SOCI 100 Study Guide
SOCI 100 Study Guide SOCI 100
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April 10, 2016 SOCIOLOGY EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE FROM THE LECTURE FOR TRUE/FALSE AND MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. WHAT IS MERTON’S SCHEMA OF DEVIANCE AND CONFORMITY? Merton’s theory is the ANOMIC THEORY. Deviance is the product of a strain in social structure and a person’s placement within or orientation to the structure. Socially acceptable ends include good careers, education, housing, etc. There are five orientations: 1. Conformist: (+/+) person has a socially acceptable way of reaching socially acceptable ends. 2. Innovator: (-/+) comes up with own, socially unacceptable ways to reach socially acceptable ends. examples: drug dealing, theft, robbery, cheating 3. Ritualist: (+/-) follows socially acceptable means to reach socially inacceptable ends. examples: professor just going through the motions until retirement and social security checks come. 4. Retreatist: (-/-) withdraws from social interaction. examples: drug addicts (only goal in life is to get high, means are only completed to get high) 5. Rebel: (-/-) doesn’t do the means, doesn’t share the same ends. example: terrorists 2. WHAT IS THE BIOLOGICAL VIEW/THEORY ON DEVIANCE? Deviance is rooted in human physiology such as genes, hormones, and brain structure. Sociobiological approaches are more applicable when deviance is random. Deviance is also any action or being that’s negatively valued by a large amount of people even though some may be highly controversial. Examples: drug or alcohol addiction, sexual preferences, aggression, mental illnesses. Within homosexuals: - 45% people are still against gay marriage. - Gender related behaviors in comparing the length of the index to ring finger are proof: if ring finger is longer, means more testosterone exposure in utero. If the index finger is longer, then the person tends to be more feminine. - The older brother affect could be an evolutionary population control mechanism. Sociobiological approaches raise the issue of eugenics - 90% of flawed fetuses are aborted (from webbed toes and fingers, downs, cleft…etc) - congenital adrenal hyperplasia occurs when a female baby is exposed to too much testosterone before birth. They can be treated with dextromethadone to prevent lesbian/masculine behavior. Because of this, is it ethical to offer hormone treatment, like vitamins, to “create” or “enhance” sexuality? There are three qualifiers to deviance: - 1. Cultural exposure If a person was born with a likelihood to alcoholism but they’re raised as a strict Mormon, deviance never occurs. - 2. Unexplained variance From research on identical twins: if one twin is gay, the other has a 50% likelihood of being gay. If genetics was the ultimate cause of sexuality, the twin would always be gay. If genetics were totally uninvolved, the other twin would have a normal statistical chance of being gay (1/75) - 3. Free will people are born with the ability to override deviant predispositions. 3A. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTION OS DEVIANCE? 1. Establishes or clarifies norms, especially with uses of new technology (example: biomedical head transplant) 2. Promotes social solidarity and brings people together (patriotism surge after 9/11) 3. Safety valve to protect other social institutions (prostitution to protect marriage) 4. A symptom of deeper social problems (emergence of religious cults in 70s and 80s showed that kids needed to reconnect with their families, within a couple of years the cult involvement dissipated) 5. Positive social change (examples include women’s suffrage or any civil rights movements) 3B. WHAT ARE THE DYSFUNCTIONS OF DEVIANCE? 1. Disrupts social order and stability (9/11 still affects us today) 2. Diverts resources into social control (more police and prisons) 3. Undermines social trust and creates a general paranoia example: the McMartin preschool case in which a paranoid schizophrenic mother had her child lie about sexual abuse so all the children said the same things and it spiraled into an international conspiracy and cultural belief that preschools are all satanic institutions to sexually abuse kids. Because of this, heavy preschool and daycare regulation was almost immediately established. 4. If unpunished, deviance undermines everyone’s will to conform example: smoking weed, fake ID’s 4. WHAT ARE THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF STRATIFICATION? - Definition: the social division into layers where each layer has unequal access to social resources (such as a good home, education ladder, occupation available) - Class systems are money based, not birth. Movement through the social classes are both ways (up and down). They’re intended to be open systems. The three elements are A. income, B. education level C. occupation In the United States, - Capitalists are 1% of population and average salary is 1.5 million - Upper middle class, 14%, 92k - Middle class 30% 57k - Working class 30% 32k - Working poor 13% 32k - Underclass is 12% and 22k - Caste systems are closed systems in that you’re born into what stratification you remain for life. May not have a monetary basis. Best example is India’s four castes and the untouchables. - Closed systems are birth determined and allow no movement. People are locked in for life, even at a high level. Closed system caste level determines wealth, marriage, job specialization, educational 2 level. on the other hand, open systems allow and make possible movement between castes in both the positive and negative direction. IN ORDER TO ASSESS THE TYPE OF SYSTEM, MUST EVALUATE THE GENERATIONAL ABILITY TO CHANGE 5. EXPLAIN THE DIFFERING VIEW OR THEORIES ON STRATIFICATION A. The Marxist/Conflict Theory a. Class societies appear open because the opiate of the people is popular culture’s false hope instilled into those in the poverty class. It’s actually closed because the odds of removing oneself from the poverty class is pretty much nonexistent. b. Society should strive for a classless society with economic equality. (understand that socialism and communism are pretty much interchangeable) Terminate capitalism and unequal wealth First attempted by the soviet union in 1917. c. THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF CLASSLESS SOCIETY i. Government drives economy example: in the US, to promote clean energy, policy created to destroy coal industry and create replacement energy sources. ii. Progressive taxes example: USA top 1% pays 34% of all taxes while USA top 5% pays 55% of nations taxes. iii. Confiscation of wealth (Soviet Union, China, Cuba) basically means troops raid homes and properties, all privacy is overturned and valuables become a possession of the state. iv. No inheritance possible v. Complete elimination of profit (if found to be making profit illegally, act is punishable by death) d. FOUR KEY PROBLEMS OF THE CLASSLESS SOCIETY i. Worker incentive tanks If everyone is treated the same no matter their performance, high performers slack and productivity as well as economic status tanks. Only able to reestablish economical standing if force is used to create a hard-working nation. ii. Worst mass murder problems because brutality is used to enforce system. example: half of Cambodia’s population was killed when they accepted communism. iii. Other forms of inequality always develop In R. Dahrendorf’s study, the forms are less obvious than money but they exist around memberships and political connections. iv. Financial instability in USA about 1.3 of the population (109/320 million) is on means-based benefit programs run by the government including things like welfare and food stamps. Additionally, 60 million more Americans are on non-means tested government assistance meaning things like social security, veteran compensation, and unemployment. Margaret Thatcher proposed that socialism’s main problem is that you always run out of someone else’s money. For example, before the economic disaster in Greece, the government guaranteed retirement checks of 90% their previous income for those retiring at 53 years old. Also, people that had worked as cab drivers and hair dressers had the same guarantee if they retired at age 37. B. Structural functionalism theory a. Inequality of classes is necessary to function. 3 b. Political policy stresses to preserve and protect inequality, to create welfare to keep poor happy, and to not create programs or expend any extra effort on helping poor class out of poverty. This was USA’s main policy guidelines from the 1930’s to the nineties. C. Evolutionary Theories, as proposed by G. Lenski a. Every society has limited resources which induce competition which leads to survival of the fittest b. This results in meritocracy: personal merit and achievement determines social status while societies reward and favor those higher in ability. D. Sociobiological theory, as proposed by Charles Murray 6. EXPLAIN THE RELATIVITY OF THE BELL CURVE. Charles Murray, an advocate for sociobiological theories on stratification within class systems, wrote the controversial book “the bell curve” as published in 1995. His results favored the bell curve model which showed that few people have super huge IQ and few have super low IQ, showing that everyone is relatively average. Murray’s Findings: 1. IQ is genetically configured, 60% while environment is 40% (today’s findings show IQ is 80% configured by genetics) 2. There is a positive correlation between IQ and Social Class however, one does not cause the other: just a small finding. They act on each other: social class could come from high IQ but high IQ could profoundly increase class standing. 3. People with lower IQ’s and/or lower SES (with some amount of overlap) tend to reproduce, creating DYSGENESIS (survival of the unfit: the least fit outbreed more fit and society will inevitably die off, heads for disaster and needs reversal) Outbred because higher class and higher IQ are more detail and planning-oriented with less spontaneity, so use birth control accordingly etc. (lowest IQ and SES have most kids while people with highest SES and highest IQ have least amount of kids) Murray’s Proposals: 1. Cut Welfare (just the need-based, not social security) a. Programs like TAMF makes people too comfortable with being poor. If people experience comfort, they don’t have incentives to remove themselves from that condition. b. Obesity emerges from today’s welfare: this means that poor are being given way too much. 2. Government should place limits of family growth in poor class a. Under the functionalist system (old system) having more children improved status. Murray proposed that this is wrong. b. If a woman becomes pregnant on government assistance, she should not be given more money and will need to either make do or get an abortion. 3. Set a lifetime limit to benefits of five years of need-based welfare. After the five years, people are cut off. 4. Re-Stigmatize the meaning of poverty a. Needs-based should be both socially and economically uncomfortable b. As of today’s society, poverty is acceptable or even stylish/cool (hood, ghetto, street cred). We need to go back to norms that included people being ashamed of having lower SES and were socially distasteful if in the lowest class so they were more-likely to overcome the welfare and get out of poverty. His proposals were the foundation of the Welfare Reform Act. Everything he proposed because a law. Within three to four years, welfare participation decreased by half. The vast majority went into fulltime jobs (at the same time as the Clinton Crime Bill). However, Obama’s executive orders have basically eliminated the practices of this Act. 4 7. WHAT IS THE CULTURAL TRANSMISSION THEORY? Also known as the differential association theory. This was created by E. Sutherland: deviance is primarily transmitted through the cultural environment. Thought that deviance is a learned behavior + his generalization started from a study of juvenile delinquency FIVE KEY FACTORS 1. Intensity of Contact (closer relationships = more influence) 2. Age (younger = more impressionable; for example: the army. People are very influenced age 0-30) 3. Frequency of Contact (more time with deviant people increases likelihood of deviant behavior) 4. Duration of Contact (long-term relationships = more influence) 5. Number of Contacts (more people know with particular behavior, more likely they’ll influence you) 8. DEFINE RACE, ETHNICITY, AND MINORITY (DIFFERENCES). Race is a biological concept. It depends on skin color, hair color/texture, eye color, facial features, body height/weight, etc. A common example is the Tutsi vs. Hutu in Rwanda. Both had the same skin color but one was tall and skinny with distinguishable sharp facial features while the other group was short and stalky in appearance. Ethnicity is based on cultural differences such as religion, clothing standards, dietary expectations, etc. Minorities are either racially or ethnically based AND need to suffer a disadvantage because of this. There may or may not be a numerical difference. For example, it could be a majority of people that is the minority like South Africa’s white vs. African body count before Apartheid. 9. WHAT ARE KEY SOCIAL PYSCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF GROUP DIVISION? 1. STEREOTYPING (universal) a rigid mental image summarizing typical beliefs about a particular group. Stereotypes are necessary for societies to properly function: we use them to create order of our social world. For example, expected behavior of students and professors in classrooms. the problem: we overgeneralize stereotypes, causing damage (example: 9/11 and our belief that all Muslims are terrorists and violent) 2. SCAPEGOATING (universal) placing blame for own troubles on another group or individual that usually can’t resist. example: illegal immigrants in the US are taking our jobs and causing high crime rates. OR presidents. 3. AUTHORITARIAN PERSONALITY defined by T. Adorno a bigoted personality produced by particular circumstances in upbringing. history of bullying, insecurity, highly conformist, submissive to authority, rigid views of religion and sexuality. has a general disposition to not like anything different from themselves (if racist against blacks, it’s not a targeted dislike. Usually just racist against any other race) Any race or culture is capable of the authoritarian personality, it’s NOT a white phenomenon. uniform parenting practices that created authoritarian personality: cold, uncaring, extremely strict, harsh and violent discipline, extensive physical punishment. 5 10. LIST THE KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF MINORITY GROUPS. 1. DISADVANTAGES INCLUDING DISCRIMINATION AND EXPLOITATION Exploitation is an active disadvantage, it’s a direct intervention into someone’s life usually for economic reasons. Example: Slavery Discrimination is a passive disadvantage that does not involve intervention. Does involve holding out/denial of something. Example: can’t get a job because of color, or house in a particular neighborhood etc. 2. SOCIAL VISIBILITY happens within a majority vs. minority dynamic: the majority has a frequent need to spot a minority. When there isn’t visibility, the majority frequently tries to create it. Example: Nazi Germany and the creation of shapes/colors in patches to represent Jew/homosexual/communist etc. 3. CONSCIOUSNESS OF KIND common social experiences produce an instant, emotional bond with a stranger based on being unique from the majority. 4. INVOLUNTARY MEMBERSHIP minority status is imposed on a group by the majority. Even if you could become part of that minority, it’s either impossible or illogical. brings up the issue of Self Identification (emerged in past 25 years) “You are what you say you are” sometimes, a person’s thoughts/emotions about self does not match with objective considerations. Example: skin color (or any factor related to race, ethnicity, or even gender). Caitlyn Jenner has man parts but identifies as a female. Transracial matters bring up the issue of subjective self view vs. objective reality (and ethics in applying affirmative action in relation to a white person saying they’re black when applying to college). USA uses subjective self determination to establish objective outcomes (as far as hiring data or census data goes). If everyone self-identifies, this could warp census data (if a person is predominantly white and 1/8 native American but checks native American on census). This gives birth to the creation of distinctive language such as “gender at birth” 5. ENDOGAMY marriage within own social grouping. In 1970 USA, only 2% of marriages were interracial 7% interracial in 2010. 11. LIST THE PATTERNS OF MINORITY AND MAJORITY GROUP RELATIONS 1. ASSIMILATION/AMALGAMATION minority is eliminated by coming part of majority and also drops own culture and tradition to adopt ways of new or dominant culture. assimilation= the minority blending in to the majority amalgamation= the majority changing because of assimilation example: the Germans that initially migrated to the US spoke a different language, had different customs, etc. but today, they’re blended into the majority and majority has changed a tiny bit because of this. 2. PLURALISM minority doesn’t want to lose identity and has pride in heritage/traditions/etc. does not want to change. 6 both cooperate and coexist without conflict. example: Amish in the US 3. LEGAL PROTECTION a nation has a hostile majority and the government then needs to protect minority. example: affirmative action in the USA 4. POPULATION TRANSFER with conflict, the dominant simply moves the minority “problem” group. example: native Americans to reservations or pushed out in colonial/settler times of USA 5. CONTINUED SUBJUGATION including exploitation and ethnic conflict; the dominant group wants continue control over minority usually because of economic exploitation. Usually involves discrimination, persecution without shame, and is a general part of society. example: slavery in the south or especially Zimbabwe’s standing policy for discrimination against whites to get them out of the country 6. EXTERMINATION/GENOCIDE the dominant group kills off the minority group example: Nazi Germany AND ISIS 12. DESCRIBE AFFIRMATIVE ACTION IN THE U.S. 1. William Wilson, black, Harvard 1980s. Author of “The Declining Significance of Race” a. Argued that US became first open to minorities after the civil rights legislation of the sixties and that because of this racial hostility decreased. b. “Racism” of today is mistaken for class division differences, not race. c. We suffer a CULTURAL HANGOVER in that there is inequality between racial groups. When measuring median household income, Asians make 58K, Whites make 49K, Hispanics make 34K, and Blacks make about 30K. d. Affirmative action is used to correct inequalities by moderation of racial acceptance in specifically college admissions and the hiring process. e. Wilson disapproves of affirmative action, but says it’s a necessary evil. It’s unfair but needed until equality is reached. f. Argues that affirmative action plays a huge role in the growth of the “black middle class” 2. Charles Willie a. Agreed with Wilson in that affirmative action is affective in creating a black middle class. b. Affirmative action is a white, racist conspiracy. As practiced, it brings less qualified minorities into the same work and educational setting as more qualified whites and Asians. In effect, it REINFORCES or CREATES racism. c. Argues that society should be segregated. Minorities are better off in their own educational settings and racism is minimized in their own business environments. d. The more minority contact with white people, the more they’re exposed to white racism. e. Today, there’s more racism than the civil war because of racial integration. As we become more and more integrated, we become more and more racist. 3. Charles Murray a. The white theorist of the three, also author of “The Bell Curve” b. From the sociobiological perspective, affirmative action is a dysgenesis. c. People should be accepted based on levels of ability. d. Doesn’t like affirmative action, but argues to keep it IF we only tolerate tiny differences in standards between the groups. Upon toleration of huge differences because of affirmative action, it becomes a recipe for racial hatred (similar thoughts to Willie). 13. EXPLAIN BIOLOGICAL ISSUES AND GENDER NORMS. - Gender has a biological basis with profound social consequences. The evolution of stratification between males and females have prehistoric origins and norms. - BASIC ANATOMY: ANATOMICAL REASONS FOR SOCIAL STRATIFICATION 7 o PHYSICAL STRENGTH men have twice as much upper body strength when compared to women. This lead to more positions of power, dominance, and respect because of the strength establishment. today, women in Morocco wearing inappropriate clothes are physically put down and beat upon based on choice of attire. o PREGNANCY because women are the only ones that can give birth to kids, they have the kids and raise them because they’re of their bodies. Because of this, a man could impregnate a woman and then move on. today, primary child custody is awarded to the mother in 85% of US divorces. o BRAIN STRUCTURE DIFFERENCES the hypothalamus, responsible for aggression and sex drive, have the same nerve connections in straight women and gay men. L. Brizendine’s research on male and female communication patterns shows that females speak at a rate (250 words/min) twice as fast as men (125 words/min). In an average day, US woman would speak 25K words/day and men would speak 7K words/day: almost 1/3 of woman’s amount. o HORMONAL DIFFERENCES ETGD (evolutionary theory of gender differentiation) shows that everyone has a drive to procreate their DNA. Evolutionarily, men did so by having sex with as many different women as possible. Evolutionarily, women sought a good provider and protector via a secure relationship that would last at least until child would be one. Men have seven times the amount of testosterone that women do; shows that they’re more programmed to pursue while women’s lack of testosterone allows them a relationship imperative. These strategies are unnecessary today, but still leave a huge impact in relationships. 14. EXPLAIN BIOLOGY, SOCIALIZATION, AND GENDER IDENTITY Nature vs. Nurture argument once again. We learn what we know based on MGS (mistaken gender socialization) case studies. John Money, a pedophiliac pervert from Johns Hopkins Hospital in the sixties specialized in people with genital ambiguity and hermaphrodites. He believed that gender reassignment, along with surgery, counseling, and hormone therapy could assign gender in that socialization is key to gender identity (much more important than a biological basis). In the 60’s, the John/Joan case, a woman had twin boys in Winnipeg, Canada. At 8 MO they had issues urinating and needed a circumcision. The doctor responsible for this accidentally cauterized one of the penises. Referred to Money, he suggested making the boy a girl by removing testicles. By raising as a girl, he would be a girl (and hormone therapy too). It was reported as a complete success the girl was a happy, healthy, well-adjusted female. However, he lied: it was chaos. David Reimer came out as the girl, “brenda.” While being a girl, his mind was messed up. No matter what, he couldn’t see himself as a girl and as a teen he wanted to change back to being a man. Tragic ending for him and twin. Essentially, biology plays a definitely prominent role in gender ID. But, like anything, it’s a combination. 15. THEORETICAL PERSPECITVES ON GENDER STRATIFICATION 16. RESEARCH ON GENDER DIFFERENCES 17. LIST AND EXPLAIN STATISTICS ON AGING IN AMERICA 18. STRUCTURAL AND INTERPERSONAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE OLDER POPULATION 8 19. CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTENARIANS FROM THE TEXT FOR TRUE/FALSE AND MULTIPLE-CHOICE 1. SANCTIONS NEGATIVE SANCTIONS expressions of disapproval for deviance. Could range from frowns/gossip for breaking folkways to death/imprisonment from breaking a more. The more serious a group takes a norm, the more penalized someone is for breaking it. example: getting fired OR getting an F. most are informal: gossip if adultery, stare if wrong type of clothing. Level of negativity depends on pov: if person wearing something weird is your mom, your sanction will be totally different than a strangers’. POSITIVE SANCTIONS ranges from smiles to formal awards; rewards for people that conform to the norm. example: getting a raise OR getting an A. 2. STRAIN AND CONTROL THEORIES OF DEVIANCE CONTROL THEORY two systems, our inner controls and outer controls, work against our tendencies to deviate. Reckless (1973) said that inner controls are our internalized morality: the desire to do good, our conscience, religious principles, the difference between right and wrong, and fear of punishment. More effective when bonds to society are larger on basis of: 1. ATTACHMENTS (respect and affection for people that conform to mainstream norms) 2. COMMITMENTS (having a part in society that you don’t want to risk like a job, a family, a spot in school etc) 3. INVOLVEMENTS (participation in something approved) 4. BELIEFS (convictions that certain things are just wrong) Outer controls are people (family, friends, police) that influence us not to deviate. The control theory is a theory of self-control; learned in childhood when parents would shame/correct deviant behavior. STRAIN THEORY crime is a natural thing that spawns from peoples’ experiences. Merton’s strains. in essence, strain theory shows that deviants are the products of society. Mainstream social values (cultural goals and ways to achieve such goals) can produce strain such as frustration or dissatisfaction. People feeling this strain are more likely to take deviant paths (nonconforming). Most people conform: there’s always the goal of Harvard Law School, but still conformist if want to be a lawyer and goes to a state school. There are four deviant paths that Merton categorized: 1. Innovators: examples are con artists, embezzlers, drug dealers, etc. 2. Ritualists: “the burn out” teacher that teaches without enthusiasm, just to have job, but not to encourage learning. 3. Retreatist: reject cultural goals and institutionalized means. Examples include both drug addicts AND women entering a convent or men entering a monastery by choice. 4. Rebel: rejects cultural goals and means because convinced that they’re corrupt, but thinks they should 9 be different. Wants to replace both. Most common rebels are revolutionaries. 5. (extra) Anarchist: rejects goals and means and wants to annihilate everyone. 3. SHAMING Effective if used in a membership to a primary group or to a society where reputation meant everything. Less effective in large, urban, smaller sense of community. 1. Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter with Hester Prynne’s “A” sewn to dress: patch of shame for adultery. 2. Some legal justice has assigned shaming, wearing shaming signs, to some criminals while some jails have people do and wear extremely shameful things, negatively exposing them to society. 3. Degradation Ceremonies: Garfinkel defined them as an official gathering to strip someone of identity, privilege, honor (officer removed from high-standing position) 4. Websites with pictures of perverts, bad drivers, people who don’t pick up their dog poop 4. CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AND OPPRESSION According to the Conflict theory, the power elite creates the legal system which stabilizes social order. They use it to control the poor (those who threaten the powerful). Poor have potential to rebel dislodge powerful elite from privilege. To prevent, criminal justice system directs heavy penalties to the poor. 5. KILLERS NEXT DOOR Serial killers: teenage killers in Texas killed 27 boys. Elmer and David picked up hitchhikers and brought them to Corll to rape and kill. Fiction book about real life, lived successful double lives are were unsuspected by anyone. Serial murder vs. mass murder: serial murder involves killing 3+ victims in separate events over several days to years. Mass murder kills all at once. Today’s technology allows efficient communication, investigation techniques, DNA profiles to coordinate killer location. 6. OCCUPATION AND PRESTIGE Third component of social class. Prestige = respect or regard. More prestige to some jobs due to four features. 1. Pay more 2. Require more education 3. Involve more abstract thought 4. Offer greater autonomy (independence). Less prestige to opposites of features. Consistent across countries and over time. Displayed by clothing (from what color to what brand) or standing in salute for president, authoritative officers, etc. 7. CLASS DESCRIPTION IN USA AND THE SOCIAL CLASS LADDER Kahl and Gilbert, six rungs of USA and other capitalist countries. - Capitalist prestigious university, investors/heirs/CEOs, income +1million 1% of population - Upper Middle college or university with post grad study, professional/managers, 125k+, 15% 10 - Lower Middle high school or college or apprentice, semiprofessional/lower manager/craftsmen/foremen, 60k, 34% - Working high school, factory/retail/craftsmen, 36k, 30% - Working Poor high school or some, laborers/service workers/sales, 19k, 15% - Underclass some high school, unemployed/welfare/part-time, under 12k, 5% 8. WHO ARE THE POOR? GEOGRAPHY, RACE-ETHNICITY, GENDER OF HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD. Poverty varies by region, most common in Southern USA. Rural Poverty due to low education and scarcity of jobs. Suburbanization of Poverty: most of poor live in suburbs due to migrating from cities to suburbs and collapse of housing market RACE least poor: whites (12) Asians (13) jump to Latinos and African Americans (28% of them live in POV) whites have most people so poor whites are more common than any other racial group, 44% of all poor people are white. EDUCATION ¼ of high school dropouts are poor. Vs. 3/100 college grads are poor. FEMINIZATION OF POVERTY Families with both mom and dad are least likely to be poor. Headed by only mother are most likely to be poor. high number of single moms, and women bring home 72% of what men take home OLD AGE old people are less likely to be poor because of social security, housing/Medicare/food stamps, racial ethnic patterns carrying into old age. 9. CULTURE OF POVERTY Poor get trapped in the culture: values and behaviors make them different and they become long-term poverty. Parents pass characteristics of poverty onto their children. 10. MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS Maintain global dominance of industrial nations, sometimes exploit least industrialized nations. Business for international stratification maintenance. Corporations buy interest from 11. EMERGING MASCULINITIES AND FEMININITIES Strength, dominance, muscle, stamina, victory, achievement, mas fear 11 Feel and show more emotions, more compassion, feel and show weaknesses and fears. Submissive to strong man. If in workplace, role is less gender normal, will reclaim role at home (woman CEO will do more cooking, sewing, etc at home) Emerging models of male softness (stay at home dads) encourage women to be dominant, approval for “winning” male dominant jobs. Less negative attitude towards homosexuality bc less need to prove not gay 12. FEMALE CIRCUMCISION Egypt, Indonesia, muslim Africa. Keeps women as virgins for marriage and faithful to husbands. May reduce sexual desire. Feminists = female circumcision is a form of ritual torture to control female sexuality 13. BASIC INFORMATION OF RACIAL/ETHNICS European Americans began with WASP English having huge prejudice against other whites. This pressured major assimilation, dropping traditions because of shame. In 1970 naturalization act said only white immigrants could apply for citizenship. EUROPEAN AMERICANS ESTABLISHED RELIGION AND LANGUAGE, WITH ENGLISH PEOPLE REGARDING ALL OTHERS AS INFERIOR. THIS PUT PRESSURE TO ASSIMILATE. THEY ALSO ESTABLISHED LAW SO THAT ONLY WHITE PEOPLE COULD BE ACTIVE CITIZENS. Latinos: aka Hispanics, largest non white population in USA. Lump term of all latin American decendants. Further branches to Puerto rican, Cuban, Mexican….etc. Many illegal immigrants/issues. Most illegal from mexico and cross over into Arizona. Obama wanted young illegals to stay, some tried a wall, etc. Cali, Texas, Florida, Arizon, New York, Illinois. Official language Spanish, provoked “English only” movement across state legislature. Most likely college/high school drop out. 2/5 salary of whites, 2x more likely to be in poverty than whites. African Americans Asian Americans: spillover bigotry. Internment camps. Low pov for jap and chin, high for southeast. Early socialization, college graduation, intermarriage. Native americans: treaties, genocide by foreign virus, forced relocation. Invisible = only 3 states and most live in rural areas. Highest suicide, lowest graduation, lowest life expectancy. Casinos are a huge profit for tribes and reservations. Pan indianism: all Indians are Indians and unifty on similarities between tribes. 14. THEORETICAL VIEWS ON PREJUDICE Functionalist: Creates in group solidarity BUT destroys relationships Conflict: racial subdivision creates stability Symbolic Interaction: labels create divides Psychological: Frustration leads to scapegoating and the Authoritarian Personality. 12 15. INSTITUTIONAL DISCRIMINATION IS DISCRIMINATION OF A GROUP BY CORPORATIONAL SOCIETY AS A WHOLE. Bank lending (more likely to refuse minorities), health-care unconsciously favors treating whites over minorities, 16. UNAUTHORIZED, ILLEGAL, UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS 9 million are illegal latinos with 7 of the 9 being Mexican. 500K returned per year. 1986: immigration allowed unauthorized to apply for citizenship, most from mexico. 3 million applied. 2012 obama’s executive order allowed work permits IF under 30, arrived in US before age 16, in school or high school graduates, and no criminal history. Elderly Industrialized nations have the highest percentages of elderly. Especially problematic in Japan and Europe. In America, life expectancy added thirty years in the last century. Graying of America= more noticeable population of America is of older age; 13% of the entire population. USA ranked 11th in life expectancy among industrialized nations. SOCIAL SECURITY 13
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