Fund. of Mgmt EXAM 3: CH 11-15
Fund. of Mgmt EXAM 3: CH 11-15 3013
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by emmarie96 on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3013 at North Dakota State University taught by Dr. James M. Pappas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 213 views.
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Date Created: 04/19/16
EXAM 3: CHAPTERS 11-15 CHAPTER 11 – PERSONALITY A. personality- stable psychological traits/behavioral attributes that give a person their identity B. BIG 5 PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS 1. extroversion – outgoing, talkative, sociable 2. agreeableness – trusting, good natured, cooperative 3. conscientiousness – dependable, responsible, persistent 4. emotional stability – relaxed, secure, unworried 5. openness to experience – intellectual, imaginative, curious, broadminded C. proactive personality- one who is more apt to take initiative and persevere to influence the environment II. CORE SELF EVALUATIONS - represents a broad personality trait comprising of 4 positive individual traits 1. self-efficacy- belief in one’s personal ability to do a task (confidence) a) low self-efficacy = learned helplessness - the debilitating tack of faith in one’s ability to control one’s environment 2. self-esteem- extent to which people like/dislike themselves (overall self evaluation) a) high self-esteem: handle failure better, riskier, choose more unconventional jobs b) low self-esteem: focus on their weakness, have primarily negative thoughts, more dependent 3. locus of control- how much people believe they control their fate through their own efforts a) internal locus of control- believe you can control b) external locus of control- believe external forces control you 4. emotional stability- extent to which people feel secure and unworried and how likely they are to experience negative emotions under pressure a) low- anxiety prone, negative world view high- show better job performance b) emotional intelligence- ability to monitor your/other’s feelings and to use this information to guide your thinking and actions (TABLE 11.3) – traits of emotional intelligence 1. self awareness 2. self management 3. social awareness 4. relationship management III. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR A. dedicated to better understanding and management of people at work B. tries to help managers EXPLAIN & PREDICT workplace behavior C. individual behavior- values, attitudes, personality, perception and learning IV. VALUES - abstract ideals that guide one’s thinking and behavior across all situations V. ATTITUDES A. learned predisposition toward a given object B. 3 components of attitude: ABC’s 1. affective – “I feel”, feelings/emotions about a situation 2. behavioral – “I intend”, intends/expects to behave towards a situation 3. cognitive – “I believe”, beliefs/knowledge about a situation C. cognitive dissonance- psychological discomfort a person experiences between their cognitive attitude and incompatible behavior 1. dealing with this discomfort: importance control rewards 2. reducing cognitive dissonance: TABLE 11.4 change your attitude belittle the importance of the inconsistent behavior find consonant elements that outweigh the dissonant ones D. behavior- one’s actions and judgments VI. PERCEPTIONS A. process of interpreting/understanding one’s environment (FIG 11.2) B. distortions in perception: 1. stereotyping – tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which the individual belongs 2. halo effect – we form an impression of an individual based on a single trait 3. recency effect – tendency to remember recent information better than earlier info 4. casual attributions – activity of inferring causes for observed behavior a) fundamental attribute bias b) self serving bias VII. SELF FULIFLLING PROPHECY A. aka “Pygmalion effect”; phenomenon in which people’s expectations of themselves or others lead them to behave in ways that make those expectations come true VIII. WORK RELATED ATTITUDES A. employee engagement B. job satisfaction- extent to which you feel +/- about various aspects of your work C. organizational commitment- extent to which an employee indentifies w/ an org. and is committed to it’s goals * strong positive relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. * IX. IMPORTANT WORKPLACE BEHAVIORS A. performance & productivity B. absenteeism and turnover C. organizational citizenship behavior – behaviors that are NOT a part of employees’ job descriptions; that exceed their work role reqs. D. counterproductive work behaviors – behaviors that HARM X. DIVERSITY A. represents the way people are alike and unlike, differences/similarities in age, gender, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, capabilities and socioeconomic background B. DIVERSITY WHEEL – FIG 11.3 C. internal (primary) dimensions- human differences that exert a powerful, sustained effect throughout every stage of our lives D. external (secondary) dimensions- personal characteristics that people acquire, discard or modify throughout their lives E. TRENDS IN WORKFORCE DIVERSITY 1. age – older people 2. gender – more women 3. sexual orientation – LGBT more visible 4. race & ethnicity – people of color 5. differing physical/mental abilities 6. educational levels F. BARRIERS TO DIVERSITY 1. stereotypes & prejudices 2. fear of discrimination against majority group members 3. resistance to diversity program priorities 4. unsupportive social atmosphere 5. lack of support for family demands 6. lack of support for career building steps XI. STRESS A. tension people feel when they are facing/enduring extraordinary demands, constraints, oppositions and are uncertain about their ability to handle them effectively; feeling of tension and pressure B. stressors: - demands created by individual differences - individual task demands - individual role demands - group demands - organizational demands - non-work demands C. symptoms: - physiological: headaches, backaches, sweaty palms - psychological: boredom, irritable, nervousness, anxiety - behavioral: sleeplessness, changes in eating habits D. consequences: - burnout E. reducing stress: - roll out employee assistance programs - recommend holistic wellness approaches - create a supportive environment - make jobs interesting - provide career counseling CHAPTER 12 – MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES I MOTIVATION F. psychological precesses that arouse and direct goal directed behavior; difficult to see/understand G. must be inferred H. Motivation Model (12.2) – unfulfilled need > motivation > behaviors > rewards > feedback I. reward types: EXTRINSIC & INTRINSIC - extrinsic- satisfaction in the payoff from others; external reward - intrinsic- satisfaction in performing the task itself; internal reward J. 4 MAJOR PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION: 1. content perspective (need-based) – needs motivate people 2. 5 MAIN THEORIES: a) McGregor’s Theory X / Theory Y b) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs bottom to top: physiological, safety, love, esteem, self- actualization c) McClelland’s Acquired Needs - achievement, affiliation and power- major motives determining people’s behavior in the workplace - not born with our needs; learned from culture - well balanced individual VS control freak individual - need for achievement, need for affiliation, need for power d) Deci & Ryan’s Self Determination - assumes that people are driven to try to grow and attain fulfillment with their behavior and well-being influenced be three innate needs o COMPETENCE o AUTONOMY o RELATEDNESS e) Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory - work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from 2 different factors – work satisfaction from MOTIVATING FACTORS and work dissatisfaction from HYGIENE FACTORS - MOTIVATING vs HYGIENE o hygiene = lower level needs; “why are people dissatisfied?” o motivating = higher level needs; “what will make people satisfied?” f) FIG 12.6 – compares high/low level needs of theories K. PROCESS PERSPECTIVES ON EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION 1. 3 PROCESS PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION a) equity theory – perception of fairness; focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared with others - compares your INPUTS & OUTPUTS with others (FIG 12.7) o inputs- what you put into the job o outputs/rewards- what are you getting out of it? o comparison- how do you think your in/output ratio compares to others? b) expectancy theory – suggests that people are motivated by 2 things: (1) how much they want something (2) how likely they think they are to get it - EXPECTANCY, INSTRUMENTALITY & VALENCE (FIG 12.8) c) goal-setting theory – suggests employees can be motivated by goals that are specific and challenging by achieveable - only useful if people understand an accept the goals - 4 motivational mechanisms o goals direct your attention o goals regulate the effort expended o goals increase your persistence o goals foster use of strategy and action plans - practical results of goal-setting: o goals should be specifc o “ “ be challenging but achievable o “ “ be linked to action plans o goals should NOT be set jointly to be effective o feedback enhances goal attainment XII. JOB DESIGN PERSPECTIVES A. job design- the division of an org’s work among it’s employees and application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance B. fitting people to jobs: - job simplification – reducing the # of tasks a worker performs C. fittings jobs to people: - job enlargement – increasing the # of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation / horizontal loading - job enrichment – building into a job motivating factors like responsibility, achievement, recognition, stimulating work and advancement / vertical loading XIII. JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL A. 5 core job characteristics that affect 3 critical psychological states of an employee that in turn affect work outcomes (motivation/performance/satisfaction) - 5 job characteristics: 1. skill variety 2. task identity 3. task significance 4. autonomy 5. feedback -3 psychological states: 1 experienced meaningfulness of work 6. experienced responsibility for work outcomes 7. knowledge of actual results of the work XIV.REINFORCEMENT PERSPECTIVES A. REINFORCEMENT THEORY- eplains behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated; behavior with negative consequences tends to not be repeated 1. behavior modification B. 4 Types of Reinforcement: (FIG 12.10) 1. positive reinforcement 2. negative reinforcement 3. extinction 4. punishment XV. POPULAR INCENTIVE COMPENSATION PLANS - pay for performance – merit pay - pay based on one’s results - piece rate - sales commission - bonuses - profit sharing - gainsharing - stock options - pay for knowledge XVI. NONMONETARY WAYS OF MOTIVATION - flexible workplace - thoughtfulness - work life benefits - skill building and educational opportunities - sabbaticals CHAPTER 13 – GROUPS & TEAMS I CHALLENGE OF MANAGING VIRTUAL TEAMS - baby steps and manage by results - state expectations - write it down - communicate, but be considerate - be aware of cultural differences - meet regularly XVII. IMPORTANCE OF TEAMWORK (TABLE 13.1) XVIII. GROUPS & TEAMS A. group- two+ freely acting individuals who share norms, share goals and have a common identity 1. formal group- group assigned by organizations or its managers to accomplish specific goals 2. informal group- group formed by people whose overriding purpose is getting together for friendship or a common interest B. team- small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable 1. types of teams (TABLE 13.2) 2. WORK TEAMS FOR 4 PURPOSES - advice teams- created to broaden the info base for managerial decisions; committees, review panels - production teams- responsible for performing day-to-day operations; assembly teams, maintenance crews - project teams- work to do creative problem solving, often by applying the specialized knowledge of members of a cross- functional team; task forces, research groups - action teams- work to accomplish tasks that require people with specialized training and a high degree of coordination; hospital surgery teams, airline cockpit crew, police SWAT team 3. Self-Managed Teams - continuous improvement teams- small groups of volunteers/workers and supervisors who meet intermittently to discuss workplace- and quality-related problems - self-managed teams- groups of workers who are given administrative oversight for their task domains – TABLE 13.3 (EMPOWERING SELF MANAGED TEAMS) C. FIVE STAGES OF GROUP AND TEAM DEVELOPMENT – FIG 13.1 - forming- process of getting oriented & getting acquainted - storming- emergence of individual personalities and roles and conflicts w/i the group - norming- conflicts are resolved, close relationships develop, and unity and harmony emerge; group cohesiveness - performing- members concentrate on solving problems and completing assigned tasks - adjourning- members prepare for disbandment D. BUILDING EFFECTIVE TEAMS 1. cooperating- efforts are systematically integrated to achieve a collective objective 2. trust- reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behaviors 3. cohesiveness- tendency of a group/team to stick together - Enhancing Cohesiveness in Teams (TABLE 13.5) E. SMALL TEAMS vs LARGE TEAMS - small teams: 2-9 members o advantages: better interaction and morale o disadvantages: fewer resources, unfair work distribution, possibly less innovation - large teams: 10-16 members o advantages: more resources, division of labor o disadvantages: less interaction, lower morale, social loafing XIX. ROLES AND NORMS A. roles- socially determined expectation of how an individual should behave in a specific position; task roles, maintenance roles B. norms- general guidelines that most group/team members follow C. WHY ARE NORMS ENFORCED? - group survival - clarify roles - avoid embarrassing situations - emphasize group’s important values and identity XX. GROUPTHINK - a cohesive group’s blind unwillingness to consider alternatives A. symptoms of groupthink: - invulnerability, inherent morality and stereotyping of opposition - rationalization and self-censorship - illusion of unanimity, peer pressure, and mindguards - groupthink versus “the wisdom of the crowds” B. results: - reduction in alternative ideas - limiting of other info XXI. NATURE OF CONFLICT A. conflict- process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party B. dysfunctional conflict- hinders the org’s performance or threatens its interest C. functional conflict- benefits the main purpose of the org and serves its interests D. THREE KINDS OF CONFLICT 1. personality conflict- interpersonal opposition based on personal dislike, disagreement or differing styles 2. intergroup conflict- inconsistent goals or reward systems, ambiguous jurisdictions, status differences 3. multicultural conflict E. DEVICES TO STIMULATE CONSTRUCTIVE CONFLICT - spur competition among employees - change org’s culture and procedures - bring in outsiders - use programmed conflict F. PROGRAMMED CONFLICT - devil’s advocacy- assigning someone to play the role of critic to voice possible objections to a proposal and thereby generate critical thinking and reality testing - dialectic method- process of having 2 people/groups play opposing roles in a debate in order to better understand a proposal G. 5 CONFLICT HANDLING STYLES - avoiding - accommodating - forcing - compromising - collaborating CHAPTER 14 – POWER, INFLUENCE, LEADERSHIP I WIELDING INFLUENCE H. leadership- ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals I. being a manager and a leader (TABLE 14.1) 1. managerial leadership- process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and the process of facilitating individual/collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives (influencing = leadership / facilitating = management) 2. being a manager – COPING WITH COMPLEXITY planning and budgeting organizing and staffing controlling and problem solving 3. being a leader – COPING WITH CHANGE setting a direction aligning people motivating and inspiring J. FIVE SOURCES OF POWER: 1. legitimate power 2. reward power 3. coercive power 4. expert power 5. referent power - personalized power- directed at helping oneself - socialized power- directed at helping others K. TACTICS TO INFLUENCE OTHERS: (know/understand examples!) 1. rational persuasion 2. inspirational appeals 3. consultation 4. integrating tactics 5. personal appeals 6. exchange tactics 7. coalition tactics 8. pressure tactics 9. legitimating tactics L. 5 APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP (TABLE 14.2) 1. trait approaches a) attempt to identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders b) TABLE 14.3 – POSITIVE & NEGATIVE ATTRIBUTES c) Dark Side Traits: narcissism, machiavellianism, psychopathy d) traits of women as leaders? / lack of women at the top 2. behavioral approaches a) attempt to determine the unique behaviors displayed by effective leaders b) TASK ORIENTED- ensures that people, equipment and other resources are used in an efficient way to accomplish the mission initiating-structure leadership transactional leadership c) RELATIONSHIP ORIENTED- concerned with the leader’s interactions with his/her people - consideration- concerned with group embers’ needs/desires and that is directed at creating mutual respect/trust - empowering leadership- extent to which a leadership creates perceptions of psychological empowerment in others - participative management- process of involving employees in setting goals, making decisions, solving problems and making changes in the org. - servant leadership- focuses on providing increased service to others- meeting goals of followers and the organization- rather than oneself – TABLE 14.4 (characteristics of servant leaders) d) PASSIVE LEADERSHIP- lack of leadership skills - laissez-faire leadership- characterized by a general failure to take responsibility for leading 3. situational a) aka CONTINGENCY APPRAOCH – believe that effective leadership behaviors depend on the situation at hand b) CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP MODEL- Fielder’s Approach (FIG 14.1) - is a leader’s style task oriented or relationship oriented, and is that style effective for the situation - 3 Dimensions of Situational Control o leader-member relations o task structure o position power c) PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP MODEL – House’s Approach (FIG 14.2) - holds that the effective leader makes available to followers desirable rewards in the workplace and increase their motivation by clarifying the paths (behaviors) that will help them achieve those goals and providing with support - 8 LEADERSHIP STYLES: (TABLE 14.5) o path-goal clarifying o achievement oriented o work facilitation o supportive o interaction facilitation o group oriented decision making o representation and networking o value based 4. transformational leadership a) aka FULL RANGE LEADERSHIP – leadership behavior varies along a full range of leadership styles (from passive to transactional to transformational) b) influenced by: INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS & ORGANIZATION CULTURE c) 4 KEY BEHAVIORS OF TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS: 1. inspirational motivation - charisma - charismatic leadership 2. idealized influence 3. individualized consideration 4. intellectual stimulation 5. 3 additional perspectives a) LEADER MEMBER EXCHANGE (LMX) LEADERSHIP - emphasizes that leaders have different sorts of relationships with different subordinates - IN-group exchange- trust and respect - OUT-group exchange- LACK of trust and respect b) E-LEADERSHIP: MANAGING FOR GLOBAL NETWORKS - involves 1-to-1, 1-to-many, within group and between-group and collective interactions via information technology
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