Popular in General Biochem
Popular in Biochemistry
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allie Bartlett on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 349 at a university taught by Dr. Runquist in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
Metabolism Carbohydrates Starch carbohydrates amp triacylglycerides Fat COMPLEX MOLECULES gt OXIDATION gt C02 H2O Expelled Catabolism SIMPLE MOLECULES gt REDUCTION gt Glycogen and triacylglycerides Complex Anabolism Synthesis Anabolism catabolism Metabolism Carbohydrates CHZOn Glucose CHZO6 Energy 0 Carbohydrates can attach to proteins or lipids as glycoprotein or glycolipids They play an important role in signaling 0 All carbohydrates are in the D configuration Two major types of carbohydrates 1 Aldose a Aldehydes carboxyl group on the terminal carbon b ex DGlyceraldehyde c Common 5amp6 carbon aldoses i DRibose RNADNA ii DGlucose Which carbon is oxidized first iii DGalactose epimer of glucose Carbon 4 Hydroxyl is switched compared to Glucose C4 Galactose looks just like glucose however the carbon4 is in beta form opposed to the glucose alpha form iv DMannose epimer of glucose bc C2 OH is opposite of glucose 2C 1 x A b H x H 0 car ony or aldehyde H o I 39 H C 1OH 39 HOI c H H C rOH hydroxyl H C 39TOH 39 39 groups H c i OH H C OH CHZOH39 CH ZOH Dglucose D39ribose leno 1CH0 H ciao H caoH Ho E C H HG EC H 4 A Hz IZT OH H L oH H SC OH I JIJC UH Hit 0H mole EC IrIgO lll in11201 D M nnnee DGluwee epimer an Call Epi rml HEE41I 2 Ketose a Ketones carboxyl in the middle of the carbon chain b ex dihydroxyacetone 0 Common 6 carbon ketose i DFructose ii Some notable characteristics of fructose it is a 5carbon ring has TWO OH side chains on the 1C and the 6C Looks like Ribose but ribose only has one OH side chain in the 5C ring EltHEDH Hun3H2 c EHEUH 2cn 5 HUI 2 Haj H fl fructose 4 3 DH H q DH OH H 5 DH EHEDH H o quot39 I H IZ OH H ll OH C0 H Cl OH H CI OH H H Gliyceraldehyde Dihydroxyacetone an aldotriose a ketot riose When naming the carbons 0 make sure to label them by highest priority most oxidized most oxygen The first carbon highest prioritymost oxygen is called the anomeric carbon 0 The carbon FURTHEST away from the anomeric is called the Asymmetric carbon That determines the D or L Sugarcyc za on GLUCOSE Glucose after it undergoes cyclization can exist in either alphaDglucose or BetaDglucose 1 On alpha the OH group of the primary most oxidized anomeric carbon is opposite side of the carbon 6 a Typically contains 13 amount of alpha glucose opposite side of carbon 6 b Typically contains 2 beta glucose same side as carbon 6 2 On beta the OH of C1 is on the same side as the C6 chain a Typically contains 23 MOST OFTEN IN BETA FORM EHEUH EL GH alphaEv lucoee HG 39 H H EFF UH EH JI i HEI H H IZZIH 1 HIGH H TUH ma a x 39 3 GH Wat393 f H EH ItsetaaI Elumse DGILI39EEESE 3H b li FRUCTOSE After fructose undergoes cyclization it exists as the MOST STABLE five carbon ring and can either exist as alpha D fructose or BetaDfructose ll Hun a I 391 HIle f H all C BDfructose willfructose HE39ch O H HEch Oquot CHQOH DISACCHARIDES mportant 1 Lactose a 8 b REDUCING SUGAR 2 Sucrose a amp b NONREDUCNG SUGAR Unlike lactose and maltose BOTH anomeric carbons are tied up therefore preventing its ability to reduce 3 Maltose b REDUCING SUGAR at least one anomeric carbon is not involved in a glycosidic linkage ZOn IOZltmm 9 bmzmo w m mcq vE 9 H W quot E In mwooam ho 828 mm 92 m w 26288828 m w cmmoozw m Ewe w mEosvmm m 32 w mcNuxO TOE O EgEmEmm mmahusm amp 2 Eq 3 E H 5 a 3 m g a EHEH mm m ml a 335 In The reducing end is the farthest right cyclic 1C anomeric carbon not involved in linkage The nonreducing end is the end on the farthest left where the anomeric carbon is linked Glycogen is able to have many nonreducing ends lmportant ON EXAM III or QUIZ ETHEEH WW I 39 Iii n Ea El lm H 393 39 rquot i139 u quot39quot thing fir 39 i Elm 2 Eli EHL Eltli THEREH gran again quot1f iw H mulchElihu 9 g H Jr E ger39 39 quotu 239 quotF I n m air 11 E a lulu 5 1 LI u 5 I W F EELL39ULEIEE A II an an 33 uh J W J quot1E7 faquot 2 g 7 r q l Jag affrpn an H Ell I In ma a15 LL 1 5 a E r IJ 39 a l a In rq awn39 a it in FIJltti Llirri39 WEE3 ring h Polysaccharides are carbohydrate polymers consisting of tens to hundreds to several thousand monosaccharide units All of the common polysaccharides contain glucose as the monosaccharide unit Polysaccharides are synthesized by plants animals and humans to be stored for food structural support or metabolized for energy Glycogen Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals and humans which is analogous to the starch in plants Glycogen is synthesized and stored mainly in the liver and the muscles Structurally glycogen is very similar to amylopectin with alpha acetal linkages however it has even more branching and more glucose units are present than in amylopectin Various samples of glycogen have been measured at 1700600000 units of glucose The structure of glycogen consists of long polymer chains of glucose units connected by an alpha acetal linkage The graphic on the left shows a very small portion of a glycogen chain All of the monomer units are alphaDglucose and all the alpha acetal links connect C 1 of one glucose to C 4 of the next glucose The branches are formed by linking C 1 to a C 6 through an acetal linkages ln glycogen the branches occur at intervals of 810 glucose units while in amylopectin the branches are separated by 1220 glucose units Acetal Functional Group Carbon 1 is called the anomeric carbon and is the center of an acetal functional group A carbon that has two ether oxygens attached is an acetal The Alpha position is defined as the ether oxygen being on the opposite side of the ring as the C 6 In the chair structure this results in a downward projection This is the same definition as the OH in a hemiacetal Starch vs Glycogen Plants make starch and cellulose through the photosynthesis processes Animals and human in turn eat plant materials and products Digestion is a process of hydrolysis where the starch is broken ultimately into the various monosaccharides A major product is of course glucose which can be used immediately for metabolism to make energy The glucose that is not used immediately is converted in the liver and muscles into glycogen for storage by the process of glycogenesis Any glucose in excess of the needs for energy and storage as glycogen is converted to fat CHO Polymer Type of Branches Branching Characterist Polymer of linkage frequency ics Glycogen aglucose 11 4a1 6 YES Very glycosidic frequent linkage about every 12 Amylose aglucose 11 4 NOlinear Amylopecti aglucose a14a16 YES branched n glycosidic every 1230 anage Cellulose Bglucose 314 NO linear More stable than glycogen mostly in the chair form LOTS of H bonding provides a bunch of suppon Metabolism Intro 0 The liver is the hub of metabolism and glucose 0 Metabolism includes both degradative and synthetic processes Oxidation and reduc on o REMEMBER ArCo I Anabolicreduction I CatabolicOxidation 0 Metabolic Pathways are 0 Complex 0 Connected o Regulated Why does glucose go to one place over another 0 Localized to specific regions in the cell mitochondria cytosol 0 Not all cells capable of operating each type of pathway the liver can run mosta ll pathways though 0 KEY intermediates in metabolism Glucose6phosphate Pyruvate glyceraldehyde3phosphate Acetyl CoA eateeereremmm lee mewlee 0000 if itsg39tfiiig i lfgz39i39gail ttijcn fillingrgtfait il l l zLeie IHeta 1 Deldreducteeee TransFer F hvdrgen and exegen Dehyreeneeee eteme er eleetreee frern ene eieaeee euhetrete te anether E TrehefEFeeee Trenef er f e epemfie green T reheemiheee El pheephte er methyi ate Kinaeee frem ene eubetrate te anethei 3 Hydreleeee Hydrelyeae el 3 guestrete Eetreeee meetiee eeeemee k4 Ieemereeee 39Chenge et the meleeuler ferni et Phrasehi heee the eubetrete leerrlleeer Fumeree E Lyeeee Ner hedreletie remuel ext e ereue Deemhwleeee er eddiiien if e grew be a Aldelasee u betra tie Eh Ligeeaee Lielining er twe meleeulee by the Eltrle eenzl Syntheteeeej Fm m til eF new enee eentheteee Know these OxidationReduction Reactions are KEY reactions in metabolic pathways 0 These rxns involve the transfer of electrons and require vitaminderived electron carrierssuch as o nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NAD Niacin is a cofactor o nicotinamide adenine dinucleotidephosphate NADP or o Flavin adenine dinucleotide FADH Riboflavin is a cofactor B2 0 Generally enzymes that catalyse oxidation reactions have a name that ends with dehydrogenase enzyme involved in removing hydrogens AG WhenAG0 the ratio of products to reactants is at equilibrium However When the RATIO of Productsreactants is GREATER than the equilibrium constant AG will be POSITIVE ex ProductsReactantskeq9 amp ProductsReactantsActual 20 the rxn wants to get back to equilibrium and will be positive If one knows the Keq for a reaction we are able to calculate the RTnproductslreactantseq RTnproductslreactantsactual RTnproductslreactantseq R 8314 JK391mol391 T27325298 K o Often biochemical rxns do not have a AG 0 therefore unfavorable rxns are coupled to favorable rxns Hydrolysis is VERY thermodynamically favorable o The rxn ATPHZO gt ADP Pi will generate aAGO 30kJmol391 c When trying to figure out the totalAGO add up the totaIAGO for both rxns 0 ATP is not the only source of energy AcetylCoA contains a thioester bond that is a major metabolic intermediate and the hydrolysis of the thioester bond generates A LOT OF ENERGY GLYCOLYSIS QUESTIONS 1 Which steps generate ATP Do any steps require ATP Which steps are involved in oxidation cofactor required Which steps are regulated HOW Where does glucose C1C6 end up in pyruvate Fnth N 2 Phases of Glycolysis 1 Energy investment phase a 1st 5 rxns b lnvest 2 ATP 2 Energy Payoff Phase a 2 5 rxns b Make 4 ATPs NET 2 ATPS Glucose is readily transported in the blood stream amp it can be transported into cells by the plasma membrane glucose protein GLUT 2 o GLUT 2 is the MOST PREVALENT glucose transporter
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