Comstrat 312 Study Guide 1
Comstrat 312 Study Guide 1 Comstrat 312
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lydia Trumbull on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Comstrat 312 at Washington State University taught by Bruce Pinkleton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Strategic Communication in Communication Studies at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
Chapter 1 Public relations is the management function that establishes and maintains mutually bene cial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failures depends Human relations marital relations and interpersonal relations describe the study and management of relationships between individuals One publicist said quotWe encourage feeling because that39s what we do The book describes public relations as the art and science of building and maintaining relationships between organizations and their stakeholder pubHcs Many de nitions suggest that public relations 1 Conducts a planned and sustained program by an organization39s management 2 Deals with the relationships between an organization and its stakeholder publics 3 Monitors awareness opinions attitudes and behaviors inside and outside the organization 4 Analyzes the impact of policies procedures and actions on stakeholder publics to identify those that con ict with the public interest and organizational survival 5 Counsels management to establish new policies procedures and actions that bene t both the organization and its publics 6 Establishes and maintains twoway communication between the organization and its pubHcs 7 Produces measureable changes in awareness opinion attitude and behavior inside and outside the organization 8 Results in new andor maintained relationships between an organization and its publics Marketing is the management function that identi es human needs and wants offers products and services to satisfy those demands and causes transactions that deliver products and services to users in exchange for something of value to the provider The exchanges are what distinguish the marketing function quotmarket sharequot In PR there is no exchange of title in relationships with employees community members and other publics organizations cannot quotownquot support trust commitment or loyalty The contemporary concept and practice of PR includes 1 Employee Communication Internal Relations is the specialized part of PR that builds and maintains a mutually bene cial relationship between managers and the employees on whom an organization s success depends 2 Publicity PR sources provide what they judge to be newsworthy information publicity with the expectation that editors and reporters will use the info Publicity is information provided by an outside source that is used by media because the information has news value this is an uncontrolled method of places messages in the media because the source does not pay media outlets for placement 3 Advertising Advertising is information placed in the media by an identi ed sponsor that pays for the time or space it is a controlled method of places messages in the media PR uses advertising to reach audiences other than the customers targeted by marketing Organizations use advertising to place and control content position and timing of PR messages in the media 4 Press Agentry Press agentry is creating newsworthy stories and events to attract media attention in order to gain public notice Press agentry is an important factor in political campaigns and national political party conventions designed to build name recognition and attract voters through media exposure 5 Public Affairs Public Affairs is the specialized part of PR that builds and maintains organizational relationships with governmental agencies and community stakeholder groups to in uence public policy In corporations quotpublic affairsquot typically refers to PR efforts related to public policy and quotcorporate citizenshipquot and quotcorporate social responsibilityquot 6 Lobbying Lobbying is the specialized part of PR that builds and maintains relations with government primarily to in uence legislation and regulation All who engage in lobbying the US Congress must register with the Clerk of the House and Secretary of the Senate or face a ne up to 50000 under the Lobbying Disclosure Act of 1995 The role of lobbying is to ethically advocate the interests of their clients in the public policy debate 7 Issues Management 1 early identi cation of issues with potential impact on an organization and 2 a strategic response designed to mitigate or capitalize on their consequences Issues Management is the process of anticipating identifying evaluating and responding to issues and trends that potentially affect an organization39s relationships with its publics 8 Crisis Management Crisis Management is the PR specialty that helps organizations strategically respond to negative situations and to dialog with stakeholders affected by perceived and actual consequences of crises 1 Detection 2 PreventionPreparation 3 Containment 4 Recovery 5 Learning The best crisis strategy is to maintain good relationships 9 Investor Relations quotIRquot and quotFinancial Relationsquot the specialized part of corporate PR that builds and maintains mutually bene cial relationships with shareholders and others in the nancial community to maximize market value 10Development the specialized part of PR in nonpro t organizations that builds and maintains relationships with donors volunteers and members to secure nancial and volunteer support 0 Some organizations divide the PR function into internal deals with publics involved in the internal workings of organizations employees families volunteers and external publics outside the organization neighbors consumers investors All effective organizations strive to establish and maintain relationships with those identi ed as important to the organizational survival and growth 0 PR facilitates adjustments and maintenance un the social system that provide us with our physical and social needs A moral commitment to mutual adjustment among interdependent elements of society Chapter 4 0 American Beginnings Born in Adversitv and Change PR rst appears in American history in the American Revolution39s struggle for power between the Patriots39 grassroots movement and the commercial propertied Tories Samuel Adams worked tirelessly to arouse and organize public opinion on the assumption that quotthe bulk of mankind are more led by their senses than by their reasonquot He discerned public opinion results from the march of events and the way these events are seen by those active in public affairs They developed and demonstrated the power of the following techniques 1 Organization to implement actions made possible by a PR campaign The Sons of Liberty Boston 1766 and the Committees of Correspondence Boston 1775 2 Symbols easily identi able and arouse emotion the Liberty Tree Slogans compress complex issues into easytoquote easytoremember stereotypes quotTaxation without Representation is Tyrannyquot Staged Events catch public attention provoke discussion and crystallize unstructured public opinion the Boston Tea Party 5 Your Side of the Story to the public rst so that your interpretation becomes the accepted one Boston Massacre 6 Sustained Saturation Campaigns penetrate the public mind with a new idea or new conviction P E 0 Promoting Growth and Change power struggles evoked by political reform movements Amos Kendall As a key member of Presidentjackson39s quotKitchen Cabinetquot Kendall served as a pollster counselor ghost writer and publicist jackson39s political campaigns and his governmental policies clearly reveal the in uence of Kendall39s strategy sense of public opinion and skill as a communicator Mathew St Clair Clarke Bank of the United States president Nicholas Biddle39s publicist saturated the nation39s press with press releases reports and pamphlets pushing the bank s case The evolution of PR also is tied to attempts to gain public acceptance and utilization of innovation 0 Press Agentry Origins Biddle and the Bank of the United States demonstrated press agentry when jackson39s opponent created the myth of Davy Crockett St Clair Clarke decided to build up quota brash loudtalking Tennessee Congressmanquot to run up against him It went far but eventually died out and Jackson still won Richard F quotTodyquot Hamilton PT Barnum39s press agent whom he credited with much of the success of his circus Charles Russell Lowell directed the Burlington Railroad39s publicity campaign that was launched in 1858 railroad publicists played an important role in settling our nation and in creating the romantic aura that still surrounds the West 0 Business Practices Between 1875 and 1900 America doubled its population and jammed its people into cities went into mass production and enthroned the machine spanned the nation with rail and wire communications developed the mass media of press and magazines Beginning in 1897 the term quotpublic relationsquot appeared with increasing frequency in railroad literature and in speeches of railroad tycoons Evolution to Maturitv As the US prepared for WWI President Wilson created the quotCommittee on Public Informationquot George Creel headed a staff of young propagandists some of whom would later establish PR rms Many practitioners work with managers and clients who think PR is simply persuasive communication with the power to induce public support or acceptance De nitions of PR included words such as reciprocal mutual and between Yale professor Harwood L Childs saw the fxn of PR as helping organizations adjust to their social environments The oneway concept of PR relies almost entirely on propaganda and persuasive communication two way concepts include counseling management on changes needed within the organization 0 Stages of Deve0pment PR 7 Periods of Development 1 Seedbed Era 19001916 of muckraking journalism countered by defensive publicity and of farreaching political reform promoted by Roosevelt and Wilson through PR 2 WWI Period 19171918 of dramatic demonstrations of the power and organized promotion to kindle a fervent patriotism to sell war bonds enlist soldiers and raise millions of dollars for warfare 3 Booming Twenties Era 19191929 when the principles and practices of publicity learned in the war were put to use promoting products earning acceptance and winning political battles 4 Roosevelt Era and WWII 19301945 dominated by Franklin D Roosevelt the Great Depression and WWII events profound and far reaching in their impact on the practice of PR 5 Postwar Era 19461964 quotFree Worldquot brought widespread acceptance of PR strong professional associations beginnings of PR education and emergence of TV 6 Period of Protest and Empowerment 19651985 governmental abuse of public trust and consequently an increasing recognition of social responsibility and more responsive organizations 7 Age of Digital Communication and Globalization 1986present new technology impacting most aspects of life multiplying communication channels Early Firms The Publicity Bureau The nation39s rst publicity agency founded in Boston in mid1900 Failure of their nationwide publicity effort caused railroad executives to reassess their PR methods and many set up their own departments Smith and Walmer Parker and Lee George F Parker and Ivy Lee in New York in 1904 Hamilton Wright Organization Inc Pendleton Dudley and Associates Thomas R Shipp and Co Early Pioneers Ivy Ledbetter Lee He was among the rst to realize the fallacy of publicity not supported by good works and to reason that performance determines the publicity a client gets He helped the Rockefellers get their good image back Theodore Roosevelt his ability to dominate the front pages demonstrated a newly found power for those with power to promote World War I Period 19171918 George Creel assembled a brilliant and talented group ofjournalists scholars press agents editors another manipulators for the quotCreel Committeequot and united them for one purpose Booming Twenties Era 19191929 Edward L Bernays Ran Edward L Bernays Counsel on Public Relations with his wife Doris E Fleischman coining the term quotpublic relations counselquot Arthur W Page He was among the rst to use the new science of public opinion polling as the basis for planning and evaluating PR programs at ATampT Roosevelt Era and WWII 19301945 Leone Baxter and Clem Whitaker husband and wife formed the rst agency specializing in political campaigns WWII brought paid advertising to the fore as a major tool of PR Postwar Boom 19461964 Betsy Ann Plank The rst woman to serve as president of the PRSA and co founder of PRSSA in 1967 Scott M Cutlip Credited with establishing PR as a legitimate eld and wrote many books Period of Protest and Empowerment 19651985 PR could no longer focus simply on domestic relations technology global commerce and terrorism required new approaches to communications Digital age and Globalization 1986Present Chapter 2 The Internet changed everything access to instantaneous information made quotself publishingquot a reality a greater diversity in points of view and less control over public information system Gender Women have increased steadily over the last decade membership of the PRSSA was 84 female in 2011 Race and Ethnicity Minorities are severely underrepresented in PR practice compared to their numbers in the US population about 4 blacks and 25 Hispanics in PRSA Education and Preparation PR employment no longer requires journalism experience but it is more advantageous for students with education in a specialized eld Work Assignments 1 8 9 Writing and Editing Composing print and broadcast news releases feature stories newsletters correspondence website and other media messages reports speeches brochures scripts articles advertisements and product and technical collateral material Media Relations and Social Media Contacting news media magazines papers etc with the intent of getting them to publish news and features about or originated from an organization Research Gathering information about public opinion trends emerging issues political climate and legislation media coverage and other concerns related to an organization39s stakeholders Management of Clients and Staff Establishing client relationships managing client expectations assessing resource allocation needs and planning logistics Strategic Planning Programming and planning in collaboration with other managers determining needs priorities setting goals and objectives and developing messages strategies and tactics Counseling Advising top management on the social political and regulatory environment on how to respond to crises and other critical and sensitive issues Special Events Arranging and managing news conferences grand opening celebrations and other events Speaking Appearing before groups coaching others and managing a speaker39s bureau to provide platforms for the organization before important audiences Production Creating communication collateral products using multimedia knowledge and skills 10Training Preparing executives and other spokespersons to deal with media and make public appearances 11Personal Contacts Serving as a liaison with media community and other internal and external groups Roles Communication Technician Entrylevel practitioners hired to write and edit newsletters write news releases and feature stories develop website content and deal with media contacts Typically they do not participate in management decision making and strategic planning Expert Prescriber De ne the problem develop the program and take full responsibility for its implementation Communication Facilitator Serve as liaisons interpreters and mediators between an organization and its publics maintaining twoway communication and facilitating exchange so they have the information they need for making decisions of mutual interest ProblemSolving Process Facilitator get invited to the management team because they have demonstrated their skill and value in helping other managers avoid and solve problems Technicians vs Managers PR technicians are primarily concerned with writing producing and disseminating communications such as press releases speeches websites feature stories and annual reports They tend to be more creative artistic and technically pro cient PR managers call for research skills an aptitude for strategic thinking and a tendency to think in terms of the outcomes or impact of PR activities Environmental In uences The expert prescriber appears when immediate action is imperative whereas the problemsolving process facilitator role is preferred when there is time to go through a process of collaboration and joint problem solving Highly paid problemsolving process facilitators and expert prescribers tend to work for organizations most threatened by competition government regulation and public scrutiny Lowerpaid communications technicians and facilitators promotional publicists for media and ad agencies Research and Information Gathering The amount of research practitioners do determines the likelihood of them having a seat at the management decisionmaking table practitioners who understand the causes and consequences of playing different roles can develop strategies for dealing with a variety of situations Challenges General misunderstanding of the organizational and social functions of PR The Glass Ceiling Women have seemed to break through the glass ceiling but still face discrimination from their male counterparts Diversity and Cultural Competence o Pigeonholing The restricting of minority practitioners to working with minority clients or dealing with minority publics even when they wish to do quotmainstreamquot PR Ethical Conduct PR practitioners have a choice to behave ethically or to behave unethically Requirements for Success 1 Results Employers and clients pay for results not hard work and effort 2 Conceptualizing An ability to focus on the employer or client39s needs a good listener and thorough note taker 3 Human Relations Team players who balance personal goals with those of the organization 4 Style quotcan doquot attitude constructive competitiveness can translate con dence into persuasive advocacy and substantive PR contributions 5 Intangibles charisma presence and moxie affect the way other managers evaluate people in PR know what your boss expects of you typically work as Chapter 3 Origins within Organizations Each internal PR department is tailormade to suit a particular organization and its unique circumstances particularly to the expectations of the CEO Establishing a PR Department From its origin as a lowlevel communication support function in the HR department it evolved to become an integral part of the management team but it must continue to achieve organizational goals and demonstrate accountability through measureable results PR Starts with Top Management long term success in PR calls for the following from top management 1 Commitment to and participation in PR 2 Retention of competent PR counsel 3 Incorporation of PR perspectives in policy making 4 Twoway Communication with both internal and external publics Coordination of what is done with what is said Clearly de ned goals and objectives Role in Decision Making 5 6 Line Versus Staff Management Line function in the industry include the product and pro tproducing functions engineering production and marketing Staff functions include those that advise and assist line executives nance legal HR and PR Participation in Management proximity and access are important factors in uencing PR participation in management 0 Organizational changes can also enhance or diminish the role of PR in management 0 Characteristics of the practitioners themselves particularly personal credibility also contribute to their inclusion or exclusion from the dominant coaH on o The extent to which the function conducts various kinds of research is a major determinant of PR participation in management 0 The degree to which line managers and practitioners themselves view the function as part of the management team remains the major determinant of PRs role in organizational decisionmaking According to Robert Dilenschneider quotseven deadly sins in this businessquot threaten progress in integrating the function 1 Overpromising making commitments for things they know they cannot deHver 2 Overmarketing overselling the client on the capabilities or expertise of PR 3 Underservicing quotbaitandswitchquot listing senior people as part of the account team but using junior staff to do the work 4 Putting the PR rm39s pro ts ahead of the client s performance and results 5 Using PR quick xes shortsighted responses to complex problems that require longlasting solutions 6 Treating PR as simply a support function charged with implementing strategies formulated by lawyers nancial of cers and topline managers 7 Violating ethical standards thereby damaging PRs reputation for ethical conduct and concern for social responsibility The Internal Department Team Membership frequent contact between the PR department and topline management is the rule rather than the exception Knowledge of the Organization Internal staff typically can advise conciliate and provide services while taking into account intimate details of organizational history culture and people Economy ef ciency contributes to costeffectiveness Availability The Department39s Disadvantages Loss of Objectivity ln supporting and being supported they can be duly in uenced and compromised by group views in order to not quotrock the boatquot They lose the ability to do the boundary spanning need to avoid or solve problems in the organization39s relationships with others Domination and Subservience Practitioners must guard against inaction based on fear of making what they think is a careerthreatening move or decision Confused Mission and Roles Practitioners nd themselves serving as standins for top executives who make commitments but do not follow through themselves Working with Other Departments Marketing Advertising and publicity produced by either PR or marketing should be coordinated with the other39s communications Legal Counsel Cooperation is critical during labor contract negotiations product recalls layoffs or other sensitive personal matters that could lead to litigation Human Resources Overlap between PR and HR occurs when 1 Developing employee relations plans during downsizing crises reorganization mergers and acquisitions 2 Planning and implementing community relations efforts participation 3 Programs directed to employees require PR thinking and skills more than those from HR Information Technology Managing websites and social media are essential PR practitioners also must be able to respond immediately and nimny in daytoday media relations and crises communication involve employee 0 The Outside Counseling Firm PR Firms PR counseling rms range widely in size and scope and they have achieved recognition of the global economy Many quotagenciesquot go by quotfirmsquot now to increase emphasis on counseling and strategic planning services and to differ themselves from advertising agencies Specialization In addition to industry specialization a few rms provide specialized services to help clients target particular communities Reasons for Retaining Outside Control 1 Management has not previously conducted a formal PR program and lacks experience in organizing one 2 Headquarters may be located far from communications and nancial centers 3 The rm has a wide range of uptodate contacts 4 An outside rm can provide the services of experienced executives and creative specialists who would be unwilling to move to other cities or whose salaries a single organization cannot afford 5 An organization with its own PR department may need highly specialized services that it cannot afford or does not need on a fulltime continuous basis 6 Crucial policy matters require the independent judgment of an outsider Counselor s Advantages Flexibility of talents and skills Counseling rms with large staffs emphasize the variety of their personnel and operations available to reinforce and upgrade a client39s internal staff Objectivity In some situations objective and disinterested counsel is the primary reason for retaining outside counsel Range of Prior Experience a PR rm is a repository of living case histories Geographical Scope of Operations Having branches all over the countryglobe is super advantageous The Counselor s Reputation Externally a counselor39s reputation among the press and government of cials can work to the advantage of the clients Internally outside experts can often introduce ideas that internal staffers have struggled to place on the agenda Counselor s Disadvantages Internal Opposition Can range from nonacceptance to outright rejection Questions of Cost and Hours Billed Cost is overwhelmingly the most frequent problem with clients Con icts of Personality or Conviction important criteria when selecting a new rm Dif culties Caused by Distance and Availability Client s Lack of Understanding of PR and Unavailability of Client Management quotgood chemistryquot is one of the most Counseling Firm Costs Fees for services typically are established in one of four ways 1 2 3 4 A monthly retainer covering xed or exible numbers of hours and services A minimum monthly retainer plus billing for actual staff time at hourly rates or on a per diem basis above what is covered by the retainer Straight hourly charges for staff time using fees based on the range of staff experience and expertise Fixed project fee typicay resulting from competitive bidding in response to a request for proposal RFP
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