New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 5 Study Guide

by: Tia Spears

Exam 5 Study Guide Biol 2120

Tia Spears
GPA 3.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

This study guide covers material for exam 5
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Human Anatomy & Physiology 2

Popular in Biology

This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tia Spears on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


Reviews for Exam 5 Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/19/16
Digestion and Nutrition Study Guide 1. What are the two groups of organs that compose the digestive tract? What are the specific organs within those two groups?  Gastrointestinal Tract o Digests and absorbs o Mouth o Pharynx o Esophagus o Stomach o Small intestine o Large intestine o Anus  Accessory digestive organs o Teeth o Tongue o Salivary glands o Liver o Gall bladder o Pancreas 2. Distinguish/define the following ingestion, motility, secretion, digestion, absorption, and elimination.  Ingestion: introduction of food into oral cavity  Motility: voluntary and involuntary muscle contractions; mixing and moving materials through the GI tract  Secretion: producing and releasing fluid products into the GI tract  Digestion: breakdown of ingested food into smaller structures (mechanical and chemical)  Absorption: passive and active transport of digested molecules, electrolytes, vitamins, and water from the GI tract to the blood or lymph  Elimination: expulsion of indigestible components 3. Explain the two GI tract regulatory mechanisms. Also distinguish between the submucosal nerve plexus and the myenteric nerve plexus.  Submucosal nerve plexus – regulates glands and smooth muscle in the mucosa  Myenteric nerve plexus – controls GI tract motility 4. Describe in detail the four basic tunics of the GI tract? What is the function of each?  Four basic tunics: o Mucosa  Lines the lumen  Functions:  Secretes mucus, digestive enzymes and hormones  Absorbs end products of digestion  Protects against infectious disease  Three sublayers: epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae o Submucosa  Dense connective tissue  Blood and lymphatic vessels, lymphoid follicles, and submucosal nerve plexus o Muscularis externa  Responsible for segmentation and peristalsis  Inner circular and outer longitudinal layers  Myenteric nerve plexus  Sphincters in some regions o Serosa  Peritoneum: serous membrane of the abdominal cavity  Visceral peritoneum on external surface of most digestive organs  Parietal peritoneum lines the body wall  Peritoneal cavity  Between the two peritoneums  Fluid lubricates mobile organs  Mesentery is a double layer of peritoneum  Routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves  Holds organs in place and stores fat  Retroperitoneal organs lie posterior to the peritoneum  Intraperitoneal (peritoneal) organs are surrounded by the peritoneum 5. What are the roles of saliva? Name and describe the three types of salivary glands. Also, describe the composition of saliva.  Roles of Saliva: o Cleanses the mouth o Moistens and dissolves food chemicals o Aids in bolus formation o Contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of starch  3 types of salivary glands: o Parotid gland  Anterior to the ear external to the masseter muscle  Parotid duct opens into the vestibule next to second upper molar o Submandibular gland  Medial to the body of the mandible  Duct opens at the base of the lingual frenulum o Sublingual gland  Anterior to the submandibular gland under the tongue  Opens via 10–12 ducts into the floor of the mouth 6. Briefly describe the structure and function of the esophagus.  Esophageal mucosa contains stratified squamous epithelium o Changes to simple columnar at the stomach  Esophageal glands in submucosa secrete mucus to aid in bolus movement  Muscularis: skeletal superiorly; smooth inferiorly  Adventitia instead of serosa 7. List and describe the phases of deglutination.  Voluntary: bolus of food moved by tongue from oral cavity to pharynx.  Pharyngeal: reflex. Controlled by swallowing center in medulla oblongata. Soft palate elevates, upper esophageal sphincter relaxes, elevated pharynx opens the esophagus, food pushed into esophagus by pharyngeal constrictors’ successive contraction from superior to inferior. Epiglottis is tipped posteriorly due to pressure of the bolus, larynx elevated to prevent food from passing into larynx.  Esophageal: reflex. Stretching of esophagus causes enteric NS to initiate peristalsis of muscles in the esophagus. 8. Describe the gross anatomy of the stomach.  ANS nerve supply o Sympathetic via splanchnic nerves and celiac plexus o Parasympathetic via vagus nerve  Blood supply o Celiac trunk o Veins of the hepatic portal system 9. What are the secretions of the stomach? What are the gastric glands associated with stomach tissue? What role/roles do these glands play in digestion?  Secretions: o Chyme: ingested food plus stomach secretions o Mucus: surface and neck mucous cells  Viscous and alkaline  Protects from acidic chyme and enzyme pepsin  Irritation of stomach mucosa causes greater mucus o Intrinsic factor: parietal cells. Binds with vitamin B12 and helps it to be absorbed. B12 necessary for DNA synthesis o HCl: parietal cells  Kills bacteria  Stops carbohydrate digestion by inactivating salivary amylase  Denatures proteins  Helps convert pepsinogen to pepsin o Pepsinogen: packaged in zymogen granules released by exocytosis. Pepsin catalyzes breaking of covalent bonds in proteins  Gastric glands: o Mucous neck cells (secrete thin, acidic mucus) o Parietal cells  HCl   pH 1.5–3.5 denatures protein in food, activates pepsin, and kills many bacteria  Intrinsic factor  Glycoprotein required for absorption of vitamin B12n small intestine o Chief cells  Inactive enzyme pepsinogen  Activated to pepsin by HCl and by pepsin itself (a positive feedback mechanism) o Enteroendocrine cells (G-cells)  Secrete chemical messengers into the lamina propria  Paracrines o Serotonin and histamine  Hormones o Somatostatin and gastrin - Glands in the fundus and body produce most of the gastric juice 10. Discuss the regulation of gastric secretions. What are the three phases of gastric secretion, and what happens during these phases?  Neural and hormonal mechanisms  Three phases: 1. Cephalic (reflex) phase: few minutes prior to food entry 2. Gastric phase: 3–4 hours after food enters the stomach 3. Intestinal phase: brief stimulatory effect as partially digested food enters the duodenum, followed by inhibitory effects (enterogastric reflex and enterogastrones 11. How is HCL secreted by the stomach? What chemicals are necessary for maximum HCL secretion? Describe the formation of HCL in the stomach.  Secretion of HCl o Parasympathetic action potentials are carried by the vagus nerves to the stomach, where enteric plexus neurons are activated o Postganglionic neurons stimulate secretion by parietal and chief cells (HCl and pepsin) and stimulate the secretion of the hormone gastrin and histamine. o Gastrin is carried through the circulation back to the stomach where it and histamine stimulate further secretion of HCl and pepsin.  Chemicals necessary for max HCl secretion: Ach, Histamine, Gastrin  Formation of HCl: within the lumen of the gastric gland, Cl- combines with H+ to form HCl. 12. Describe the gross anatomy and histology of the small intestine.  Major organ of digestion and absorption. It is the site of greatest amount of digestion and absorption of nutrients and water.  Chyme from stomach contains o Partially digested carbohydrates and proteins o Undigested fats  2–4 m long; from pyloric sphincter to ileocecal valve  Subdivisions o Duodenum (retroperitoneal) o Jejunum (attached posteriorly by mesentery) o Ileum (attached posteriorly by mesentery) 13. What are villi, microvilli, and intestinal crypts? What functions do these modifications provide?  Villi o Motile fingerlike extensions (~1 mm high) of the mucosa o Villus epithelium  Simple columnar absorptive cells (enterocytes)  Goblet cells  Microvilli o Projections (brush border) of absorptive cells o Bear brush border enzymes  Intestinal crypt epithelium o Secretory cells that produce intestinal juice o Enteroendocrine cells o Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs)  Release cytokines that kill infected cells o Paneth cells  Secrete antimicrobial agents (defensins and lysozyme) 14. Describe the secretions of the small intestine.  Mucus from goblet cells o Protects against digestive enzymes and stomach acids  Digestive enzymes: bound to the membranes of the absorptive cells o Disaccharidases: Break down disaccharides to monosaccharides o Peptidases: Hydrolyze peptide bonds o Nucleases: Break down nucleic acids  Unicellular glands o Enteropeptidase (activates trypsin)  Duodenal glands o Protect duodenum from acidic chyme  Enteroendocrine cells o CCK and secretin 15. Briefly describe water absorption in the small intestine.  95% is absorbed in the small intestine by osmosis  Net osmosis occurs whenever a concentration gradient is established by active transport of solutes  Water uptake is coupled with solute uptake 16. What are the functions of the liver?  Bile production: 600-1000 mL/day. Bile salts (bilirubin), cholesterol, fats, fat- soluble hormones, lecithin o Neutralizes and dilutes stomach acid o Bile salts emulsify fats. Most are reabsorbed in the ileum. o Secretin (from the duodenum) stimulates bile secretions, increasing water and bicarbonate ion content of the bile  Storage o Glycogen, fat, vitamins, copper and iron. Hepatic portal blood comes to liver from small intestine.  Nutrient interconversion o Amino acids to energy producing compounds o Hydroxylation of vitamin D. Vitamin D then travels to kidney where it is hydroxylated again into its active form  Detoxification o Hepatocytes remove ammonia and convert to urea  Phagocytosis o Kupffer cells phagocytize worn-out and dying red and white blood cells, some bacteria  Synthesis o Albumins, fibrinogen, globulins, heparin, clotting factors 17. Describe the microscopic anatomy of the liver. What do the hepatocytes do?  Microscopic anatomy: o Liver lobules  Hexagonal structural and functional units  Filter and process nutrient-rich blood  Composed of plates of hepatocytes (liver cells)  Longitudinal central vein o Portal triad at each corner of lobule  Bile duct receives bile from bile canaliculi  Portal arteriole is a branch of the hepatic artery  Hepatic venule is a branch of the hepatic portal vein o Liver sinusoids are leaky capillaries between hepatic plates o Kupffer cells (hepatic macrophages) in liver sinusoids  Hepatocytes: o Process bloodborne nutrients o Store fat-soluble vitamins o Perform detoxification o Produce ~900 ml bile per day  Yellow-green, alkaline solution containing o Bile salts: cholesterol derivatives that function in fat emulsification and absorption o Bilirubin: pigment formed from heme o Cholesterol, neutral fats, phospholipids, and electrolytes 18. Describe the regulation of bile secretion. Pay careful attention to what hormones are involved.  Bile secretion is stimulated by o Bile salts in enterohepatic circulation o Secretin from intestinal cells exposed to HCl and fatty chyme  Gallbladder contraction is stimulated by o Cholecystokinin (CCK) from intestinal cells exposed to proteins and fat in chyme o Vagal stimulation (minor stimulus)  CKK also causes the hepatopancreatic sphincter to relax 19. Describe the exocrine function of the pancreas. Specifically, how is the secretion of pancreatic juice regulated.  Exocrine function o Acini (clusters of secretory cells) secrete pancreatic juice o Zymogen granules of secretory cells contain digestive enzymes  Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion o CCK induces the secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice by acini o Secretin causes secretion of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice by duct cells o Vagal stimulation also causes release of pancreatic juice (minor stimulus) 20. What is pancreatic juice? What enzymes inactive and active are found in pancreatic juice and what role do they play in digestion?  Watery alkaline solution (pH 8) neutralizes chyme  Electrolytes (primarily HCO3)  Enzymes o Amylase, lipases, nucleases are secreted in active form but require ions or bile for optimal activity o Proteases secreted in inactive form  Protease activation in duodenum o Trypsinogen is activated to trypsin by brush border enzyme enteropeptidase o Procarboxypeptidase and chymotrypsinogen are activated by trypsin 21. What are the unique features of the large intestine? What are the parts of the colon?  Unique features o Teniae coli  Three bands of longitudinal smooth muscle in the muscularis o Haustra  Pocketlike sacs caused by the tone of the teniae coli o Epiploic appendages  Fat-filled pouches of visceral peritoneum  Ascending colon and descending colon are retroperitoneal  Transverse colon and sigmoid colon are anchored via mesocolons (mesenteries) 22. Where do the bacteria that live in the large intestine come from? What purposes do they serve?  Bacterial Flora o Enter from the small intestine or anus  Colonize the colon  Ferment indigestible carbohydrates  Release irritating acids and gases  Synthesize B complex vitamins and vitamin K 23. What is the major function of the large intestine?  Vitamins, water, and electrolytes are reclaimed  Major function is propulsion of feces toward the anus  Colon is not essential for life 24. Describe vitamin absorption in the small intestine and large intestine and the digestion of fats.  In large intestine o Vitamin K and B vitamins from bacterial metabolism are absorbed  In small intestine o Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are carried by micelles and then diffuse into absorptive cells o Water-soluble vitamins (vitamin C and B vitamins) are absorbed by diffusion or by passive or active transporters. o Vitamin B b12ds with intrinsic factor, and is absorbed by endocytosis 25. What role do carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins play in human health and nutrition?  Carbohydrates o Carbohydrates are present in food in the form of sugars, starch, and fiber. o Major source of fuel for making ATP  Lipids o Fat, oils, and cholesterol o Saturated fatty acids (solids at room temperature) usually come from animals  Proteins o Adequate protein formation requires 20 different types of amino acids o 9 essential amino acids are required in the diet  Some foods, such as meat, milk, and eggs, provide all 9 (complete)  Vegetables supply some essential amino acids, but are usually deficient in at least one (incomplete) 26. What are vitamins and minerals? What roles do the various vitamins and minerals play in human health and nutrition?  Vitamins o Organic molecules that animals require in small amounts for normal cell function, growth, and development  Many vitamins are required for the proper functioning of enzymes that control metabolic reactions in the body  Vitamins are essential nutrients that the body cannot synthesize and must be obtained in the diet  They are grouped into two categories: water soluble or fat soluble  Minerals o Elements that play many crucial roles in animal nutrition and can only be obtained in the diet or dissolved in drinking water  Calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus are major constituents of bone and teeth  Sodium, calcium, and potassium are needed for muscle contraction and the conduction of nerve impulses  Iron is a central component of hemoglobin in the blood, and iodine is found in hormones produced by the thyroid gland  Humans also require trace amounts of zinc, magnesium, copper, and chromium Reproductive System Study Guide 1. List and describe the four functions of the reproductive system.  Production of gametes. Specialized organs of the reproductive system produce gametes: sperm cells in males and oocytes (eggs) in females.  Fertilization. The reproductive system enhances fertilization of the oocyte by the sperm. The duct system in males nourishes sperm cells until they are mature and are deposited in the female reproductive tract by the penis. The female reproductive system receives the sperm cells from the male and transports them to the fertilization site.  Development and nourishment of a new individual . The female reproductive system nurtures a new individual in the uterus until birth and provides nourishment (milk) after birth.  Production of reproductive hormones. Hormones produced by the reproductive system control its development and the development of the gender-specific body form. These hormones are also essential for the normal function of the reproductive system and for reproductive behavior. 2. What is chromosome? What is a chromatid? What are homologous chromosomes? What are sister chromatids?  Chromosome – structure of proteins and nucleic acids within the nucleus carrying genetic information  Chromatid – two threadlike strands that make up chromosomes  Homologous chromosome – one pair of chromosomes  Sister chromosomes – identical DNA strands 3. What is meiosis? Describe in detail the phases of meiosis.  Gamete formation involves meiosis o Nuclear division in the gonads in which the number of chromosomes is halved (from 2n to n) o Two consecutive cell divisions (meiosis I and II) following one round of DNA replication o Produces four daughter cells o Introduces genetic variation  Phases: o Prophase – chromosomes pair up and ensure genetic diversity o Metaphase – homologous chromosomes line up to form double line of chromosomes; spindle fibers attach to the centromeres o Anaphase – replicated chromosomes are separated and pulled to opposite sides o Telophase – nuclear enveloped reform; cytoplasm divides and two new cells are produced 4. Describe the external and internal anatomy of the male reproductive system. This answer should include detailed descriptions (internally and externally) of both the testes and penis.  Anatomy: o Scrotum  2 chambered sac that contains testes; separated by raphe  Dartos and cremaster muscles help regulate temperature o Perineum  Diamond-shaped areas between thighs  Divided into anterior urogenital triangle (penis and scrotum) and posterior anal triangle  Testes: o Located outside the body cavity because sperm require lower-than-body temperature for development o Testis serve as both  Exocrine gland: sperm cells are the secretion  Endocrine: testosterone o Coverings of testis  Tunica vaginalis. Originally peritoneum. Serous membrane  Tunica albuginea: thick white connective tissue. Penetrates testis to divide it into lobules. Within lobules are seminiferous tubules and interstitial (Leydig) cells that secrete testosterone. o Tubes through which sperm move  Seminiferous tubules. Site of sperm production  Tubuli recti and rete testis. Pathway to epididymis 5. Describe the descent of testes.  Descent o Pass from abdominal cavity through inguinal canal to scrotum o Guided by fibromuscular gubernaculum o Pass through inguinal rings (bilateral oblique passageways in the anterior abdominal wall). Openings in aponeuroses of transversus abdominis, internal and external oblique. Weak part in abdominal wall. Herniation.  Cryptorchidism o Failure of one or both of testes to descend into scrotum o Prevents normal sperm development 6. What is spermatogenesis? Describe this process. What hormones play a role in spermatogenesis?  Spermatogenesis – production of sperm cells o Spermatozoa produced in seminiferous tubules. At puberty, GnRH secretion increases leading to increased LH and FSH release. FSH levels promote sperm formation, FSH levels promote interstitial cells to produce large amounts of testosterone. o Spermatogonia divide (mitosis) to form primary spermatocytes and daughter spermatagonia o Primary spermatocytes divide (first division of meiosis) to form secondary spermatocytes o Secondary spermatocytes divide (second division of meiosis) to form spermatids o Spermatids develop an acrosome and flagellum o Sustentacular (Sertoli, nurse) cells nourish sperm cells and form a blood- testis barrier and produce hormones o Interstitial cells produce testosterone. Sustentacular cells convert it to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estrogen. Probably active hormones that cause sperm formation 7. What is semen? What are the components of semen?  Semen – secretions of all three accessory glands plus sperm cells o Urethral mucosa produces mucus  Emission: discharge of semen into prostatic urethra  Ejaculation: forceful expulsion of semen from urethra. Caused by peristalsis  Temporary coagulation as fibrinogen becomes fibrin then fibrinolysin breaks up the coagulation. Sperm swim up vagina 8. Detail the process of puberty in males. What effects does testosterone have on the body?  Before birth, placenta secretes human chorionic gonadotropin hormone which stimulates secretion of testosterone by fetal testes  From birth to puberty, no stimulation of secretion of testosterone  Puberty: age at which individuals become capable of sexual reproduction  Previous to puberty: small amounts of testosterone from adrenal gland inhibits GnRH  At puberty, pituitary becomes less sensitive to testosterone inhibition. Amount of GnRH increases, amount of LH and FSH increases  Elevated FSH causes sperm cell formation  Elevated LH causes interstitial cells to secrete larger amounts of testosterone 9. Describe the processes of both erection and ejaculation.  Emission: accumulation of sperm cells and secretions of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles in the urethra  Controlled by sympathetic centers in spinal cord  Peristaltic contractions of reproductive ducts  Seminal vesicles and prostate release secretions  Accumulation in prostatic urethra sends sensory information through pudendal nerve to spinal cord  Sympathetic and somatic motor output  Sympathetic: constriction of internal sphincter of urinary bladder so semen and urine do not mix  Somatic motor: to skeletal muscles, urogenital diaphragm and base of penis causing rhythmic contractions that force semen out of urethra: ejaculation 10. What are the female reproductive organs?  Female reproductive organs o Ovaries o Uterine tubes o Uterus o Vagina o External genital organs o Mammary glands 11. What is the structure and function of the vagina? Also, describe the external parts of the female genitalia.  Vagina o Female organ of copulation o Allows menstrual flow and childbirth o Hymen covers the vaginal opening or orifice o Muscular walls with mucous membrane lining (moist stratified squamous epithelium). o Longitudinal columns and transverse rugae o Fornix: superior domed portion attached to sides of cervix  External Genitalia o Vulva or pudendum or external female genitalia o Vestibule: space o Labia minora: form borders on sides o Clitoris: erectile structure o Corpora cavernosa: expanded at bases to form crus of the clitoris o Labia majora: unite to form mons pubis o Vaginal orifice: in lateral margins, erectile tissue called bulb of the vestibule (homologous to corpus spongiosum of male) o Within vestibule, glands that produce fluid to moisten o Labia majora: rounded folds of skin on either side of labia minora. Conceal contents of pudenda o Medial surfaces covered with numerous sebaceous and sweat glands o Pudendal cleft: space between labia majora o Mons pubis: anteriorly labia majora merge in an elevated area over the symphysis pubis 12. Describe the histology of the ovary?  Outermost covering: ovarian (germinal) epithelium: visceral peritoneum  Tunica albuginea: capsule of dense fibrous connective tissue  Ovary itself  Cortex: outer, dense. Contains follicles with oocytes  Medulla: inner, looser. Contains blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels  Stroma: connective tissue of the ovary 13. Describe the structure of a mammary gland. What hormones and processes are involved in milk production and lactation?  Organs of milk production located within mammae or breasts  Consist of glandular lobes and adipose tissue  Cooper’s ligaments support the breasts  Prolactin (PRL)  Secreted by lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary  Stimulates milk production  Regulation of PRL release  Primarily controlled by prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) (dopamine)  Blood levels rise toward the end of pregnancy  Suckling stimulates PRH release and promotes continued milk production 14. What is the structure and function of the fallopian tubes and the uterus?  Fallopian Tubes: o Mesosalpinx: part of broad ligament directly associated with uterine tube o Open directly into peritoneal cavity to receive oocyte from ovary o Transport oocyte or zygote from ovary to uterus o Fimbriae: long thin processes that extend from the infundibulum. Inner surface is ciliated. Infundibulum is open to peritoneal cavity o Ampulla: widest part, where fertilization occurs o Three layers: outer serosa, middle muscular layer and inner mucosa. Mucosa: simple ciliated columnar epithelium with longitudinal folds  Provides nutrients for oocyte/embryonic mass o Cilia moves fluid and oocyte/embryonic mass through the tube toward uterus  Uterus o Parts: body, isthmus, cervix, and fundus o Ligaments: broad, round, uterosacral o Round: from uterus through inguinal canals to labia majora o Uterosacral: attach lateral wall of uterus to sacrum o Composed of 3 layers o Perimetrium: Serous membrane o Myometrium: Smooth muscle o Endometrium: Mucous membrane o Simple tubular glands o Functional layer: innermost. Replaced monthly during menstrual cycle o Basal layer: deepest o Cervix. More rigid and less contractile than rest of uterus o Cervical canal. Lined with mucous glands. Mucous plug except near ovulation when consistency of secretion changes to seromucous. 15. Describe the sequential events that happen during oogenesis. Pay careful attention to the development of the follicle and polar bodies.  Oogenesis is the production of a secondary oocyte in ovaries  Oogonia are cells from which oocytes develop. The oogonia divide by mitosis to produce other oogonia and primary oocytes.  Five million oocytes produced by the 4 month of prenatal life. About 2 million begin first meiotic division but stop at prophase. All remain at this state until puberty.  Primary oocytes are surrounded by granulosa cells and called a primordial follicle  Primordial follicle becomes a primary follicle when oocyte and granular cells enlarge  Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle and enlarges to form mature or Graafian follicle o Usually only one is ovulated, others degenerate  Ovulation: release of a secondary oocyte from an ovary. Unlike spermatogenesis, division of cytoplasm during meiosis is uneven and polar bodies are very small, oocyte very large  Graafian follicle become corpus luteum  Fertilization: begins when a sperm cell binds the plasma membrane of secondary oocytes and penetrates into cytoplasm.  Secondary oocyte completes meiosis II forming one polar body. Fertilized egg now a zygote  Fate of corpus luteum o If fertilization occurs, corpus luteum persists o If no fertilization, becomes corpus albicans 16. What hormones control the ovaries and how? Compare and contrast the events associated with the ovarian cycle with the uterine cycle. What happens during ovulation?  Ovulation o An oocyte (egg) bursts from an ovary into coelom o Swept into oviduct by currents in coelomic fluid o Fertilization normally occurs in oviduct o Ciliary movement moves zygote to uterus o Embryo embeds in uterine lining (endometrium)  Follicular Phase: o FSH promotes development of follicle o Follicle then secretes estrogens (causes endometrium to thicken)  Luteal Phase o LH promotes development of corpus luteum o Corpus luteum then secretes progesterone  Sex hormones produced in ovarian cycle affect endometrium o Days 1-5: endometrium disintegrates; menses pass out vagina during menstruation o Days 6-13: endometrium thickens; ovulation usually occurs on 14 dayh o Days 15-28: endometrium doubles in thickness


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.