Pys-P102 Study Guide for Exam 2
Pys-P102 Study Guide for Exam 2 PSY-P 102
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daniel Kahn on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY-P 102 at Indiana University taught by Jim Cuellar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 481 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 2 Lecture Notes Week of 21515 Personality Notes Cont The Trait Perspective cont 0 Source Traits 0 most fundamental dimensions of personality broad basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number Trait Theories Cattell and Eysenck 0 Raymond Cattell 0 proposed 16 personality factors 0 used a statical technique called factor analysis to identify them 0 developed the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire abbreviated 16PF 0 sixteen is generally considered by others to be too many traits 0 Assessing Personality o SelfReport lnventories psychological tests in which a peons s response to standard question are compared to establish norms o Hans Eysenck 0 had three different source traits introversionextraversion neuroticismstability psychoticism o believed that individual differences in personality are due to biological differences among people 0 three is generally consisted by theories as too few traits o The 5 Factor Theory 0 the consensus amount many trait researchers is that essential building blcks of personality can be described in terms of five basic personality dimensions which are sometimes called the Big Fivequot 0 factors usually rated from low to high Openness to Experiences Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 0 has been tested in more than 50 cultures 0 probably biologically based as evolution found these factors adap ve o traits seem table over lifespan 0 seem consistent over different situations and related specify brain activities and structures 0 Possible Selves 0 Hazel Markus o aspect of the selfconcept that includes images of the selves that you hope fear or expect to buncombe in the future feared self desired self Actual who you are Ought who society believes you should be ldeal who you would like to be 0 possible selves can both motive and inhibit future behavior 0 Expressing Possible Selves o discrepancies among selves lead to feelings actualought anxiety actualideal sadness 0 possible selves distinguish between gourds withs similar self esteem but very different social profiles eg college students and delinquents 0 possible selves distinguish between groups with similar situations but different outcomes eg poor versus good recovery from death of spouse 0 can be influenced by one s tendency toward optimism or pessimism 0 can be include by mood psychological statesis fixable not fixed 0 Personality Traits and Behavioral Genetics o interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genes and heredity on behavior 0 basic research strategy is to compare the degree of differences among subjects with their degree of genetic relatedness o evidence for genetic influence is particularly strong for extraversion and neuroticism two of the Big Five personality traits 0 twin studens have found that opens to experience conscientiousness and agreeableness are influenced by genetics to a much lesser extent 0 as twins group up leave home personalities can diverge somewhat showing the influence of environment and expenence o Emergenic Traits are traits that empire only out of a unique configuration of many interacting genes although they are genetically influenced emergentic traits do no run in families 0 Role of Unshared Environments on Personality o Unshared Environments are environments that occur outside of the family or home Since after about age 5 or earlier we spend more time outside of the home these environments are significant 0 recent studies have shown that these unshared environments have more influence on personality than on39s family 0 these unshared environments musts be considered along with genetics and family when considering the formation of personality Lecture Notes of Week of 2815 mp PERSONALIW NOTES Cont Psychoanalytic Approach and Sigmund Freud cont 0 The Latency and Genital Stages 0 Latency 5 yerspuberty Because the Oedipus complex causes anxiety sexual urges of boys and girls become repressed children desire to associate with sameOsex peers a preference that that strengthens the child s sexual identity 0 Genital Stage purberty adulthood NeoFruedian Psychodynamic Theories 0 Carl Jung s collective unconscious 0 Karen Horney s focus on security 0 Alfred Adler s individual psychology 0 NeoFreudians Concepts 0 agreed the importance of the unconscious and early childhood but they developed their own personality theories 0 disagree behavior was primarily motived by sexual urges personality is fundamentally determined by early childhood experiences generally pessimistic view of human nature and society Carl JungArchetypes and the Collective Unconscious 0 people motivated by more general psychic energy to achieve growth 0 believed in collective unconscious 0 based on human collective evolutionary history archetypes 0 mental images of universally human instances themes and peroccupations 0 common archetypal themes that are expressed in virtually every culture are hero powerful father nurturing mother which wise old man innocent child and death and rebirth 0 two important archetypes that Jung 1951 described are anima and animus representative of female and masculine qualities 0 collective unconscious storehouse of memories inherited from the common ancestries of the whole human race no counterpart in Freud s theory 0 Archetypesfound in all cultures 0 Persona social role 0 Shadow unsocial thoughts feelings and behaviors o Anima feminine side of male psyche o Animus masculine side of female psyche 0 Self central archetype and true midpoint of personalty mandalas o Jung s Structure of Personality o Egoone s conscious mind 0 Personal Unconscious perceptions thoughts feelings that are easier retrieved repressed or forgotten individuals experiences organized into complexes introvrets and extroverts are complexes 0 Collective Unconscious KarenHorneyBasic Anxiety and Womb Envyquot stressed importance of cultural social factors in personality development looked at anxiety related to security and social relationships Basic anxiety 0 feeling of being isolated and helpless in a hostile worlds 0 child s fear of being alone helpless and insecure described three patterns of behavior that the individual uses to defend against basic anxiety moving toward against or away from other people Neurotic Coping Strategies 0 Moving Toward People attempting to make theories happy to gain love and to secure approval and affection Passive Style get along by being compliant 0 Moving Against People striving for power recognition and admiration Aggressive Style fighting to get by 0 Moving Away From People withdrawal of emotional investment from relationships to avoid being hurt Withdrawn Style feel best not to engage emotionally at all Womb Envy o disagreed with Freud s interpretation of female development and notion that women suffer from penis envy 0 what women envy in meant is not their penis but their superior status in society 0 contented that men often suffer womb envy envying women s compact to bear children 0 men compensate for minor role in reproduction by striving to make creative achievements in their work 0 believed that the drive to grow psychologically and achieve one s potential is basic human motive Horney s Concept of Self 0 Real Selfinner core of personality that we perceive about ourselvespotential of self realization o Despised Self perceptions of inferiority and shortcomings based on others negative feedback result in feeling helpless 0 Ideal Self views as perfection and hows to achieve tyranny of the Shouldsquot Alfred Adler Feelings of Superiority 0 most fundamental human movie is striving for superiority security and power 0 arises from universal feelings of inferiority that are experiences during childhood 0 these feelings motivate people to compensate for real or imagined weaknesses by emphasizing talents and abilities and by working hard to improve themselves 0 overcompensation may cause superiority complex in which a person exaggerates their own achievements and importance 0 lnferiority Complex 0 when people are unable to compensate for specific weaknesses or when feelings of inferiority are excessive can develop an inferiority complex a general sense of inadequacy weakness and helplessness o Adler believed that humans were motivated to grow and achieve their personal goals 0 emphasized importance of cultural influences and social relationships 0 he discounted Freud s emphasis on the importance of the sexual and aggressive drives 0 Strive for Superiority o ultimate goal of life 0 drive to perfection 0 not an attempt to be better than others 0 Fictional Finalism reach goals set in future to be complete whole and may be unrealistic fantasy potential goals guide behavior 0 Style of Life Personality 0 expression of striving for superiority to attain goals 0 learned from early social interactions 0 guiding framework for all later behaviors 0 Social Interest the end to care for others be a part of a familycommunity derived from our instinctual drive to be social 0 Birth Order 0 O O O 0 major social influence in childhood First Born oriented to past role of leader organize scrupulous Second Born optimistic competitive ambitious Youngest high achievers or helpless and dependent Only Child difficult when not center of attention mature early The Humanistic Perspective on Personality o emphasizes free will selfawareness and psychological growth 0 emphasizes inherent goodness of people human potential self actualization selfconcept and healthy personality development c The Emergence of the Third Forcequot 0 0 another gourd of psychologists opposed to both psychoanalysis and behaviorism championed a third force in psychology saw people being innately good focused on the healthy personality doubted that laboratory research with rats and pigeons accurately reflected human nature most important factor in personality is the individual s conscious subjective perception of self major figuresCarl Rogers Abraham Maslow 0 Carl RogersThe SelfConcept 0 most basic human motive is actualizing tendency the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism other drives are secondary Selfconcept set of perceptions and beliefs you hold about yourself people are motivated in accordance with selfconcept self concept begins early in life positive regard sense of being loved and valued by others children s increasing selfawareness produces need for positive regard regard can be conditional and unconditional Unconditional positive regard child s sense of being unconditionally loved and valued even if she or he doesn t conform to standards and expectations of others Condition positive regard child s sense of being valued and loved only if he or she behaves in a what that is acceptable to others 0 feelings become denied or distorted not because they are threading but because they contradict the selfconcept In this case people are in a state of incongruence 0 Person Centered Theory The Self o a person who tires to reach their unique potential is self actualizing or fulling functioning real selfideal self 0 when a person is incongruent experiences that real self as threatening o to prevent this defense mechanisms distort deny experience 0 real self may be suppressed in favor of what others want you to be 0 Roger s most useful accomplishment 0 Problems with Roger s Theory 0 based on philosophical assumptions or clinical observations concepts vague and subjective cannot define or objectively measure concepts like Roger s unconditional positive recourse or selfconcepts o if self actualization is a universal human movie why is it hard to find such people encourages that need for hope but no equally realistic does not take into account human capacity for evil The Social Cognitive Perspective 0 Socalcognitive perspective behavior influence by interaction between people s traits and their social context 0 Personality is developed through 0 emphasis on interaction of personality and situation 0 active processing of information of social experiences 0 conscious selfgenerated goals and selfregulation 0 development of a self system based on skills abilities and attitudes o The Marshmallow Test Measuring SelfRegulation 0 1960 s Walther Mischel of Stanford University came up wit the Stanford Marshmallow Experiment 0 a marshmallow was offered to child and if child to wait 10 minute they got 2 marshmallows o interpretation delayed gratification meant a great life and more successful life 0 correlation between the marshmallow test and the success of children many years later there are many more experiments to prove a correlation between delayed gratification and higher SAT scores or higher GPA 0 Albert Bandura and Social Cognitive Theory 0 human behavior and personality are caused by the interaction of behavioral cognitive and environmental factors 0 process called reciprocal determinism o person s cognitive skills abilities and attitudes represent the person s selfsystme 0 most critical elements influencing the selfsystem are our beliefs of selfefficacy o Selfefficacy the belief that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific taskgoal o Reciprocal Determinism 0 social cognitive perspetive personalities are shaped by the interaction of our person traits our environment and our behavior The Trait Perspective 0 trait a relatively stable enduring predisposition to consistently behave in a certain way 0 trait theory theory of personality focus on identifying describing measuring individual difference in behavioral predisposition trait theories are intended in defining traits and using this information to predict future behavior 0 the trait perspective on personality 0 focuses on identifying describing and measuring individual differences 0 trait theorists view the person as being a unique combination of personality characteristics or attributes called traits o trait formally defined as a relatively stable enduring predisposition to behave in a certain way 0 Surface Trait vs Source Trait 0 Surface Traits characteristic that can be inferred from observable behavior 4000 english words describe these traits ex happy quotsadquot characteristics you can determine from a given situation 0 Source Trait these are below the surface and cant just be seen from a given situation Lecture Notes of Week of 2115 Author sockrgeek PERSONALITY NOTES Introduction What is Personality 0 Definition of Personality 0 an individuals characteristic pattern of thinking feeling and behaving 0 an individuels unique and relatively consistant paterning of thinking feeling and behaving best definition 0 Personality Theory 0 attempts to describe and explain how people are similar and how they are different and whey every individual is unique 0 Four basic perspectives o psychoanalytic perspective emphasizes the importance of unconscious process and the inflated of early childhood expenences o humanistic perspective represents an optimistic look at human nature emphasizing the self and fulfillment of a person s unique potential 0 social cognitive perspective emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes including the importance of beliefs about self goal setting and selfregulation o trait perspective emphasizes description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals Psychoanalytic Approach and Sigmund Freud 0 developed by Sigmund Freud o psychoanalysis is both an apron to theory and a theory of personality 0 major contributions by Freud O O frist psychotherapy first theory of the unconscious mind first to researchanalyze dreams first theory of childhood development defense mechanisms first comprehensive theory of personality 0 the life of Sigmund Freud O O born in 1856 in what is today Pribor Czech Republic studied medicine became a physician and outstanding physiological researcher amount first investigators of a new drug that ad anesthetic moodaltering properties cocaine prospects for an academic career in scientific research were very poor especially for a Jew in Vienna which was intensely antiSemitic at that time o influences in the development of Freud s ideas 0 one influence was Joseph Breuer hypnosis patients with psychological symptoms Freud developed his own technique of free association 1900 his most important work The Interpretation of Dreams 1904 the Psychopathology of Everyday Life described how unconscious thoughts feelings and wishes are often reflected in acts of forgetting inadvertent slips of tongue accidents and errors 0 Freud s Dynamic Theory of Personality psychoanalytic approach 0 psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality emphasizes unconscious motivation the main causes of behavior lied buried in the unconscious mind Freud 1940 saw personality and behavior as the result of a constant interplay among conflicting psychological forces these psychological forces operate at three different levels of awareness conscious preconscious unconscious unconscious material seeps through to the conscious level in distorted disguised or symbolic forms can be revealed by free association dreams slips of the tongue Freudian slip etc o Freud s Model of Personality Structure the drives and instincts of a human being motivated by sex and aggression this component is irrational and illogical o Superego the moralistic component of your mind this component wants you to follow all of the rules and wants you to behave o Ego rational part of your conscious that is trying to balance the ld Superego and the external world 0 Techniques to Reveal the Unconscious 0 Free Association a psychoanalytical technique in which patient spontaneously reports all thoughts feelings and mental images as they come to mind 0 Dream Analysis dreams contain manifest content surface meaning latent content true unconscious meaning 0 The Structure of Personality 0 Id instinctual drives present at birth does not distinguish reality from fantasy operates according to pleasure principle motive to obtain pleasure and avoid tension or discomfort this is the most fundamental human motive and guiding principle of id immune to logic energy comes from Eros selfreservation or life instinct Libio psychological and emotional engr associated with expression of sexuality sex drive Thanatos death instinct reflected in aggressive O O and destructive actions Superego at age 5 or 6 child develops an internal parental voice that is partly conscious internalization of parental and society s moral standards responsible for guilt praises and admonishes Ego ldeal enhances self esteem for moral behavior Conscience produces guilty feeling for morally inappropriate behavior wants you to operate within the moralistic principle Ego Latin for l the partly conscious ration component of personality develops out of the id in infancy understands reality and logic most in touch with the demands of the external world Mediator between id and superego and the external worlds Reality principle the ability to postpone gratification in accordance with demands of external world can repress desires that cannot be met in an accentual manner 0 The Ego Defense Mechanisms 0 if demands of the id or superego threaten to ovenvhelm the ego anxiety results if a realistic solution or compromise is not possible the ego may temporally reduce anxiety by distorting thoughts or precepts of reality though ego offense mechanisms by restoring to this largely unconscious selfdeceptions the ego can maintain an integrated sense of self while searching for a more acceptable realistic solution to a conflict between the id and the superego Repression is the most fundamental ego defense mechanism Others are used if repression fails the shortterm use of defense mechanisms can be helpful long term use is problematic o 3 Types of Anxiety o Neurotic Anxiety originates from the ID fear of being overwhelmed by instinctual drives 0 Moral Anxiety originates from the Superego fear of being overwhelmed by guilt 0 Reality Anxiety originates from the Ego fear of consequences from the external world from inappropriate behavior or thoughts 0 Six Defense Mechanisms 0 Regression reaction formation projection rationalization displacement denial o chart with definitions is in the book or online 0 Psychosexual Stages Freud s five stages of personality development each associated with and center around particular erogenous zone each zone is a part or area of the body in which the libido releases energy though the nervous system Freud though that these areas produced physical sensation Personality Development in terms of Psychosexual Stages Fixation O at each psychosexual stage the child is faced with a developmental conflict that must be successfully resolved child may be frustrated or overindulged in stage s expression of pleasurable feelings if frustrated child will be left wit feelings of unmet meeds characteristic of that stage if overindulged child may be reluctant to move on to the next in either case result of an unresolved developmental conflict is fixation 0 Oral Stage birth1 year mouth is associated with sexual pleasure and satisfying a biological drive necessary from survival weaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctily fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood oral aggressive oral receptive 0 Anal Stage 1 3 years anus is associated with pleasure child is forced to control a biological drive toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly too harsh or to lax fixation can lead to anal retentive or angel expulsive heavers in adulthood o Phallic Stage 35 years this stage centers on the genital areas in boys and girls one sign of this new stage is that both boys and girls may being to touch themselves this stage culminates in clnflics in both sexes as the child become of aware of anatomical sex differences develops a gender identity the conflict in boys is called the Oedipus complex and in girls it is called the Electra complex The Oedipus Complex Child s unconscious sexual desire for the oppositesex parent usually accompanied by hostile feelings toward samsex parent Boys Girls confrontation with father for the affections of mother boy feels hostility and jealousy toward his father realizes that father is more physically powerful boy experiences castration anxiety or fewer that farther will castrate him to resolve boy uses identification imitates and internalizes father s values attitudes and mannerisms little girls discover that little boys have a penis and that she does not feels a sense of deprivation and loss penis envy attempts to taker her mother s place with her father she also identifies with her mother one of the most Grated ideas of Freud
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