SPMGT 365: EXAM 1 Study Guide
SPMGT 365: EXAM 1 Study Guide SPMGT 365
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Smith on Tuesday February 17, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SPMGT 365 at Washington State University taught by Scott Jedlicka in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 228 views. For similar materials see Ethics and Moral Reason in Sport in Physical Education at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/17/15
SPMGT 365 Exam I Study Guide Total 4 short essay questions 1 2 paragraphs 25 multiple choice Concepts you should cover Ethical paradigmstheories Consequentialism Deontoogica ethics Virtue ethics Argumentation basics Basics of sport philosophy 0 Suits components of games amp sport Balancing the pros and cons of competition Mutual Quest for Excellence Ethical perspectives in sport 0 Formalism 0 Con ventionalism Broad internalism Sport signifies idea of sport or sport as a general conceptset of behaviors Sports Specific types of activities ie baseball golf wrestling Objective questions Factual one right answer Subjective questions A matter of taste no justification required usuaHy Normative questions should ought 9 because based on reasons Normative reasoning values reasons behavior Evaluate normality of action based on assessment of values and reasons used to justify it Moralitv and Ethics Ethics code of conduct interchangeable w ethics moral behaviorethical behavior 0 IS 0 Concerned w normative issues 0 Based on reasoned argument values reasons behavior o Linked to moral values 0 An outcome of selfinterested behavior 0 Irrelevant to reallife 0 Limited by relativism Morality abstract principles values interchangeable w ethics moral behaviorethical behavior 0 A subset of a larger class of normative issues ethics is concerned w determining goodright and badwrong behavior in relation to other people 0 The morality of an action is only as good as the reasoning which provides the justification for it Types of values Prudential selfregarding concerned w own individual well being physicalemotional health financial stability etc Why do I not smoke tobacco question of motivation Why should I not smoke tobacco normative question based on prudential values 0 Other motivations and desires can conflict w prudential values Why do I smoke tobacco question of motivation Prudential value which suggests that I should not smoke remains unchanged Aesthetic concerned w making nonpractical value judgments primarily on the basis of sensory pleasure ex what makes something beautiful 0 Some sports are based on the idea of being aesthetically pleasing Figure skating diving synchronized swimming 0 Aesthetics sometimes transforms subjective questions into normative ones Moral 0 Help us determine how to conduct ourselves in our relationshipsinteractions w others 0 Fundamentally otherregarding ie not concerned w our own wellbeing but w the wellbeing of others Hobbes39 state of nature social contract mankind s natural state is where everyone is in perpetual conflict w everyone else 0 Life nasty brutish shortquot Relativism Descriptive relativism postmodernism all claims to truth should be treated as equal Only applicable to individual advancing it Ethical relativism ethical standards are unique to defined culturesocietygroup These suggest that moral claims are individual or social constructs and we cannot hope to come up w any generalizble claims about moral values or ethical behavior 0 Appeal of relativism o Agnosticism perspective tat we can t be absolutely certain about some things 0 Promote peace so don t challenge other moral codesbeliefs Methods of ethical reasoning Impartialunbiased Consisted applicable Consequentialism Intuitively appealing bc acts only judged on consequences link bt theory real life mathematical appeal to rules as a way to achieve impartiality evaluate an act s consequences in terms of What would happen if everyone did or was allowed to do the action 0 endsfocused theory outcomes determine what is moral maximizing best outcomes greatest good for greatest Template 0 P1 We should do what is moral P2 The moral action is the one that produces the greatest good for the greatest o C We should do X Roots Classic utilitarianism developed by Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill greatest good for greatest number Consequences 0 total good maximization o pleasure 9 oo 0 total pain minimization 0 pain 9 0 0 net good maximization o pleasure pain gt 0 9 00 Application satisficing some good is better than no good maximization is irrelevant Positives Consequentialism provides concrete way ofjudging moral behavior in terms of actual outcomes uses moral standard 0 If you don t intend to do wrong but something bad happens action could be justified Negativesproblems w consequentialism o How to define Intentions v actual outcomes Impartiality too high of a standard Idea of maximizing the good too broad 0 Hard to use in daytoday life Right v Good 0 Focused on producing good outcomesquot 0 Basic problem what if wrong 9 good Deontology Deontological ethics 0 duty or actbased approach to ethics 0 opposite of consequentialism meansfocused 0 focus on if an act can have a bad outcomemorally wrong 0 right action can be determined by looking at intentions or cause of actions acting moraly permissions vs obligationsagent reative intentions vs causation patient reative respecting right of others Template 0 P1 We should do what is moral P2 The moral action is 1 does not treat others as means or 2 is motivated by compliance w an agent s moral duty 0 C We should do X Right v Good 0 Focused on right actions 0 Basic problem what if right 9 bad Obligations actions we must do Permissions actions we can or are allowed to do Agency central to deontology the actor or agent 0 Social roles relationships etc dictate obligationspermissions 0 Can t rely on society to tell us what is right Intentions can truly control only things we should focus on making ethical judgments Rule cannot intend to do wrong intend to do right acUons 0 Some wrong actions permissible in certain circumstances 0 Beliefs predicting a bad outcome 0 Risks possibility of a bad outcome 0 Causes accidents Exceptions Omission implies no action Allowing creating circumstances which made wrong act possible 0 Enable assisting another agent in doing of wrong act 0 Redirecting act of protection 0 Acceleration if bad outcome is inevitable Kant39s Categorical Imperative requirement for human behavior Problems w agentrelative approach Selfcentered Incoherent Easily manipulated Patientrelative Deontology Obligated not to use others infringing on others freedomrights Libertarian view 0 Negative view of duty obligated to refrain from some actions 0 ISSUES o Explicity reject outcomes as relevant more than agentrelative o Focused on individual rights 0 Ex gun control euthanasia Contractarian Dutiesobligations to act rightly as negotiated thru social processes appeals to laws rules reasonable personquot standardquot Explanatory but not normative Virtue Ethics 0 Rejects idea of looking at causeeffect in ethics 0 Holistic standard living virtuousya virtuouscontinent person can commit unethical acts 0 What kind of person should I be Virtue character trait disposition Virtuosity fullperfect virtue rare and difficult to attain Continence strength of will 0 We can act virtuously while still being internally conflicted o Tempted to act selfishly or badly but still choose virtuous act Template 0 P1 We should do what is moral P2 The moral action is one which virtuous person would be expected to do 0 C We should do X 0 These ideas rooted in ancient Greek philosophy Aristotle o Fulfilling one s potential 0 Arete excellencevirtue o Phronesis practical wisdomprudence Gives ability to act wisely on virtuous impulses emotional reaction rational thinking Knowing better doing the right thing Comes from experience correct assessment of situation Virtuous impulsemotivation o Eudaimonia human flourishing Living virtuously 9 eudaimonia Depends on how one describes a good lifequot Challenges for virtue ethics 0 No way to apply usefully vague on what to do in given situation aside from using Phronesis Moral exemplars Vrulesquot can operationalize virtue ethics into guiding our actionsdecisions by adjusting syntax conflicts among virtues The Motive Issue not as much of a problem as in deontologyconsequentialism The Justification Problem 0 Interpretation vs real virtue Applied to Sport 0 Concerned less w moral actions and more w moral existence EX We should try to E ethical people rather than just ACT ethically Aroumentation basics Structure Premise premise conclusion Premises Statements assertions propositions Assessed by accuracytruth Conclusions Derivative of premises 0 Also assessed in terms of accuracytruth Inference Leap from premise conclusion 0 Also called reasoning or thought process 0 Assessed NOT by truthaccuracy but by validity whether we have reasoned correctly from premises conclusion 0 Only partially related to accuracy of premises and conclusion Truth and validity only consistent link bt truth and validity cannot combine true premises w false conclusion and have valid argument 0 a sound argument is both true and valid 0 to make this determination look at premises conclusion and inferential logic Sport Philosoohv Competition achieving objectives that are 0 scarce not enough for everyone indivisible can t be shared selfish not intended to be shared highly valued in marketcapitalist economies incentivizes innovation 0 protects idea of selfdetermination promotes market efficiency 0 creates inequality wealth social 0 encourages exploitation of others whatever it takes to get aheadquot Competition in sport incentivizes sporting excellence promotes teamwork teaches positive character traits 0 creates inequality winnerslosers teaches deviant behavior cheating unhealthy habits Simon s mutual quest for excellence cooperative view of sport aims to mitigate negative effects of competition 0 way to balance emphasis on competitive achievement w need for ethical behavior 0 requires athletes to fundamentally view sport as cooperative pursuit to what extent winning matters can be product of this cooperation among competitors 0 requires engaging in competitive activity as means not end in itself 0 ends provide a good challenge to others 0 emphasis on personal developmentimprovement having quality contest even though try to win outcome relatively unimportant 0 Simon argues most moral conception of sport 0 Important if trying to figure out what morality means in sport What we consider moral should be based on this model this is ideal form of sport 0 Mutual quest for excellence mutuaism deemphasizes winning too much 0 Sport s popularity and appeal tied to drama zerosum competition 0 If winning doesn t mattermove away from true sport into other forms of physical activity intramurals recreation Pros of competition 0 Competition can drive athletes to achieve new levels of exceHence Arguably what makes sport most appealing drama of zerosum only one team can win game Cons of competition 0 Being hypercompetitive can allow athletes to emphasize winning or achievement at the expense of moral behavior 0 If nothing matters but winning and losingcompetition could be immoral Bernard Suits39 components of games amp sport 0 Work is not superior to play essential part of the good life 0 4 components identified in all games 1 prelusory goal a specific achievable state of affairs b simplest goal in any game ex crossing finish line first 2 lusory means 3 rules a means which are permitted in attempt to achieve prelusory goals ex can only score runs thru specific acts constitutive rules all of the conditions which must be met in playing the game i restrictionsparameters which make game possible ex establishing boundaries for play what s out of bounds rules of skill strategy rules i made possible by constitutive rules ii once known what s allowed possible to develop rules that will make use of lusory means more efficient and achievement of prelusory goal easier ex serve to opponent s weak hand 4 lusory attitude b most important component the knowing acceptance of constitutive rules just so activity made possible by such an acceptance can occur attitude necessary to make games meaningful Games are attempts to achieve a prelusory goal using only lusory means permitted by constitutive rules while adopting a lusory attitude Difference bt games and sports 0 sports games of skill not games of pure chance 0 involve physical skill excludes board games 0 wide following o stability longevity o mirrors values present in society Formalism 0 rules are source of moral behavior in sport 0 from rulescan derive moral values ex rules prohibiting unfair advantages 0 limited scope bcwhat happens when rules don t address a situation or a rule needs to be changed 0 problems w applicability and scope Conventionalism widely accepted standards unwritten rules 0 problems w relativism o if conventions are accepted just bc that s the way it isquot might run into problems 0 also what happens when there s no accepted convention to address a situation Broad internalism deeper interpretation of sport s rules appeal to sport s best interestsquot or best possible versionquot of sport 0 way to do ethics that doesn t rely solely on existing rulesconventions 0 uses underlying logic informing guidelines to develop broader sense of morality 0 ex 19805 NBA 0 physical roughness permitted by rules accepted by convenUon o butwas adopting roughness strategy in best interest of bball Deep conventionalism conventionalism broad internalism more so bi differs on idea of general applicability o bc sport socially constructed activitydifficult to make absolute moral claims that will hold across varying contexts avoids relativist challenge associated w normal conventionalism bc of its reliance on deeper moral logic of sport doesn t take conventions as fact
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