Popular in Child development
Popular in Educational Psychology
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Texana Sonnefeld on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EDP 301 at University of Arizona taught by Heidi Burross in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 325 views. For similar materials see Child development in Educational Psychology at University of Arizona.
Reviews for sg1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/18/15
EdP 301 Spring 2015 27 April 2015 Exam 4 Study Guide Bring a 2 pencil and ID to the exam Format The inclass exam will consist of multiple choice truefalse and one short answer question The exam will take place Wednesday 13 May 2015 from 10301230 pm in Educ 353 Content This is intended to be used only as a guide to studying not as an exhaustive list of concepts on the exam Not all topics presented here are guaranteed to be covered on the exam The exam will cover topics from the book l from lecture Piges 114130 224229 Intelligence Gender And Personality 42 of the exam Historical theories of intelligence Spearman 1927 0 People have both general intelligence g and speci c s types of intelligence General intelligence g is mental energy required to perform a mental task people would generally perform the same on all tasks Thurston 1938 0 People have seven speci c intellectual abilities 1 verbal comprehension 2 associative memory 3 word uency 4 reasoning 5 number ability 6 spatial visualization and 7 perceptual speed Cattell 1971 0 People have uid general problem solving amp learning and crystallized speci c acquired knowledge intelligences uid is innate abilities mental ef ciency no verbal abilities decreases over time crystalized is learned skills increase over time Gardner s theory of multiple intelligences Eight intelligences Intelligence A convenient way of labeling some phenomena that may but may well not exist black or white you can have more than one like a bar graph they are independent of each other but many may exist in the same person these are not learned they can change as you change but they are innate o Verballinguistic uses words effectively high auditory skills think in words great writers speakers 0 Logicalmathematical strong reasoning skills calculating think conceptually and abstractly o Spatialvisual think in terms of physical space ex architect aware of their environment think in images 0 Bodilykinesthetic use body effectively ex dancer surgeon keen sense of body awareness 0 Musical sensitivity to rhythm and sound typically love music aware of sounds in the environment hear it perceive it may be distracted by it 00000 O O Intrapersonal understanding one s individual goals like to work by themselves independent shy away from others within yourself Interpersonal understands and likes to interact with others learn through interaction with others between yourself and others Naturalist sees naturally occurring patterns in nature and in other environments And now Spiritual Existential and Moral recently added similar to Maslow s self actualization Examples of activities and these intelligences Group activities interpersonal Making a graphic organizer mathematicallogical visualspatial Re ection existential intrapersonal Mind mapping visual spatial mathematicallogical It is important to understand all individual s intelligences to understand how to best reach them in the learning environment Pros Widely accepted in education userfriendly simple lots of tools out there some schools are based on this concept Cons Where does it end Intelligences or talentsinterests He s added since he rst put out the theory Sternberg s triarchic theory of intelligence o Triarchic Theory of Intelligence 3 intelligences study based on Yale graduate students believes that if intelligence is properly de ned it will translate into reallife success 1 Analytical mental steps or components used to solve problems relates to how a person processes and analyzes information book smart did well on SATs without studying Practical contextual how you react to your environment and your ability to change to ful ll their needs street smart using what they know to make it work for them Creative experiential how they approach new information or a new task person s ability to apply existing knowledge to new problems art smart Pros Generally accepted Cons Tough to test falsify Emotional intelligence According to Salovey and Mayer 1990 emotional intelligence is the ability to 4 branches 0 O O Perceive and express emotion accurately and adaptively Understand emotion and emotional knowledge Use emotion to facilitate thought and manage emotions in oneself and others reasoning 0 Manage emotions in oneself and others ability to empathize how to clam others down in a retail situation 0 Pros Compelling idea used by some to sort through applicants 0 Cons Not widely accepted as intelligence Definitionsdeterminations of gender sex amp gender roles Sex biological parts male and female Gender roles culture how men should act and how females should act behaviorsactions we expect masculine and feminine Gender what you identify yourself as sex and gender roles help identify your gender Biological sociological amp cognitive views of gender Biological views on gender Genetic biochemical and anatomical differences are present TRAIT MALE IFEMALE Genetic Chromosomes XY XX Biochemical Hormones I Testosterone I Estrogen Anatomical Genitals Penis Vagina Scrotum Uterus Testes Ovaries Biology is not destiny allows for modification ex Some males may have more estrogen than others etc o The brain s plasticity allows experiences to modify its growth Sociological and cognitive views on gender specific 9 broad Psychoanalytic theory Freud look at our parents to nd out what it means to be femalemale gender roles come from our views of our parents Social cognitive theory Bandura watching all kinds of models around us all the people we encounter directly and indirectly Gender schema theory Piaget 9 schema but didn t actually talk about gender our understanding of malefemale is even more broad imitating models but also our understanding formulating our own theories feedback from hair based on all types of experiences Similarities and differences in males and females Physical performance males are generally more athletic men tend to be stronger and faster women usually have more endurance and graceful prepuberty there aren t very many differences Math and science interests men tend to express interest in math and science while women tend to focus on English and history abilities however are the same Educational attainment females are more likely to graduate high school get a bachelors degrees masters degrees and PhD s Prosocial behavior prosocial helping behaviors males and female are fairly equal when it comes to volunteering and social situations it tends to be females when it comes to capital and rescuing activities it tends to be males Aggression both males and females physical aggression males male brains are more isolated in compartments in emotionalsocial terms aggression females grudge holding brains are more connected Verbal skills women use a lot more words in a day than males they use more variety of words as well Emotional expression women tend to be better at reading other people s emotions and expressing a variety of emotions frustration anger upset Interpersonal interactions how we read each other in interactions women get with their friends to talk can be activity based but mostly about talking females are more subtle ex My birthday is coming up and I really liked that sweater males get together do activities they talk about the activity at hand males are more direct Does this dress make me look fat Yes Culture has a very important role on these things also historically it matters because women were not allowed to speak be confrontational so they had to be subtle Big FiveOCEAN theory of personality Freud aspects relate basis for a lot of personality theories out there today relates to aspects as we see are more consistent over time I Openness how open they are to new ideasprocesses people can be on a continuum opposite would be closed Conscientiousness being aware of other things around you such as people being thoughtful of others opposite would be uncaringcasual Extraversion outgoing social outward gains energy from others prefer to be with others opposite would be introversion Agreeableness passive individual goes along with the ow easy to get along with opposite would be stubborn Neuroticism thinking of yourself anxious worried like things in a particular way opposite would be calm Personsituation interaction theory The best way to characterize an individual s personality is not only in terms of personal traits or characteristics but also in terms of the situation involved avoid fundamental attribution error 0 Fundamental attribution error need to consider the person and the environment to avoid it 0 Ex When someone cuts you off in traf c you are angry and you think they are a jerk you believe their behavior attributes to who they are could be environmental it is them that is the problem classi cation about them 0 When you do the same thing you are not a jerk you accept more environmental views about your actions you are in a hurry you need to get out now or you never will 0 Can lead to stereotypes if you don t consider all the factors perhaps cultural views of the situation Chapter 12 Classroom Management 40 Complexities in and reasons for management issues General reasons for management problems Be proactive 0 There is little privacy amp space elbows stuff going into other s areas concerned about individual space can lead to con ict 0 Activities occur simultaneously things happen all the time even if the activity has been planned to a T re alarms bloody noses students having individual tutoring sessions etc 0 Things happen quickly can happen when you turn around for a second 0 Classrooms have personalities having speci c moods disruptive friend groups that create havoc having a substitute time of day can affect classroom management ex after lunch or recess age of the classroom affects classroom personality 0 Events are often unpredictable even with extensive training 0 Classrooms are multidimensional academiccognitive social aspects emotional physical not feeling well didn t sleep well Considerations from the start amp strategies Management goals and strategies 0 Help students spend more time on learning and less time on nongoaldirected behavior keeping pace and using time effectively Avoid disruptions can never be perfect just do your best Prevent students from developing problems resolving small problems before they become bigger issues that are harder to deal with later on From the start O 0000 Establish behavioral expectations and address student uncertainties set the tone from the very beginning easier to back off than to exert more control later be more of a hard ass than you intend to be have students establish the rules with you in the beginning however you have ultimate authority eliminating down time or show how to be productive during down time most crime in adolescence happens because of boredom Ensure students experience success students feel they can thrive in that environment Be available and visible don t sit behind the desk all the time etc Be in charge many different ways to show you have control without being controling Model and demand respect of and for all you can almost tell how a teacher treats students by observing for a moment need to model respect if you want to be respected yourself everyone is worthy of your love and care even if you don t particularly care for them accountability and responsibility Characteristics of effective managers Show how they are with it knowing what is going on within the classroom with the students know things that are going on in student s lives 0 Know the students individually and can anticipate problems where being proactive is helpful Cope effectively with overlapping situations have to deal with things all at once tapping a noisy student on the shoulder acknowledging that someone is going to the bathroom 0 Transitions tend to be most problematic as things get started moving from math to science Maintain smoothness and continuity in lessons keeping ow 0 Encourage amp engage students in a variety of challenging activities if they are motivated the less likely they will be off task keep stimulated and challenged Classroom seating considerations amp action zone Basic principles of classroom arrangement physical space 0 Reduce congestion in hightraf c areas keep them open 0 Make sure that you can easily see all students low bookcases etc 0 Make oftenused teaching materials and student supplies easily accessible open book shelf 0 Make sure that students can easily observe wholeclass presentations make sure they can see you Classroom arrangement styles 0 Auditorium style rows of desks facing the front could have table and chairs as well activities for this type of classroom could be presentations lecture movies focused on one activity 0 Seminar style rainbowhalf circle surrounding center activities discussion debates interactive activities 0 Cluster style small group clusters typically facing each other activities group m o Facetoface style pairs of students facing each other activities reciprocal teaching studyingquizzing oneonone interactions 0 Offset style 3 or 4 different desks each are facing different directions activities testing individual work Action Zone Students in these seats are more likely to interact with the teacher ask questions and initiate classroom discussions sitting across the front and down the middle tend to be more interactive used more in a teachercentered approach all types of seating arrangements can use this to your advantage by seating offtask individuals in this zone Management styles Baumrind s theory Authoritative tends to be most effective 0 Firm but caring 0 Have reasons for rules which are explained o Consistent 0 High expectations 0 Effects on students Controlled sense for authority respect for authority Authoritarian not involved in caring my way or highway students don t have autonomy first year teachers tend to do this style or permissive style 0 Conformity Don t explain rules don t allow for questions Detached Do not encourage verbal give and take Effects on students May become rebellious because they want freedom difficulty with creativity and understanding authority Permissive crazy mom like Regina s mom in mean girls Allow a lot of freedom Limited expectations Sometimes caring involved Few demands on children 0 Effects on students Tend to have better grades not getting evaluated properly Uninvolved teacher that doesn t try a whole lot 0 Few expectations 0 Little interest in child s life 0 Effects on students Resilient 0000 0000 Styles Warmth Control Student Autonomy Authoritative Appropriate Authoritarian Low High Low Permissive High Low High Uninvolved Low Low Indifference Behavioral contracts May be used with a range of behaviors being late or defiance behaviors can be with individual students or the whole class 0 Make sure targeted behaviors are clearly defined no getting out of your seat without raising your hand Should clearly identify the targeted behaviors 0 Where how often with whom its okay in music class but not in here its okay at home but not in class Replace the undesired behaviors with desired ones replace it with something 0 As you know it is tough to just quit Include a system for tracking behavior chart on the wall for the class something in a students desk for individual contracts Reinforcement for behavior change 0 May also include punishments if needed stopping is punishment but also having reinforcements helps Also give the contractees renegotiation rights give yourself and students negotiation rights may need steps to accomplish the goals 0 May need more gradual behavior changes different reinforcers there may be mis identified or new stimuli to be considered student talking to the person next to them is always going to be the issue no matter who they sit by changing their seat won t work don t be afraid to change the rules admit you are wrong and change it also a good model for students when you are wrong Minor and moderate behaviors amp interventions Minor management issues behaviors that are nonrepetitive and nondisruptive but could lead to those ex showing up a few minutes late but coming in quietly whispering while the teacher is talking reading when they aren t supposed to be eating in class Would include behaviors that are not disruptive or repetitive To deal with O O O Use nonverbal cues giving a look walk near them tap the deskshoulder Keep activity moving can t stop every minor behavior every time you won t get the activity done Provide needed instruction as a reminder we are on page 89 Redirect the behavior everyone look up here Be direct and assertive hey I m not done stop packing up for a minute please Give students a choice between appropriate behavior or consequences if you can t get on task we aren t going to do our fun activityadditional homework assignment Moderate management issues classroom rules per classroom Would include ongoing or repetitive minor problems as well as disruptive behaviors ongoing disruptive to learning process ex Yelling out excessive talking getting out of the seat eating etc To deal with 0 Have a system established for these issues the rules posted and consequences first offense second offense etc Withhold privileges or desired activities after school activities recess etc Isolate or remove students could have an agreement with another teacher 9 go see Mr Jones Does not mean to leave them alone Must be supervised Impose a penalty or detention demerit system calling out students during class telling them to cut it out Maior problem behaviors Maj or management issues schoolwide policies Fighting 0 Emphasize inappropriateness perspectivetaking and cooperation schooldistrict comes in schoolwide policies help students begin to understand each other create a task that forces them to cooperate and work together Bullying 0 Develop a school climate characterized by high standards parent involvement and effective discipline bystander power if one person steps in and speaks up that can be all it takes having high standards in performance attitude can help having a program in place for when these things happen constructive and feedback on behaviors Defiance 0 Diffuse privately and avoid power struggles other students feel the need to get in on it so do it privately avoid power struggles promote respecttrust Communication skills Good communication Use 1 as opposed to you messages using you projects it on them I notice when you makes it easier for them to become defensive diffuses situation Focus on positive consequences Avoid aggressive hostile approaches take a time out breath before you do something you regret Try not to manipulate or push buttons Be assertive being direct but showing love afterwards standing your ground attacking a point of view rather than the person 0 Assertive people express their feelings ask for what they want and act in their own best interest aggression is intent to harm different than assertion Nonverbal communication very cultural Facial expressions the look think about your face when someone is telling you something you don t like try to maintain neutrality open smile vs closed smile eyebrows surprise vs anger eye contact interest paying attention Space genderage differences romantic vs friendly moving around the classroom to grab attention much harder to ignore someone in their space Touch big differences in comfort levels appropriateness etc culturalindividual differences tap on the back to quiet down the student Silence works well when you have offtask students effective when your are trying to get a confession out of someone silence is uncomfortable you can wait it out and it usually works Body language open shoulders in a oneonone hands in pockets shows in openness eye contact hands on the face means hiding etc Benefits of communication with parents Strategies for involving parents Personal communications no excuse for not communicating email website phone call letter etc 0 Notes through the students or mail good for responsibility of the students log in on website for grades notices etc 0 Make email known to parents professional 0 Phone calls Class newsletters what is going on in class important things Have parents and students sign classroom contractsassignments know when they are failing signing tests etc Ask for parent volunteers in the classroom career days reading day eld days For parents who aren t involved may require a home visit or a meeting don t penalize the students for parent s uninvolvement it is however a legal matter for permission slips Super involved parents set speci c dates or times they can be there Student bene ts of parental involvement Higher longterm achievement more involved by parent choice is higher achievement in the long run Greater willingness to do homework parents will know if they don t More positive attitudes and behaviors positive views on education Better attendance and graduation rates more likely to graduate and attend school Higher levels of responsibility and selfregulation higher responsibility Increased enrollment in post secondary education more likely to go to college Chapter 13 Models Of Instruction 18 Objectives 1 Identify the meaning and importance of planning 2 Consider the methods advantages and disadvantages of teachercentered instruction 3 Describe the characteristics and types of leanercentered instruction Direct instruction Teachercentered instructional strategies Direct Instruction 0 High teacher direction and control walk into class teacher teaches walk out of class focused on teacher sharing information little to no talkingdiscussion 0 High teacher expectations of students progress expecting that students are with them during the material eXpects no confusion etc o Maximization of time on academic tasks bene t that students are on task because they have to in order to be caught up Good for big classes Mastery learning Teachercentered instructional strategies Mastery Learning mastering a task without thinking can be used with the other systems above but is speci c to a learning area 0 Specify the task 0 Design learning units based on instructional objectives 0 Plan instruction to include corrective feedback 0 Evaluate mastery level at the end of the unit course Orientinglecturing Teachercentered instructional strategies OrientingLecturing 0 Still teacherfocused but encourages student input during lectures encourage interaction but still teacher focused 0 Establish a framework and orient students to new material using advanced organizers learning will occur in outlines very structured helps with transitions with old learning and new learning connections 0 Take the time to explain and demonstrate new material Questions and discussion Teachercentered instructional strategies Questions And Discussion teacher directs questions and class discusses about interaction 0 Teacher poses questions and has students discuss 0 Use factbased questions before thinkingbased questions why Build from the bottom up establishes parameters they can discuss keeps focus establishes foundation to make sure everyone understands the concept 0 Avoid yesno and leading questions short answer no discussions leading questions doesn t allow for their opinions 0 Give students time to think rephrase if they appear confused Be clear purposeful and brief while keeping focus 0 Monitor your response to students answers when a student gives a wrong answer direct them into a way that doesn t completely shut them down well that s not how we use this in this topic followup if you think some students are competent or others are not you will followup on a student you don t think has it while you don t followup with a student you do think gets it 0 Encourage students to ask questions O Learnercentered strategies Leamercentered instructional strategies teachers provide initial prompts but students take it from there 0 Problembased learning students identify reallife problems locate materials and address the issues teacher guides student problemsolving reallife problems that students work on the solution teacher s role is secondary 0 Essential questions questions that re ect the most important things that students should learn what questions students need to know and the students nd the answers perhaps over a few weeks 0 Discovery learning students construct an understanding of their own teachers provide stimulating activities students provide resourcesactivities to discover something eX go build a bottle rocket Leamercentered instruction 0 Characteristics of students in leamer centered approaches there are schoolsclassrooms devoted to these types of instruction correlational I Cognitive and metacognitive factors developmental advancement hitting milestones earlier cognitively Piaget I Motivational and emotional factors greater motivation for learning I Developmental factors language development sooner I Social environmental factors good at seeking out and providing rescores for others work well with others socially Characteristics of effective teachers and teaching What are characteristics of effective teachers and teaching 0 000000 0000000 0 Teachers with good listening skills Expertise in content area Positive authoritarian roles but warmth too Differentiated instruction encourage learning in new ways Following lesson plan but being exible as welladaptation Social skills working with others Understanding of your students where they are at developmentally and cognitively what are the expectations Valuable feedback constructive and effective Curiosity and equilibrium Emotionalselfregulation being able to model it as well Making things interestingrelevantfun Inclusive of multicultural backgrounds and diversity Positiveprofessional relationship with students Being genuine not everything works for everyone be true to yourself and your learning style Communication with parentshome life
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'