milieu FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Pechorin and Pushkin’s Onegin in Eugene Onegin are seen as experiencing a uniquely Russian sort of boredom That of the superfluous man Superfluous men were Romantic characters seen as out of harmony with world around them, rejecting it or being rejected by it Pushkin, “The Queen of Spades” o Born 1799, died 1837 in a duel o Fall 1833: finishes “Bronze Horseman” Tale of Petersburg o After that, turned predominantly to prose “Pikovaia dama” (“The Queen of Spades”) Written 1833 & published 1834 Ghost story Family drama Social commentary Main characters in the story Lermontov, “Taman” o Somewhat late, since finished 1840 and appeared 1841 Mikhail Lermontov: o People tend to group Pushkin and Lermontov together Extraordinary poets who died very young in duels Believed in poet’s task as one of preaching freedom Lermontov seen as Pushkin’s heir Very influenced by the older poet o Born in 1814 (15 years after Pushkin) o Came of age during a very reactionary time, the period when the czar clamped down on early freedom-lovers o HUGE impact of Pushkin’s death Deeply distraught Wrote poem about the event Angry at anyone who condoned d’Anthes killing Pushkin Becomes famous Nicholas I is appalled and alarmed o Lermontov exiled to active service in the Caucasus o Published a book of verse and also in 1840 his novel A Hero of Our Time o Died in a duel in 1841, at not quite 27 years of age o A Hero of Our Time Written 1837-40 First major prose novel in Russian literature Main character: Pechorin Lermontov saw Pechorin as typical of his generation Often seen as the heir to Pushkin’s Evgenii Onegin, the superfluous man FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Gogol and Turgenev Russian lit of nineteenth century (post-Romanticism) known as Realist o Particularly 1840-1890s o Present life as it is, rather than romantically presenting emotions and feelings o Focus on details, slice of life, setting, nature, believable dialogue that reflects social classes o Most important: focus on Russian reality Particularly people, social institutions, social needs o Novels in particular, as we see with Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, become vehicles of social action, social change. Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol, 1809-1852 o Dostoevsky famously said, “We all came out from under Gogol’s overcoat.” o Wrote some very famous works Novel Dead Souls Play The Inspector General "The Overcoat” 1835 Gogol began a new chapter in Russian literature Underdog and social misfit treated not as a nuisance, or figure of fun, or object of charity, but as human being Akaky Akakievich demands our sympathy o What does he say to the people who torment him? o Downfall comes when he succumbs to the lore of the new coat, rather than simply finding joy in copying o Where does he live, and how is the city portrayed? Ivan Sergeevich Turgenev, 1818-1883 o Lived much of his life abroad o Dostoevskii disliked him and caricatured him in his last work The Devils Suggested at one point that if he wished to continue writing about Russia, he might want to purchase a telescope in order to train his sights on his far-off native land o Seen at times as an outsider Believed in the ideals of Western, liberal humanism Struck Western European contemporaries as most Western of Russians o Passed much of his life in France and Germany as an expatriate o Read hugely in English, French, German, and Spanish literature o Tolstoy and Dostoevsky eclipsed Turgenev in perceived importance at turn of century He was older and seemed old-fashioned o Two lines of Russian literature One stems from Pushkin Clear and harmonious Tolstoy Turgenev FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Other from Gogol Startling and strange Crazy narrators and twists of plot Dostoevksii o Turgenev importance: When Turgenev began writing novels, there was no tradition of Russian novel-writing Instrumental in creating the Russian novel st 1 Russian writer to gain a big reputation in the West. o Turgenev's first literary sensation (1852) Notes of a Hunter Russian Uncle Tom's Cabin o Expose of the evils and injustices of serfdom Serfs were freed in 1861 Greeted with rapture o Progressives for its attack on serfdom o Slavophiles for its sympathetic treatment of the Russian peasant 2 Groups of Russian intellectuals of 1840’s o Slavophiles Celebrated all that was uniquely Russian and did not seek inspiration in Western Europe o Westernizers Wanted Russia to follow the West in its development and customs Dostoevsky Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky, 1821-1881 o Born into family of former army surgeon Father's brutality Idealizes image of his mother Both parents die when he's a teenager o Escapes into books--later, too, as a student at military academy o Short novel, “Poor People” Brings instant fame Not for long o Lives in poverty "I'm living in hell. I don't see life, don't have time to breathe." o 1849 arrested for membership in Petrashevsky Radical discussion group Sentenced to death--last-minute reprieve Serves sentence in Siberia Out of literary life for a decade o Returns to St. Petersburg Now conservative politically and religiously FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Regains fame writing about prison experience Journalism: publishes a journal along with his brother o Great novels Crime and Punishment The Idiot The Devils/Possessed The Brothers Karamazov o Known as a psychological author Work influenced Freud and Nietzsche o “The Meek Woman” How is "the Meek Woman" described? What about the narrator? Why do they get married? What is the significance of her singing? Tolstoy 1828-1910 Born at estate called Yasnaia Poliana o Born to Count Nikolai Tolstoi and Princess Maria Volkhonskaya o Received the estate in 1847 1862 marries Sofia Bers o 13 children 10 survive Dies at stationmaster’s house in Astapovo Sent to university but left without a degree Joined army and went to the Caucasus in 1851 o Begins literary career while in army o Wrote Childhood and Boyhood and military tales Reputation strong by the time he turned up in Petersburg Returns to estate o Tries to educate children of his serfs In 1860s writes War and Peace o Finishes it in 1869 1873-7 Anna Karenina o During this time incredibly depressed Thinks of suicide By 1878 has undergone a conversion o Wanted to destroy previous work 1882 writes his Confession o Censors wouldn’t let him publish Rest of his life spent propagating his religious views o Kingdom of God is Within You: 1893 Text that stresses non-resistance to evil and anarchy Influenced Gandhi o Started writing stories for peasants FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Along with V.G. Chertkov founded in 1884 a non-profit publishing house meant to publish and distribute these stories Best known Russian of his time by the end of his life o Conscience of humanity and the sage of Yasnaya Polyana Committees in Europe and US o Appalled government and official church Excommunicated from Orthodox Church in 1901 o Most works post-1880 banned by censors Last years married by marital strife o Left in protest and died at RR station Known best for his novels of the middle period o Anna Karenina and War and Peace Known for a literary technique called estrangement, or in Russian остранение ostranenie o Makes a reader look at a known phenomenon in a new way "Holstomer" Horse describes typical human notions, such as the idea of property, in a new way and that in turn makes us look at something we take for granted in a new way Why does Holstomer describe himself as thrice unfortunate? Chekhov 1860-1904 Prolific writer of short stories Author of 4 well-known plays Doctor, at varying points in his life Move beyond Realism, into a new, twilight age of Russian culture Writing reflects his work as a good doctor o Compassionate, clear-eyed, unsentimental o Not tendentious literature: reports dispassionately in his short stories As opposed to Dost. or Tolstoy, with their proclamations He was absolutely adored by his readers & by those who saw his plays o Plays are a product of the 1890s Chekhov became Russia's leading dramatist Married Olga Knipper o Leading actress who played Mme Ranevskaya in the first "Cherry Orchard" production in 1904 (written in 1903) o Lived apart and he encouraged her to pursue her career Died of tuberculosis in 1904 The 20th-century Russian writer Pasternak wrote of Chekhov's stories o Deceptive simplicity o Chekhov gives us a slice of life, and he doesn't judge it o A picture of a moment in Russian society, in the life of one Russian person or an interaction FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Chekhov's plays o Real drama of the plays lies in human relations, rather than in big actions Melodramatic actions or speeches don't change status quo By the time he writes "Cherry Orchard," that is beginning to change The characters except Lopakhin don't really do anything, and the major action happens off stage Mme Ranevskaia does not want anything to change, while Lopakhin wants to cut down the cherry orchard to make way for a new world Many main characters, no one most important People's lack of mutual understanding and communication Portrait of his world, a dying, changing world o Cherry orchard o Butler, Fiers Gorky 1868-1936 Born Aleksei Peshkov o Took pseudonym Gorkii to show bitterness of life Means “bitter” Heralds the new Soviet order Realist Writer Early Life o Lower middle-class family o Lost parents, started life on his own at 11 o Dishwasher, baker, all sorts of different professions described in his three-volume autobiography Wrote stories of the hobo, the drifter Soon Gorkii's stories were being published by big journals in Petersburg and Moscow o Around 1899 Stories known for their sympathy with the urban underclasses Eventually Gorkii becomes known as a radical, revolutionary member of the leftist intelligentsia o Publishes in journals where Lenin also publishes o Exiled temporarily Actively supported the revolution of 1905 o Joined the Bolshevik party at that point After 1917 Gorkii recognized that many writers were starving o Set up publishing venture to get great works of literature translated into Russian o Used his credit with the new regime to save lives and culture Left SU in 1921 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE o Ended up in Italy, until 1931 Lured back by Stalin Gave him a mansion and then (possibly) killed him "26 Men and a Girl" 1899 o Early story, not overtly revolutionary Roots of Gorkii's later political activity o How do the men in the story live? Still people Also note singing Poor living conditions o Why do they love Tanya? They need something to love o How does she betray them Gets with the new bun baker o How does Gorkii bring out the contrast between the man she loves and the men who give her biscuits? o How is the story written? Told in first-person plural No individuality for the men cooped up Seen by other and themselves as a nondescript, anonymous group The Silver Age Symbolism, Acmeism, Futurism New reading class was developing in this new, modernist world o Stress on: The individual Feelings/emotions The new Creativity Revolution The spiritual ELITE group of writers developing (vs. Gorky) o Writing not for new reading masses but for the select o Called first Decadents, then Symbolists o Sought to write about same issues in new, esoteric language The individual Role of the artist in society Sexuality Political change Social change o 1 generation of Symbolists (1890s) led by the writer Valerii Briusov Inspired by the example of the French Symbolists, particularly Baudelaire Set out to create one a movement like the French FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE "O cover thy pale legs" Scandalous verse, the public shocked o Briusov happy Determined to create a new writing style in Russia One that would make people wake up and realize that Russian culture must change New world requires a new style of literature o 2ndgeneration of Russian Symbolists Bely, Blok, Ivanov Literature played a more serious role, not only style and shocking content, but spiritual meaning as well New, complicated, shocking style Higher purpose in mind These writers think that: Symbolism o Each word stands for a higher ideal o If we are the right kind of reader, we will gain access into that higher world by reading The writer is a priest o Guide his few comprehending readers to a higher world, to a revolution of the spirit o Create new Russians, a new Russia, filled with people with insight into holy, otherworldly ideas Bely convinced that his literature could inaugurate a new world o 1 of the ways this could happen was through his language: repetition, ellipses, abrupt punctuation, neologisms make the reader work to come to enlightenment End goal: Create a spiritual revolution in Russia Big influence is the philosopher Vladimir Soloviev o Acmeists Next group of "elite" writers Much easier to deal with Rejected the highflying goals of Symbolism Rejoiced in classical culture Wrote elegant, classical verse Osip Mandelstam and Anna Akhmatova o Futurists Rejected all literature and culture of the past "Throw Pushkin and Dostoevsky off the ship of modernity” Looking for radical departure from any literature of the past The world existed as an end in itself Didn't need reference to meaning or reality FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Produced nonsense words, syllables artistically positioned on a page Music of the Silver Age Moussorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov's return to a glorified Russian past as a way to discuss contemporary Russia or to escape from it Symbolic mysticism of Scriabin (1872-1915) o Became affiliated with a cult Convinced he was a godlike font of creativity privy to the secrets of the universe o Preoccupation with mystical philosophy filled his compositions First Symphony has choral finale that glorifies art as a form of religion o Other Works Third Symphony The Divine Poem Based on theosophy Mystical teaching common to Symbolists such as Belyi for instance o Dreamed of redeeming all of humanity by creating a powerful synthesis of all the arts Stravinsky (1882-1971) o Based his music in Russian folkloric roots o Rejected Western-style harmonies o 1913 Rite of Spring was a huge scandal wthn it was first performed Most famous musical work of 20 century Huge riot when 1 performed in Paris Stress on primitivism Subtitled “Scenes of Pagan Russia” Depicts orgy in ancient Slavic past Incredible syncopation Surprising meters o Taught by Rimsky-Korsakov Orchestration influenced Stravinsky's FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Russian Revolution: history and the arts Social transformation of the end of 19 century o New working class had arisen o Huge industrialization with poor working conditions, unhappy peasants and workers o Ripe for revolution Opposition organizing Liberals and radicals formed the opposition o Radicals form 2 parties around the turn of the century o Social Democrats (SDs) Marxists Landmark in the development of Marxism in Russia o Social Revolutionaries (SRs) Dec 1917- Cheka Oct 20-30 1917- 1905- Huge Nicholas general II 1920- 1903- SDs split Jan 22 strike, Soviet Bolsheviks win civil into Bolsheviks 1905- organized in and Petersburg 1917- February Mensheviks revolution, Bolshevik 1904-1905 Russo- 1914- WWI 1905- Liberals organize 1918- Constitutional Nicholas II’s family 1905- 1918- strikes/Peasan Bolshevik t Uprisings s end war FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE 1918- Civil War 1914-World War One o Nicholas II reacts to displacement, famine, lack of fuel o Goes to the front and gives all power to the Empress and Rasputin the "mad monk” 1917 February Revolution and Provisional Government o Imperial power gone Nicholas II abdicates 1918 he and his family will be killed o Provisional Government has serious rival from beginning o The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies o Soviets begin to be formed all over Russia o Provisional Govt. lasts from March until November Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, unions, strikes Local democratic councils Continued the war Didn't satisfy peasantry with definitive land settlement Didn't check inflation Economy went downhill Army in Petrograd devoted to Bolsheviks, who promised an end to Russia's involvement in the war November 7, 1917 ("October" Revolution (old-style calendar)) Bolsheviks stage a coup o Proclaimed need for peasants to seize gentry land o Proletariat (urban workers) to seize factories o Took several years for them to consolidate power throughout Russia 1918 Bolsheviks end war o Bad terms for Russia o War is over as the Bolsheviks had promised o Over the next few years Church property was confiscated Titles and ranks disappeared Property of nobility was confiscated, and they were persecuted New calendar adopted Cheka (secret police) established as early as Dec. 1917 Beginning summer 1918 Civil War o Whites (anti-Bolsheviks) fight Reds (pro-Bolsheviks) o By end of 1920 Whites defeated, and Bolsheviks left in control of Russia On the Cultural Front: End of 19th century, beginning of 20 th FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Various arts come together, develop together, during this tumultuous period Literature o Realist novel of mid-late 19th century Tolstoy, Dostoevsky Changes to twilight realism Chekhov Then grittier, new realism Gorkii: turn of the century o Symbolism comes along 1890-1910 Blok, Belyi, Ivanov, etc. Replaced by Futurism Mayakovsky o N.B. Blok's 1918, pro-Bolshevik poem "The Twelve" will shock his readers, who knew him as a mystical Symbolist poet Music o From Tchaikovskii & Moussorgsky's delving into the Russian past Mid-late 19th century o To Scriabin Symbolist, turn of the century o To Stravinsky Futurist 1900-1910s well-known Shocking works such as The Rite of Spring Art o From Realism of Wanderers Repin's paintings of boatmen and returning political prisoners Mid-late 19th century o Visions of old Rus' Nesterov Late 19 century o To twilight realism Borisov-Musatov Turn of the century o Then Symbolism Vrubel 1900-1910 Paintings of Lermontov's Demon o Replaced by Futurism Kandinsky, Larionov, Goncharova Early 1900s o Poets created art Poems were written in intriguing ways on the page o Experiments in all forms of art All this would come to an end under Stalin Various artists would emigrate or be crushed FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE REVOLUTION, NEP, BLOK, ILF AND PETROV, ZOSHCHENKO, 1920s Aleksandr Blok o Symbolist poet who has become captured by his country’s history and revolution o Writes “The Twelve” in 1918 About 12 Red Guardsmen who blaspheme and pillage their way through St. Petersburg but turn out to be led by Jesus Christ Incredibly controversial and remains so Civil War o Reds (pro-Bolshevik) and Whites (opposed to Bolsheviks) fight 1918- 1921 o Huge destruction o Bolsheviks begin to try to put their vision of communism into existence Nationalizing all land and all industries War Communism Make all sacrifices to create new socialist future Mass famine, big drought Economy is in shambles December 1922: Soviet Union established o New Economic Policy Instituted by Lenin in 1921 Permits capitalistic, private enterprises once again Helps the economy recover Cultural front o The state recognizes the power of the artist to shape public opinion o Wants the artists on its side o Winters of 1919, 1920 Creates House of Arts out of former merchant's home Dorm for writers o Government expects payback for this good treatment Writers are supposed to start toeing a Party line o Akhmatova’s ex-husband Gumilev was shot as supposed counter- revolutionary in 1921 o Soviet film industry was developing Sergei Eisenstein 1925 Battleship Potemkin 1927 October o About the October Revolution o Create a new writing class, so older writers will not be needed o 1926 very hard to publish non-Party stuff Only those who address themes of new socialist era will be published o Mikhail Zoshchenko One of the most popular writers in Russia in the 1920s and 1930s Wrote satirical stories of Soviet life and made his readers laugh FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE The writing duo of Ilia Ilf and Evgeny Petrov wrote The Twelve Chairs (1928) o Very popular novel in Russia to this day Main character, Ostap Bender, is a con man Stalin’s Rise to Power Stalin (1879-1953) ruled in Russia from Dec 1927-1953 Member of the Bolshevik Party Commissar for National Minorities after Bolshevik takeover Became General Secretary of the Party Af
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