RUSS 280 Study Guide for Final Exam on 4/28/16
RUSS 280 Study Guide for Final Exam on 4/28/16 Russ 280
Popular in Intro to Russian Civilization
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/19/16
Lensch 1 WWI and Revolution; Alexander Blok: "The Twelve;" Sergei Einstein, "October and Battleship Potemkin" - 3/24/16 Lead up to the 1905 Revolution 1905 Strike 1905 Russian peasant uprising 1905 assassinations of Russian Grand Duke Sergei Russia --> WWI in 1914 Russia was not prepared Homefront --> famine, desertion, lack of fuel Nicholas I --> believes he is divinely anointed as Czar of Russia Nicholas and Alexandra devoted to each other (love letters) Nicholas leaves to go inspire troops and leaves power with Alexandra and monk (Rasputin) The Provisional Government February revolution of 1917 Czar Nicholas II abdicates power Trying to get asylum in England Provisional government lasts from March 1917 until Bolshevik Revolution Alexander Kerensky leads the provisional government and takes power Provisional government did not end Russia's unpopular participation, in WWI, but led to great resistance Rival of the Provisional Government => the Soviets SOVIETS => the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies Soviets (councils) --> form all over Russia During WWI St. Petersburg --> Petrograd (less German, more Slavic) Army in Petrograd devoted to Bolsheviks --> promised an end to Russia's involvement in WWI The Bolshevik Coup November 7, 1917: "October Revolution" (Julian, old-style calendar) Bolshevik's stage a coup Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky Get Russia out of WWI Lensch 2 Peasants should own land Workers should own factories Declaration of Bolshevik Power, October 25, 1917 Getting out of WWI Peasants get land Workers get factories Government that mirrors councils spread across Russia Bolshevik Actions 1918 --> Bolsheviks end Russian involvement in WWI Confiscate Russian church property --> Atheist Take control of factories and land Get rid of titles --> everyone called "comrade" Confiscate property of nobility and persecute them Cheka (secret police) established December 1917 Change calendar and alphabet End of Romanov Dynasty Nicholas II abdicated the throne after February Revolution Himand his family sent to Urals Conditions worsened after Bolshevik takeover fall in 1917 March 1918 family executed Resistance to Bolsheviks 1918 --> Civil War The reds (Bolsheviks) and whites (anti-Bolsheviks) 1920 --> whites defeated Bolsheviks left in control of Russia --> established Soviet Union in 1922 Cultural Front State recognizes power of artist to shape public opinion Gorky helps save people --> create a dormitory for writers and provide food Help composers, artists, and scholars Save so many people Lensch 3 Soviets expect payback (something in return) Poet Nikolai Gumilev was shot in 1921 ("counter-revolutionary spy") Warning to intelligentsia Alexander Blok and the Revolution Ongoing concern from 1907 on about the relationship between the people and the intelligentsia Blok becomes more interested in turbulence, between people and intelligentsia (poetry itself changes) Blok accepts Bolshevik takeover (believes that they deserve it) Welcomes the destruction He is scorned by the people he grew up with Violence is justifiable in the light of Russian history; indeed, it is necessary Civil War, NEP, Ilf and Petrov, Zoshchenko, Stalinism - 3/29/16 Soviet film Changing 1918 --> soviet government nationalizes Theaters under state control Most immigrated and took their equipment with them Everything was a complete DISASTER! 1923 --> 90 functioning theaters (things got better) Film used for education and propaganda 1924 --> government monopoly on films made in Russia Import movies including American ones and edit them to make them sad Filmmakers contacted by Russian government and "asked" (forced) to make films for them Bolsheviks used film as instrument of propaganda => Lenin Mid-1920s --> golden age of film Great filmmakers => Sergei Einstein Sergei Einstein, 1898-1948 1925 --> "Battleship Potemkin" --> influential propaganda film (famous scene => Odessa steps scene => czarist soldiers massacre lots of people on the Odessa steps) 1928 --> "October" --> storming of winter palace scene Lensch 4 Civil War and Establishment of Soviet Union 1918-1920 Whites (anti-Bolsheviks) vs. Reds (Bolsheviks) Whites defeated and Bolsheviks in control War communism --> things horrible now, but it's going to be phenomenally fabulous Take over factories and excess food produced by peasants => doesn't motivate farmers to produce crops, lots of resentment Huge famine, drought, millions are dying From War Communism to NEP Lenin stops war communism and establishes NEP Capitalism opportunity to earn money and sell your food Businesses thriving, but some people see it as a betrayal of socialism Stereotypes of NEP man (bad, Western, piggish) Literary Front New government Movies propagandizing Want literary propaganda Out/amongst illiterate people emerge the brilliant proletariat writers, but that doesn’t happen Use old generation and teach others how to write People like Blok are teaching the alphabet Power Struggles in Soviet Literature Different Groups: RAPP (Russian Association of Proletarian Writers) Working class should be the only ones allowed to write and they HATED the "fellow travelers" 1925 resolution --> tolerant of all groups 1932 central committee dissolves all groups and you have to be a part of one main group if you want to write Fellow Travelers and Satire Ilf and Petrov, Zoshchenko satirists Lensch 5 Reading: Ilf and Petrov "The Twelve Chairs" 1928 Everyone's heard of it Vorobyaninov --> from upperclass and he learns that the family jewels are hidden in one of the twelve chairs from the dining room. He joins with Ostap Bender to find the chair and they find the chair; however, the jewels have already been found and are gone Satire of characters and all they meet Collect money to "help orphans," but keep money for themselves Zoshchenko, "Crime and Punishment" 1933 Most popular writer in 1920s Volunteer to fight with Red army Satirist Captures confusion of 1920s, return of capitalism Satire of new rulings and regime and its rhetoric In this play, people are alarmed of being arrested and main character think's he's being arrested, but instead he's a witness for another person's trial Rise of Stalin Born in 1879; from Republic of Georgia Becomes a Bolshevik Him, Lenin, and Trotsky are main trio Trotsky did not like Stalin and warned against him ruling Stalin gained power after Lenin died in 1924 People upset that Lenin died, so they mummified him "Lenin is not dead" You can go see his body in a glass case... Power struggles: Left: Trotsky --> without world revolution, socialism in Russia doomed Right: Bukharin --> continue compromising with NEP Center: Stalin --> socialism --> socialism in 1 country Major Policies: Collectivization of Agriculture Brutal disaster for peasants Began 1928 Lensch 6 Determined attempt to put agricultural production (all farms and farmers) into huge, state-owned collective farms 5 million rural households disappeared People would seize crops, stock and herd peasants into collective farms Peasants didn't want this so they slaughtered all the animals and towns disappeared Major Policies: Industrialization 5-year-plan Strike against capitalism Began 1928 Industrialized Huge cost, however, all money is put into industrialization Huge results! Arrested millions of innocent people => forced labor used on huge construction projects and canals Major Policies: Purges Began 1934 after assassination of Leningrad part boss, named Kirov (Stalin killed him) Stalin pretends that he's miserable and arrests people he thinks that killed Kirov (even though Stalin was the killer) Purge, cleansing, and spreads to military to government/civil service to general population Innocent people arrested, tortured, sent to camps doing hard labor and then killed => Gulag camps After Stalin died, many of these people are rehabilitated People brainwashed to think that if you were arrested, that you were indeed guilty (even though everyone was innocent) Most who got arrested --> "the thinkers," writers, composers, musicians, and artists If you didn't immigrate, then you'd be "purged" --> arrested and killed Stalin's Purges - 4/5/16 1934 Kirov --> party boss in Leningrad Lensch 7 --> made Stalin nervous, so he killed him ==>> Stalin then accused innocent people of killing Kirov --> popular Party purged/killed off those who disagreed with Stalin Peaked in 1936-1938; "The Great Terror" Show trials: "criminals" confused Brainwashed people into believing they were indeed guilty Charged with association with Trotsky Spread of Purges Purge affected all Party organizations Began in the Party Continued/spread into government branches Then the army Then political police itself Then the civilians Perpetrators Stalin, Khrushchev, Mikoyan, Malenkov, Beria, Molotov They would airbrush people out of photos once killed Ginzberg Spent 18 years in Gulag camps Had two sons Reunited with sons Anna Akhmatova From well-off family Grew up in comfort Meets well-known poet/marries him --> Nikolai Gumilev (1910) Acmeism Lensch 8 1912 poetic movement Down to Earth Frist Collection of Poetry Clear, concise poetry Acmeism Akhmatova 1921 --> Gumilev shot by government for alleged involvement in counterrevolutionary plot Akhmatova devastated 1922 --> becomes hard for her to publish 1946 --> Zoshchenko and Akhmatova were attacked, so they go to union of Soviet writers, but soon after left They were expelled by Union of Soviet Writers and lost right to publish She then stayed with friends and translated for a living Post-Stalin: release of Lev, new publishing opportunities Young poets gathered around Akhmatova (she was the only surviving poet because all others were killed) Received literary prize in Italy (1964) "Requiem" 1938-1940 Poem => written on scraps of paper where Akhmatova and Lydia Chukovskaya memorized them and then burned the paper because they didn't want to get caught Lev Gumilev and "Requiem" 1938 Lev arrested, tortured, Kresty Prison for 18 months, sentenced to death roe, then 5 years of Siberian exile instead Lev survived fighting in WWII, resentenced to Gulag Released after Stalin's death and lived until 1992 Kresty Prison Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Lensch 9 Shaped like crosses (the buildings) Monuments To victims of Gulag To victims of political repression Monument to Akhmatova near Kresty Prison WWII - 4/7/16 1939 --> Russians and Germans signed neutrality agreement They split Poland (Russia moved into East Poland --> Germany attacked them) Siege of Leningrad September 1941 – January 1944 All good fighters were killed off Germans could not capture Leningrad Took 2 years Starvation, disease, almost ½ of population dead, Russians refused to surrender The Aftermath of WWII Millions dead Germans destroyed us Soviet Union gets bigger (Baltic States and Eastern Poland added) Rebuild USSR (five year plan) Focus on industrial production rather than human need Called "Great Patriotic War" Khrushchev Denounces Stalin Stalin dies in 1995 Khrushchev takes control of Soviet Union 1956, "Secret Speech" --> denounced Stalin, innocent people killed, did NOT denounce the system, only Stalin 1957 --> release people from the camps and rehabilitate the people Lensch 10 This speech allows him to separate from Stalin 1964 -> Khrushchev removed from power Alexander Solzhenitsyn Writer First published thanks to Khrushchev Born 1918 --> one year after Bolshevik revolution Volunteered to serve in WWII February 1945 --> criticized Stalin Internal exile (couldn't go home) Becomes a teacher Writes, "A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich" About Gulag camps Story of poor Russian peasants caught in Stalin's camps Solzhenitsym condemns Soviet system Political Consequence of Khrushchev's Resignation 1964 Khrushchev forced to resign Brezhnev forbidden to publish, teach or live in Moscow Celebrated abroad, 1970 won Nobel prize Exiled to Germany and ends up in Cavendish, Vermont, USA 1991 --> Soviet Union falls apart Start publishing Solzhenitsyn's books again He returned to Russian at age 75 Had a radio show, was a celebrity in his native land Became disenchanted: said post-Soviet Russian culture spiritually bankrupt 2008 --> dies "Matryona's Home" Hard working and charitable (Matryona is) Poor Not luxury living situation She's had a rough life She's a survivor Constantly working and doing for others People take advantage Lensch 11 Mother Russia --> crushed by trains (trains = Soviet "progress") Metaphorical She is basically killed She is giving away her home The 1960s – 1970s: Brezhnev, Stagnation, The Bards: Okudzhava and Vysotsky - 4/14/16 Khrushchev removed from power in 1964 Lenoid Brezhnev became Soviet Head of State until his death in 1982, at age 75 Strengthening agriculture and energy on Soviet arms system and space system First man in space (Yuri Gagarin, 1961) Stagnation: bureaucracy, governmental corruption, system breakdown Party elite were doing fine/prospered (corrupt) Difficulties on Cultural Front Joesph Brodsky trial 1964, exiled 1972 Accuse him of "social parasitism" Sinyavsky-Daniel trial 1965: clear signal to intelligentsia that "Thaw" over Other leading cultural figures exiled, such as Solzhenitsyn in 1974 Guitar Poetry During Khrushchev period Scholar Gerald Smith => part of upsurge "Bards" Reacting against writing about communism Bards instead write about individualism and bad stuff that happened Bards Tape recorders beginning to be available --> music circulated on unofficial home-made tapes Russian underground culture: gypsy romance, the prison song Individual emotion Bulat Okudzhava, 1924-1997 "Patriarch" of Russian guitar poet/bards Parents arrested in purges Lensch 12 After Stalin's death, both parents rehabilitated Okudzhava joins Party and becomes a member of the Soviet Writer's Organization The portrayed "hero" in his poems --> problematic, too personal He wasn't allowed to publish Vladimir Vysotsky, 1938-1980 Writer, singer, actor Very charismatic, colorful Actor from 1964 worked with director, Yuri Liubimov, at the Taganka Theater, star of theater 1971 --> played Hamlet Appeared on radio, film, TV Married French actress --> unheard of! He died in 1980 (only in his 40s) --> people say he burnt out Thousands went to his funeral Bards important in presenting cultural alternative to official Party line Bard Sand and wrote guitar poetry following in Okudzhava's footsteps, but much more volatile and shocking in style Official condemnation => seen as anti-Soviet Glasnot, perestroika, and the end of the Soviet Union, Tatiana Tolstaya, "Sleepwalker in a Fog," Film excerpt: Little Vera - 4/19/16 Late Soviet Leaders Brezhnev dies 1982 Then Andropov and Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power in 1985 Hugely significant They hate him in Russia, but everywhere else they thought he was amazing Committed communist Wants to reform the system Important policies: Perestroika => restructuring; take away privileges Glasnost => "openness" "voiceness" = hearing opinions/free speech; you are allowed to complain; blame Gorbachev when people don't stop talking Gorbachev starts losing control of the country While Mikhail Gorbachev was in charge of Russia... Loses control of country and of East European satellite nations People are protesting (free speech) 1986 Chernobyl disaster Nuclear reactor blew (in Ukraine) Lensch 13 Soviet Government denied anything was wrong No one knew of the nuclear reactor breach Word got out and people believed the government was poisoning them; government cover up became a huge outrage New and shocking cultural content 1988 film Little Vera 1989 Communism collapses in Eastern Europe Gorbachev lets this happen – he doesn't send in tanks or soldiers 1990 Party's monopoly on power in Soviet Union rescinded 1991 End of Soviet Union Hugely popular in US, reviled in Russia People are confused Where is Russia going next; who are we? Transition from Gorbachev to Boris Yeltsin Yeltsin was Gorbachev ally who then became opponent Elected President of Russian Republic in June 1991 despite Gorbachev's opposition August 1991 defended Gorbachev from coup by hardliners in government opposed to Gorbachev's reforms November 1991 bans Communist activities in Russia December 1991 with Ukrainian and Belorussian leaders dissolves Soviet Union and creates Commonwealth of Independent States December 25, 1991 Gorbachev resigns Soviet Union is gone Yeltsin gets old and decrepit He nominates Putin Yelstin's Russia, 1991-1999 Transition to capitalism: "shock economics" Market economy People in streets selling everything they own to get money People in dumpsters looking for food Poverty, inflation, huge corruption, disillusionment Incredible disparity of wealth Tatiana Tolstaya Born in Leningrad 1951 Great grand-niece of Leo Tolstoy Studied classics, then worked in publishing Literary debut 1983 Collection On the Golden Porch came out 1987, international sensation Writes about Putin and what is going on in the world Divides time between Moscow and US "Sleepwalker in a Fog" Tolstaya prizes style over plot Lensch 14 Revels in language Compared to Chekhov Became a writer specifically to explore the Russian language Certain themes that she returns to over and over again Sleepwalker in a Fog Chaotic in transitions Very internal Obsession with maps and Australia, fiancé's Papa, and Aunt Rita Geography is this surreal response to the fact that at this time, maps are being rewritten (no one knows their identity) General disorientation of a sleepwalker in a fog resembles how people are feeling Written like it was in a dream; nothing is making sense This woman looks like his deceased Aunt Rita Aunt Rita was arrested and then he didn't talk about her again, he just silently mourned her death He decides that he wants to figure out a way to remember people Metaphor in the sleepwalker in the fog => civilians of Russia Early post-Soviet Russian Literature Formerly forbidden themes flourished Dissolution of empire, life expectancy down, huge environmental problems, despair, lack of meaning This is why Putin is so popular, he restored faith and happiness and purpose in lives One Russian critic at the time: "It is no longer the Gulag, but Russia herself, galling apart at the seams, that serves as a metaphor for life."
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