MGT 301 Exam 1 Study Guide
MGT 301 Exam 1 Study Guide MGT 301: Human Resources
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Keiffer on Tuesday February 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 301: Human Resources at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Michael Howe in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 435 views.
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Date Created: 02/17/15
mm Chapter 2 Strategic HRM o What is strategic HRM 0 Strategic planning is about planning and to be successful you need to plan with goals and measurable standards 0 HRM is a critical component of meeting organizational goals because without the right people with the right types of education and the right mindset we cannot ever expect to be able to accomplish the objectives that we set for ourselves 0 Sun Tzu s principles Know oneself Know the enemy 0 Important business function that in uences the performance of big and small rms 0 Look at external and internal environment to create a strategic advantage when you analyze the environment better and react quicker than your competitors and thus create the sustainable competitive advantage 0 Everything that HR does must mesh with the chosen strategy in order to provide the right kinds of employees who will learn and do the right types of jobs so that the company can achieve its goals 0 What is strategy Where we hope we are going 0 A plan of action to achieve a particular set of objectives 0 3 questions Where are we now Where do we want to go How do we plan to get there 0 Exampleshow to categorize overall strategy Broad Differentiator Premium Brand set yourself apart innovate high quality Cost Leader reduce what it costs you to provide goods and services internal costs EX Southwest FocusNiche smaller pick out a small segment of customers subgroup where you can focus and make pro t 0 Different HR people for different strategies 0 Emphasis on training 0 How is it communicated 0 Vision what we expect to become as an organization at a particular future point in time 0 Focus point for the future Firm is only successful when the followers share the leader s vision o If everyone is focused on the same future end state they will work toward that same end state 0 Broad 0 Mission our expectations of what we re going to do in order to become the organization that we envisioned Narrower and more speci c Longer winded O O What do we need to do in order to become what we have envisioned Focus is what makes the vision and mission effective GoalsObjectives what is to be accomplished Singular Speci c Measurable most speci c with a target date 0 How is strategy chosen 0 Use current strategy as a starting point 0 External considerations 0 O 00 Customers companies must continually improve products to create value for their customers Competition organizations compete for the same employees and sometimes suppliers businesses must compete for customers and rm performance is not simply a function of its own actions but must be understood relative to the actions of its rival competitors Suppliers it is important to develop close relationships with your suppliers and close relationships require employees who have the ability to communicate empathize negotiate and come to mutuay advantageous conclusions Labor force unions avaiabe recruits and employees of an organization have a direct effect on its performance Shareholders board of directors hire and re top management Society our society determines what acceptable business practices are Technology changing technologies require technologically savvy employees who have the ability to adapt to new processes The economy the economy had a direct impact on the rm s performance pro ts no organization has control over economic growth in ation interest rates foreign exchange rates Governments national state and local governments all set laws and regulations that businesses must obey governments create opportunities and threats for businesses 0 Internal considerations 0 O 0 Strategy Culture Structure 0 Organizational Aspects Structure 0 O O The way in which an organization groups its resources to accomplish its mission The proper selection of the organizational structure is critical to business success HR managers need to have an understanding of organizational structure in order to do their jobs correctly All or an organization s resources must be structured effectively to achieve its mission To obtain both the greatest possible simplicity and the greatest t organization design has to start out with a clear focus on KEY ACTIVITEES needed to produce KEY RESULTS Basics of Organizational Structure Complexity o The degree of three types of differentiation within the organization 0 Why does it matter The more the organization is broken into segments the more dif cult it becomes to manage dif culty in making decisions in communicating the cost of managing this type of organization does up 0 Vertical differentiation how we break the organization up vertically or in other words how many layer there are in the organization from the top to the bottom 0 How many bosses are there and whom does each one report 0 Horizontal differentiation how we break up the organization up horizontally the normal way is into departments 0 Could segment by customer type product or process type and geographic division 0 Spatial differentiation the physical separation of different parts of the organization 0 Headquarters in LA and production plant in China 0 Can make it much more difficult to manage the organization due to the fact that it s spread out among many locations Formalization The degree to which jobs are standardized within an organization 0 Have we created policies procedures and rules that program the jobs of the employees Routine processes increase efficiency and effectiveness 0 The more jobs are formalized the easier it is to manage the people in those jobs 0 What the organization is designed to do depends on how much we can formalize things Centralization The degree to which decision making is concentrated within the organization 0 Dispersion of authority for decision making and delegation of author y Centralization of decision making tends to create greater control within the organization because those few decision makers will soon nd that they make similar decisions over and over and they become very good at determining the best course of action in a particular situation 0 However there is a trade off because the bigger the organization the more layers you have to get through in order for a decision to be made this can slow down the processes within a rm 0 Organizational Aspects Culture 0 O 0 Management needs to be involved in establishing that shared values beliefs and assumptions so that employees know how to behave Values beliefs and assumptions about appropriate behavior that members of an organization share Primarily learned through observing people and events in the organization Artifacts Heroes people who have made outstanding contributions to their organizations Stories Slogans Symbols Ceremonies 0 Three levels of culture Behavior Observable things that people do and say or the actions employees take 0 Artifacts result from behavior and include written and spoken language dress material objects and the organization s physical layout 0 Heroes stories slogans symbols and ceremonies are all behavior level culture 0 Visible level Values and Beliefs 0 Invisible level 0 Values represent the way people believe they out to behave and beliefs represent if then statements 0 Provide the operating principle that guide decision making and shape the behaviors that result in level 1 culture Slogan expresses key values part of organizational mission statements Assumptions 0 Invisible level 0 Values and beliefs that are so deeply ingrained that they are considered unquestionably true 0 Because they are shared they are rarely discussed 0 Automatic pilot 0 Most stable and enduring part of culture and are difficult to change Employee Fit 0 HR policies are a critical aspect of employee t 0 Fit Strategic changes can undermine this Identify select retain employees that are a good t Maximize t Supplementary Similar ldea that you want to work somewhere where people are similar to you ex Education Complementary Complete Abilitiesdemands from company perspective Needssupplies from employee perspective 0 Can job supply me with what I need 0 People need to be similar to work together but everyone is better at some one thingbetter at one skill ASA Model 0 3 related mechanisms that bolster Fit structural barriers for increasing diversity Attraction you nd some companies more attractive than others Selection think someone has good degree of t normative idea of good employee Attrition someone who doesn t belong vs someone who does once they get the job likeliness that people will leave 0 What is the big picture 0 Internal considerations external environment strategy and HRM decisions all have to t together for success 0 How well are we doing Incremental ideas in regards to HR policies amp changes 0 Economic Value Add EVA How much pro t for decision Measure of pro ts that remain after the cost of capital has been deducted from operating pro ts Net pro t after tax capital used x cost of capital 0 Return on investment ROI PROBLEM ON TEST REFER TO SLIDES Net gaininvestment cost Measure of nancial return we receive because of something that we do to invest in our organization or its people Used in training outsourcing bene ts diversity and others Gain from investment cost of investmentcost of investment 0 Balance Score Card BSC Measure nancial customer service internal process and learning and growth or sustainability measures Measurement of an organization s success using purely nancial measures is not suf cient Quality safety employee satisfaction 0 Why is evaluation important 0 Effectiveness of implementation can vary substantially Even with same overall strategy 0 Invest more and get more back in return 0 HR strategy must t with overall strategy but HR strategy can also excel Chapter 3 Legal Issues 0 Where do legal concerns matter Legal considerations in all of these functions 0 Retention evaluating people fairly 0 Staf ng 0 Training and Development 0 Strategy Federally Protected Classes Race Title VII CRA1964 Color Title VII CRA1964 National Origin Title VII CRA1964 Religion Title VII CRA1964 Gender Title VII CRA1964 Age Age Discrimination in Employment Act ADEA 1967 000000 0 Disability Americans with Disabilities Act ADA 19902008 0 Other considerations Genetic testing Veterans What s covered 0 Employers cannot discriminate unfairy when making employment related decisions 0 You will always discriminate by choosing one person over another but you can t discriminate unfairly Including Hiring Firing Compensation Promotions Layoffs RecaHs Job advertisement Recruitment Training Use of facilities Bene ts Retirement Disability Access to other employment programs or resources 0 Enforcement make sure we don t have legal discrimination 0 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC Investigating and resolving discrimination complaints through either conciliation or litigation Gathering and compiling statistical information on such complaints Education and outreach programs on what constitutes illegal discrimination Employee has a right to bring discrimination complaints against their employer by ling a complaint with the EEOC even if EEOC does not support the employees claim they can still take it to court 0 Companies can be required to pay Actual damages Compensatory amp Punitive Damages 0 Individuals Substantial career implications Personal liability o 2 forms of discrimination 0 Illegal discrimination can occur even if your company has no intention of doing so Procedures should be monitored for unintended consequences 0 Disparate treatment exists when individuals in similar situations are intentionaly treated differently and the different treatment is based on their membership in a protected class 0 May be okay with BFOQ causes the need to intentionally disallow members of a protected group from applying or getting a job EX Restroom attendant Disparate impact when an of cially neutral employment practice disproportionately excludes the members of a protected group considered unintentional but intent is irrelevant Judged with 45ths rule Possible calculation See slides a If we fall outside of the boundaries we must investigate to ensure that we haven t used an illegal protected class characteristic to bias an employment outcome Gives companies some wiggle room 0 Rates of hirepromotion Calculation 0 Selection rates for each group 0 Divide each rate by Max rate 0 Values lt 80 indicate potential disparate impact 0 Below 80 is problematic Not necessarily illegal May be okay with business necessity job relatedness Some characteristics height and strength are not distributed equally across race and gender groups and in some jobs these characteristics may be related to successful performance in the job Permissible When a The process must exhibit 0 Business necessity Is what we are checking necessary 0 Job relatedness How o In other words 0 Quali cation is necessary 0 Evaluated approximately accurately and fairly use best test available Ex intelligence test a Good predictor forjob performance o Is this the best way we can predict how people will perform in terms of the job a Af rmative Action 0 Book de nition a series of policies programs and initiatives that have been instituted by various entities within both government and the private sector which are designed to prefer hiring of individuals from protected groups in certain circumstances in an attempt to mitigate discrimination Programs to encourage hiring of individuals from certain protected classes Goal is to increase diversity If you are trying to change things and increase diversity and make up for the past Typically Voluntary Ex Rooney Rule requires the NFL coaches to interview at least 1 minority candidate legitimately Courts have limited programs Blanket quotas points problematic consider on a case by case basis Better Membership considered as one factor on a case by case basis 0 Diversity 0 Important aspect of contemporary workplaces Mirrors increasing diversity of country 0 Advantages Creativity perspective taking divergent thinking lnnovann Different people think differently because they have different backgrounds and have solved problems differently in the past We all bring this unique set of problem solving skills to our workplace 0 Disadvantages Con ict cohesiveness resistance Members have to learn to want to be part of the group and want to interact with other members of the group in order for the group to perform at a high level Requires further leadership 0 Overall Must be managed correctly ADA 19902008 0 Disability a condition that inhibits one or more major life functions 0 Requires Reasonable Accommodation to enable performance of Essential job Functions What is a reasonable accommodation How can the work be rearranged Ex lower desk for a wheelchair an accommodation made by an employer to allow someone who is disabled but otherwise quali ed to do the essential function of a job to be able to perform that job Essential job functions fundamental duties of a position things you do all the time done routinely and frequently function is only done on occasion but is important part ofjob function may never be performed by the employee but if it was necessary it would be critical that it be done right 0 Undue hardship When cost is too prohibitive especially for small companies a Gender and Equal Pay 0 Equal Pay Act of 1963 0 Requirement men and women must be paid equally for doing the same work Equal skill effort and reasonability and performed under similar working conditions in the same organization 0 If pay differences are the result of differences in seniority merit quantity or quality of production or any other factor than sex then differences are legally allowable 0 Negotiation 0 Discrimination 0 A cause for concern Evidence of systematic gender bias amongst faculty 0 Same quali cations 0 Male applicants were rated as more competent Females offered 4K less salary 13 a Sexual Harassment unwelcome sexual advances requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitutes sexual harassment when submission to or rejection of this conduct of a sexual nature constitutes sexual harassment when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects and individual s employment unreasonably interferes with an individual s work performance or creates an intimidating hostile or offensive work environment 0 2 types Quid pro quo o This for that sexual favor in exchange for reward tends to involve power differential Occurs when some type of bene t or punishment is made contingent upon the employee submitting to sexual advances Hostile work environment a Not asking or demanding anything but it is difficult for someone to do theirjob quotdifferent jokesquot how do you de ne this Harassment that occurs when someone s behavior at work creates an environment that is sexual in nature and makes it difficult for someone of a particular sex to work in that environment Reasonable person would a reasonable person nd this situation hostile Company Defense 0 Company sets legal precedent 0 ldentify specify a reporting structure 0 Policy procedure and enforcement Prevent policy and mandatory training zero tolerance recurring training ldentify report and investigate Stop discipline put a stop to this 0 Af rmative Defense Took reasonable steps to prevent and promptly correct sexual harassment The aggrieved employee unreasonably failed to take advantage of the employer s preventative or corrective measures Organization did their best and individual did not take advantage of resources Chapter 4 JobEmployee Matching What s the difference 0 Job Analysis the process used to identify the work performed amp the working conditions for each of the jobs within our organization how current work is being done and who is accomplishing it Duties responsibilities skills knowledge required outcomes conditions under which the worker must operate and other factors 0 Job Design the best way to have the tasks accomplished how should things be structured Changing the tasks or the way work is performed in an existing job 0 Job work analysis What 0 Job Task duties and responsibilities context and outcomes job description outcome What is being done 0 Person Knowledge skills abilities and other KSAOsl job speci cation outcome What kind of attribute does it take to be successful 0 KSAO39S Social desirability 0 Knowledge factual or procedural info iS a bad quality for o Skill level of pro ciency for a speci c 0 Ability general enduring capability o Other individual characteristics 0 Job Analysis How ONet No perfect way to get info 0 Databases good freefast bad not specialized o Questionnaires good free bad who wants to complete a survey 0 Interviews 0 Diaries 0 Job Analysis Why 0 Retention 0 Staf ng 0 Training and development Needs to know what skills someone has in order to train them 0 Strategy What are the key jobs What jobs can we outsource Job Design What guring out how to make it better how are we going to divide up the work 0 The process of identifying tasks that each employee is responsible for completing as well as how those tasks will be accomplished o Crucial because it affects job satisfaction and productivity along with a large number of other HRM functions 0 Working smarter not harder to nd new ways of doing things that boost productivity 0 Dividing up work de ning required tasks 0 Setting patterns of interaction 0 Methods to accomplish What tools do we need 0 Job Design Why 0 Organization Universal Ef ciency Control 0 Employee ldiosyncratic tailored more towards your interests Variety I Autonomy give people control on the smaller things 0 Job Design How 0 Philosophies task Mechanistic Ef ciency oldest approach control standardization 0 Focuses on designing jobs around the concepts of task specialization skill simpli cation and repetition 0 Make the job simple and repetitive so that the worker can get very good at doing it Biological o Ergonomics Make job more user friendly 0 EX Customers putting groceries on conveyer belt Focuses on minimizing the physical strain on the worker by structuring the physical work environment around the way the body works 0 Does little to make worker more motivated or satis ed Perceptual 0 Mental 0 Making jobs not overly complex Focuses on designing jobs that attempt to make sure that we remain within the worker s normal mental capabilities and limitations Motivational Psychological Focuses on the job characteristics that affect the psychological meaning and motivational potential and it views attitudinal variables as the most important outcomes of job design 0 Motivational Job Design I Job simpli cation when you simplify a job it can be more meaningful process of eliminating or combining tasks and or changing the work sequence to improve performance 0 Eliminate Combine 0 Change sequence Job Expansion making jobs broader with less repetition 0 Job rotation skill variety goes up gives you a good perspective feedback see and hear how well you are doing performing different jobs in some sequence each one for a set period of time 0 Job enlargement adding tasks to broaden variety adding more similar tasks is not a great motivator 0 Job enrichment build in factors autonomy on how they are going to do their job create jobs that people want to do prevailing theory process of building motivators into the job itself to make it more interesting and challenging frequently through increasing autonomy works for jobs of low motivation potential and employees who are ready to be empowered to do meaningful work 0 How we want to structure workgoals o EX Need work by end of week vs one project due Monday one due Tuesday O O Feedbackletting people know how they are doing more motivational Make work more meaningful HR Forecasting O 0 Identify the estimated supply and demand Identi es the estimated supply and demand for the different types of human resources in the organization over some future period based on analysis of past and present demand If we fail to get forecasting determinations right we wont get the right people in place at the right time when they are needed and will always be chasing voluntary and involuntary turnover which causes lower organizational productivity How many people do we needhave We don t want extra people standing around Methods Qualitative subjective experience and expectations 0 Opinion knowledge of big picture we don t know how accurate 0 Based on knowledge of a pool of experts in a subject or industry Quantitative objective historical basis 0 Uses math 0 Not easy to forecast based on circumstance o FTE full time equivalence 0 See slide Labor Surplus OOOOOOOOO Speed how fast it happens how fast it hits bottom line Suffering impact on employees Downsizing FastHigh Pay reduction FastHigh Work sharing FastModerate Retraining SlowLow Early retirement SlowLow Hiring freeze SlowLow Natural attrition SlowLow Labor Shortage OOOOOOO Overtime FastHigh Temporary workers FastHigh Outsourcing ModMod Retained transfers SlowHigh Turnover reduction SlowMod New external hires SlowLow Technology change SlowLow Chapter 5 Recruiting Recruiting vs Selection similar intertwined 0 Recruiting generating a pool of quali ed applicants the process of creating a reasonable pool of quali ed candidates for a job opening important to determine if people are quali ed early on Selection choosing the best applicant from the pool If we do a good job at recruiting then selection should be HARD Recruiting Implications 0 Legal Don t want to discriminate 0 Monetary Expensive legal implications and overall expenses in recruiting career fairs etc 0 Current Employee Performance Internal vs external recruitment No one wants to be the only person doing all the work Sources of talent 0 Internal lling job openings with current employees or people they know 0 External the process of engaging individuals from the labor market outside the rm to apply for a job 0 Which is better Depends Internal Recruitment Mechanisms 0 Source Current employees job postings People they know employee referrals 0 Use employees as a source of information Job Postings Don t focus on as much 0 Closed when hiring managers need to ll a position and HR recruiters nd people who are quali ed and bring the list to the hiring manager 0 Targeted job isn t openly advertised ask managers to privately nominate workers who they feel would be able to do the job that needs to be lled 0 Open advertise the job openly within the organization and anyone who meets the quali cations can apply for the job opening Facilitating Internal Recruiting Don t focus on as much 0 Promotability Ratings evaluates the individual for tness for higher level jobs in the organization 0 Managerial Sponsorship asking managers to provide their sponsorship for an individual before they would be considered for a promotion through the internal recruiting process Job Referrals 0 Tend to be effective Quality candidates re ective of you if you refer them Current employee bene ts incentives for employees to make referrals 0 Concern I Employees tend to refer other who are similar in age gender ethnicity and reigion protected classes People tend to aggregate together might not reach a breadth of people Internal Recruitment 0 Pros Fast and cheap 0 Lower advertising costs and training costs Increase job satisfaction 0 Advance in the organization and pay increase Employee development 0 Learn more about the company s big picture 0 The individual has show at least some interest in the organization as well as having knowledge of our operations and processes and feels comfortable continuing employment within the company Know applicants 0 Cons Creates a new opening 0 The person leaving theirjob creates a new job opening Small pool 0 Domino effectissue to be concerned about Entitlement If I wait around here long enough I will be promoted I Homogeneity 0 Everyone will be pretty much the same 0 Strong resistance to change 0 Sti e creativity or innovation Success may not transfer 0 Success might not transfer from job to job 0 The Peter Principal you reach a limit of promotion o If you are promoted to a supervisor and now your subordinates are your previous co workers 0 External Recruitment Mechanisms control continuum 0 Walk ins I Can39t hope someone walks in f How quali ed someone is can be an issue more exible However they have targeted you so usually they are interestedhave initiative Cheap no advertising costs 0 Employment agencies Social servicepublic agencies I Temp agencies full time or part time help 0 Executive search rms Employer contacts database to help ll position that is executivehas technical skills Not free Head hunters Pretty discrete 0 Advertising Where should we advertise 0 Professional or trade magazines 0 Newspapers 0 Online 0 Local mass media I INTERNAI SpeCIaIIzed publications more rigid o In house recruiters Job fairs College recruiting O 0 If we need somebody with a good basic skill set good degree and educann Internships 0 External Recruitment 0 Pros o Cons Fresh ideas 0 Avoid resistance to change 0 Allowing a foothold for innovative new ways of operating Complex skill sets Don t have to build skills 0 Lower training costs by hiring people who have the skills needed already Increase diversity Changedisruption of the work team Takes longercosts more 0 Higher orientation and training costs compared to internal recruits Demotivate current employees 0 Make investments in people vs motivating them 0 Current employees might become discouraged No history 0 Don t know if people will like it or stick around 0 Web Recruiting went from non existence to a norm in a short time 0 Pros o Cons Inexpengve Quick and easy to post Fast response Wide range of applicants Automation Screeningsearching Testing 0 Tracking Ease of submission will result in a lot of applicants many of whom are not quali ed Have to sort thought he greater quantity of applicants Timeliness 0 Low signal to noise ratio 0 Accuracy 0 What about the job market 0 Labor force is important 0 Good job market Lots of jobs how do you out compete for the best people too few people 0 Bad job market No one can nd a job will be buried in applications too many people 0 Resume vs Application o If everyone has a resume why use an application Standardized Compare to job speci cations screen Legal disclosure 0 Verify negligent hiring Conduct other checks background drug etc Need to make sure you aren t discriminating Challenges and Constraints 0 Budgetary constraints Return on investment Whether funds are available 0 Organizational policies and image Certain organizations have better images than others We want to have a good reputation What are our internal policies Ex promote from withintemporary to permanent o Undesirable job characteristics every organization has dirty jobs Realistic job previews RJP let people know what job will be like 0 The recruiter candidate interaction Active listening the intention and ability to listen to others use the content and context of the communication and respond appropriately What kind of recruiter do we need in a particular hiring situation Being empathetic Need for communication skills Selection and training of the recruiter is a major factor in our overall recruiting success 0 Evaluation Metrics 0 Short term Ef ciency 0 Time to hire how long did it take to get someone hired Cost per hire how much it costs to get each person hired o Advertising agency fees employee referrals travel cost of applicants and staff relocation costs recruiter pay and bene ts Total cost 0 Total cost number of hires cost per hire Effectiveness 0 Yield ratio calculation of how many people make it through the recruiting step to the next step in the hiring process 0 Long term Ef ciency 0 Time to rehire Cost per rehire Effectiveness 0 New hire turnover 0 Employee retention 0 Need to identify a time frame 0 New hire performance 0 Analyzing the performance ratings of new hire versus all employees 0 Analyze where new hires are not being successful and provide training opportunities to them and all new hires going forward to increase their chances for long term success Chapter 6 Selection 0 Recruiting vs Selection 0 Recruiting generating a pool of quali ed applicants 0 Selection choosing the best applicant 0 From many to one o 1 chosen 0 35 preferred 0 1525 quali ed o 1005 applicants 0 What s at stake 0 Time and money 0 Performance I Lower productivity 0 Potential liability negligent hires a legal concept that says if the organization selects someone for a job who may pose a danger to coworkers customers suppliers or other third parties and then that person harms someone else in the course of their work for the company the company can ne held liable for the individual s actions 0 What are we looking for 0 Can be described best in one word Fit we hire for t Supplementary similar Complementary completes 0 Abilities Demands from company perspective 0 Needs supplies from employee perspective Across levels 0 PersonalityJob management has to make an attempt to identify a hire s personality and then put them in a position that will be enhanced by their particular personality traits o PersonOrganization deals with cultural and structural characteristics of the organization and how well the candidate will t within that structure and culture 0 AbilityJob each of us is more skilled at some things than others managers must hire the right person and then assign them to the type of job for which they are best suited 0 Group 0 Initial Screening 0 Does the applicant meet the basic requirements for the job 0 Typical Tools Application Information in a standardized form Disclosures that must be agreed to by the applicant Figure out basic skill set background work history education o Concerns I Legal 0 Only ask for information that will be used to screen I Ask same questions of everyone don t want to discriminate against anyone especially a protected class I Lying 0 3050 contain substantial fabrications o Do s and Don ts 0 You can ask I Ever used another name I Languages applicant reads speaks writes provided language skill are required for the job I Legally authorized to work I Ever been convicted of a felony can be tricky generally cannot blanket exclude based on conviction individual consideration 0 You cannot ask I What s you maiden name I What is your native language I Are you a US citizen I Have you ever been arrested 0 Age gender religion etc BFOQ only I May need to collect separately for tracking physically separate from appHcann o Tests for Employment 0 Uniform guidelines on employee selection procedures UGESP I Provide information that can be used to avoid discriminatory hiring practices as well as discrimination in other employment decisions 0 Written Testing I Skills tests I Personality and interest tests I Cognitive ability tests I Honesty or integrity tests 0 Physical Testing Physical skills tests Physical exams Drug testing 0 Can t use I Polygraphs Only can use in few circumstances I Genetic testing I Invasion of privacy 0 Tests must be See slide with the dart boards I Reliable consistency of a test measurement consistent over time or when used by two different people I Valid accuracy the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure 0 Evaluate what you intend to evaluate A reliable measure is NOT always valid A valid measure is ALWAYS reliable 0 Types of Validity See slides with Venn diagrams Measure itself 0 Content an assessment of whether a test measures knowledge or understanding of the items it is supposed to measure we have to show that the content of a selection procedure is representative of important aspects of performance on the job 0 Construct measures a theoretical concept or trait that is not directly observable we must demonstrate that a selection procedure measure a construct something believed to be an underlying human trait or characteristic such as honesty Outcome Criterion assessment of the ability of a test to measure some other factor related to the test occurs in selection when we can show a strong relationship between scores on a test prior to being employed in a job and performace on the job once the individual is hired 0 Incremental Cognitive Ability Tests 0 ACT SAT GRE GMAT o The most popular used by employers is the Wonderlic Personnel Test WPT Wonderlic amp Football 0 Not much more than g An examination of the impact of intelligence on NFL performance 0 Results indicated that GMA was unrelated to Performance Draft position Number of starts 0 Cognitive Ability o Assessments of general intelligence or of some type of aptitude for a particularjob 0 Intelligence generally helps performance 0 But cognitive ability only tells what someone CAN do not necessarily what they WILL do Personality Work sample 0 Intelligence does predict performance 0 Mental ability shows what you are capable of 0 Just because you have ability doesn t mean you will applyuse it See Venn diagram 0 Interviews 0 Historically unreliable and invalid o Helps determine things you can t get from an application or test Personality Communication skills Appearance Motivation 0 There s a lot of noise due to Interviewer tendencies and mood o If someone is in a bad mood they will be harder on you and the opposite if they are in a good mood Applicant mood and anxiety Applicant preparation and coaching Interviewerapplicant mix 0 Democracy is the worst form of government except for all those other forms that have been tried W Churchill 0 Interviews are still necessary because we need a way to validate tget a good feel for a person 0 Improving the Interview 0 Structure the interview Ask exact same questions of each candidate 0 It takes 3 unstructured interviews to equal the validity of 1 structured interview 0 Interview Content 0 Focus on situational questions STAR method 0 Avoid opinionoriented questions 0 Improving the Interviewer 0 Used trained interviewers o Assign scores for each question 0 Take detailed notes 0 Use the same interviewers for all candidates 0 Do not discuss candidates until complete 0 When on the other side of the table 0 When being interviewed keep the STAR model in mind Situation Task Action Result 0 Say I and not we 0 Prepare 0 Know job descriptions and quali cations 0 Think about questions to ask what does a career path look like here 0 Background checks 0 Credit FCRA 0 Criminal background All states allow criminal background checks in at least some cases but the laws vary so signi cantly that it is dif cult to enumerate the circumstances 0 Drug testing 0 References Defamation vs negligence Calls to references that are provided by the applicant but also reference letters from employers or personal letters of recommendation and possibly cold calls to previous employers 0 Web search Googling someone Facebook 0 Final tips 0 Don t stop recruiting 0 Don t rush but time is of the essence 0 Beware of cognitive biases Stereotyping 0 Don t prejudge Similarity attraction homophily 0 Don t look for a candidate who is your clone Order effects 0 The order in which you interview applicants can in uence you 0 Be open minded during all interviews and make a choice only after you have nished all interviews 0 Compare each candidate on each job speci cation Halohorns Do not judge a candidate on the basis of one or two favorable characteristics the halo effect or one or two unfavorable characteristics the horn effect 0 Make the selection on the basis of the total quali cation of all candidates Con rmation bias premature selection 0 In general people are not good at making rational decisions 0 Recruiting and selection are related but different processes 0 Con rmation Bias 0 Seeing what you want to see 0 You have already made up your mind 0 Predispositions 0 Typically we don t even know we are doing this
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