Exam one study guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Luna Falk on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 160 at University of Arizona taught by Prof. Suzanne Eanes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see RUS in Russian at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
GreeksKepler A Greeks and the birth of science a Geometry and math were principle b Simplestprinciples i Water ii Atoms c Philosophy pure reason i Less emphasis on observation and measurement ii Pyhtagorus6th century d Aristotle 384322 i Serious in uence 1 Motion 2 Matter 3 4 elements earth water fire air B Concepts on organization and motions of objects in Universe i Aristotle 1 Geocentric earth at center 2 All bodies moving at a constant speed on concentric spheres 3 Permanent unchanging ii Aristarchus of Samos 3rd BC 1 Heliocentricsun at center 2 Objection earth can t move it s impossible a But everything else moves we can see it i stellar parallax b his model was rejected and forgotten in the burning of the Alexandria library 3 Ptolemy 2rld AD a Compiled Almagest great collection b Predicted planetary motion with fair accuracy c Unchallenged until 1543 with Copernicus 1 ii iii iv v vi Planets move around earth Concept of epicycles and deferents to explain planetary motion esp retrograde Circle turning on a circle Needed ad hoc assumptions equant imaginary center of motion errors of several degrees in planetary positions 4 Copernicus 14731543 a Challenger of the Establishment 1 ii iii Polish astronomer who studied in Italy Sun was source of all knowledge Main work on the revolution of the heavenly spheresquot iv Model 1 Heliocentric 2 Inner planets moves faster than outer ones 3 Moon circles earth which explains phases 4 Stars are very far away 5 Earth rotates once per day a Effects i Better planetary predications ii Aesthetically better iii Not immediately widely accepted iv Censored by the church but not banned 5 Tycho Brahe 15461601 Danish astronomers Expert at visual observations Observed a nova Made 20 years of observations i Contributions 1 High precision measurements using state of the art instruments 2 Tables of planets positions 3 Records eclipses 6 Iohannes Kepler 15711630 German exceleld at math Tried to explain planetary spacing and speed Important break from Aristotle Worked for Brahe Major effort motion of mars i Data forced him to draw shapes other than circles ii Worked out 3 laws of planetary motion 9962 99962 b Keplers laws 1 The orbit of a planet about the sun is an ellipse with the sun as one focus a Eccentricity how squashed or round ellipse is b Ocircle1straightline 2 A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas in in equal intervals of time a Orbital speed is not constant b Planets move faster when nearer to the sun c Slower when away from sun 3 Size of orbit determines orbital period a Aquot3auPquot2years b Mass does not matter ii Rudophine laws 1627 iii Contributions Insisted his models agree with observations Invented idea for physics basis 3 laws of planetary motion era of modern astrophysics 1 2 3 4 a b c c Galileo 15641642 physical theory based on observations reject models that disagree emphasizes experimentation over observation i Worked for Medicis ii Astronomical use of a telescope 1 Craters on moon 2 Milky way stars 3 Galilean satellites by Iupiter iii Book The starry messenger gained him instant fame iv Later would add to evidence of a heliocentric model Sunspots Phases on Venus 1 2 a b Supported that idea that Venus must orbit the sun Venus is smallest in full phase and largest in new phase Therefore Venus must be close to earth while in full phase and far from earth in new phase Dialogue containing the two chief world systemsquot a Major work in Italian b Argues in favor of Copernicus c Forced to recant in front of pope and was under house arrest until death Mechanics a Invented concepts to describe motion b Inertia tendency to stay at rest or move in line at same speed c Gravity force exerted on earth d Showed all objects fall at same rate with no significant air resistance e Contradiction of Aristotle teaching Achievements a First use of telescope b Developed ideas about motion inertia and gravity Laid foundation for Newton d Made a firm foundation for the scientific method V The scientific process 1 Essential elements a Precise terms b Quantitative repeatable measurements c Evidence of assertions 2 Steps a Observe and or measure b Analysis c Develop an explanation hypothesis d Test e Develop a theory based on test and hypothesis results i All theories make predications that may ultimately show it is wrong 1 And lead to improvement and replacement a This is crucial difference between science and pseudo sciencequot d Newton i 16421727 1 Studied at Cambridge Called a true genius by his 20 s Developed laws of motions and gravity Invented calculus Studied properties of light Invented re ecting telescope a Basis for all modern telescopes ii Principia 1 Published in latin 2 Presents his 3 laws of motion and law of gravity a Law 1 inertia a body at rest or moving at a constant velocity in a straight line remains in this state unless acted on by a net force velocity speed and direction b Law 2 fource the acceleration of an object due to an applied force is in direction i Proportional to the strength of the force ii Inversely proportional to the mass iii Fm a c Law 3 reaction for every force applied to an abject a force of equal strength but in opposing direction arises 991990 d Law of gravity strength of force between two objects is i Proportional to mass of each object ii Proportional to inverse squared of distance between them iii FGm1m2d2 iii Terminology 1 Mass amount of material in an object 2 Weight force of gravity pulling on an object a Mass and weight are proportional b G is the acceleration due to gravity at Earths surface iv Newton s achievements 1 Developed laws of motions and gravity 2 Had great predicative power 3 Invention of the re ecting telescopes C Conservation laws in astronomy a Laws of matter and energy b Energy and matter change form but don t disappear c Assumption laws apply everywhere in universe i Conservation of momentum 1 Momentummassvelocity 2 To change momentum a force must be applied 3 When 2 objects collide the individual momentum can change but total momentum remains constant ii Conservation of angular momentum 1 2 Angular momentum mass velocity radius Angular momentum can change if it exchanges angular momentum with another object total momentum is CONSTANT a Explains Keplers second law i Planets on elliptical orbits move faster closer to the sun ii Spinning earth slows if exchanging angular momentum with something like moon Conservation of energy a Energy what causes changes in matter b Main types i Kinetic energy of moving objects ii Thermal or heat microscopic motion of atoms 1 Bouncing around in gas 2 Iiggling around in solid and liquid 3 Temperatures measures kinetic energy C iii Radiant energy carried by light microwaves iv Potential stored energy of position Law energy can change form but is not created or destroyed 4 Conservation in the universe a b Total energy in the universe is CONSTANT If something looses energy the amount lost is transferred to some form so TOTAL energy is unchanged
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