HBM 235 Exam 1 Study Guide
HBM 235 Exam 1 Study Guide 235
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cara Tomlinson on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 235 at Washington State University taught by Tyler Stumpf in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 160 views.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
HBM 235 Study Guide 02072015 Ch 1 The Destination Mix Attractions and Services for Travelers 0 Scope Primary vs secondary a Primary Destination one that is attractive enough to be the primary motivation for tourism visits and one that is aimed at satisfying visitors for several days or longer a Secondary stopover Destination either an interesting or necessary place to visit on the way to a primary destination and it aims at satisfying visitors for one to two days a Certain areas can be primary destinations for one segment of the market or stopover destinations for other segments 0 Tourist market segment a group of people that have something in common Private Public government Nonpro t Site attractions n Attractions of a physical nature They are largely permanent with their locations being xed Event attractions a Short in duration and their location can be changed Natural resources Climate Culture History a War a Religion n Habitation a Government Ethnicity Accessibility 0 Events Festivals 0 Intrinsic Attributes a When local culture is turned into an attraction for tourists it becomes a commodity a When culture commodi cation is thus sold it can lead to a loss of authenticity n Flip side tourism can make people proud of their culture Local people can use that identity and pride to become empowered in their own communities mass produced unspecialized product 0 Lodging 0 Food and Beverage 0 Support Industries Facilities provided for visitors in addition to food lodging and beverage 0 Physical Water power etc Organizational Banks governments courts etc Water systems Communication networks Health care facilities Power sources Sewagedrainage areas Streets highways Security systems 0 a complete transport system consists of the following four elements 0 Modes 0 The Way 0 Terminals 0 Technology 0 the general feeling of welcome that visitors receive while at a destination area 0 Hospitality Training 0 0000000 n Emotional labor Determined by organizations and society 0 Surface acting vs deep acting a Attitude toward Self n Attitude toward Others I Attitudes toward Subject Matter 0 Teaching Speci c Behaviors 0 Community Awareness Programs 0 Attractions are the central aspect of tourism 0 Can be natural or manmade Ch 10 Forces Shaping Tourism Culture Time Socioeconomics Life Cycle Stages and Personality o The Effects of Culture on Travel 0 Travel decisions are highly individualistic 0 Background and identity effects Push and pull factors differ for different segments and cultures 0 set of beliefs values attitudes habits and forms of behavior that are shared by a society and transmitted generation to generation 0 Sum total of your life experiences habits and traditions o your own culture becomes shocking to you because you traveled experienced new things and assimilated to other cultures 10 visible aspects of culture a Clothing n Jewelry a Music a Language n Practices and traditions 90 internal aspects of culture a Values In Beliefs n Experiences n Desires n Roles n Morals o In travel and tourism cultural values Determine vacation behaviors Determine attitudes and perceptions in travel In uence how we evaluate the world in travel Impact satisfaction Cause con ict 0 Culture and Society Culture has an impact on travel and tourism in ve ways a Cultural vaues give individuals rules for behavior a Cultural vaues develop certain attitudes and perceptions a Cultural values in uence how people evaluate the world a Cultural differences can impact the level of satisfaction that tourists have with a destination a Cultural differences can cause difficulties in social interactions 0 Culture and Social Groups Social groups have roles or standards of behavior unique to each group Groups can be classi ed as either primary family or friends or secondary unions fraternities churches etc o cultures of different countries can vary greatly In order to successfully attract people from a particular country it is necessary to be aware of these cultural differences Hofstede suggested analyzing culture through four dimensions based on dominant value patters F o The closeness of the relationship between one person and other persons SCALE 0 Individuals look after their own self interests and those of their immediate families People are supposed to look after the interests of their ingroup and have no other opinions and beliefs other than those of their in group Masculine societies 0 Sharp division between what men and women should do 0 Importance is given to such things as showing off achieving something visible and making money Feminine societies 0 Importance is placed on things such as people relationships over money the quality of life and preservation of the environment 0 How society deals with the fact that people are unequal o The US Culture How societies deal with the fact that time runs only one way Weak uncertainty avoidance societies people will take personal risks rather lightly will not work so hard and will be relatively tolerant of behaviors and opinions different from their own High uncertainty avoidance societies try to control the future through such things as formal and informal rules to protect themselves from the uncertainties of human behavior In societies like this the word of experts is relied upon much more heavily than in a weak uncertainty avoidance society Some of the basic traits of the American culture that have in uenced the travel behavior of Americans are U Love of originality n Desire to be near nature a Individualism a Social acceptance 0 The Effect of Time on Travel 0 Spending Time Time can be spent in a Maintenance activities activities that involve a certain degree of obligation and that are necessary to sustain and maintain life a Work a Leisure the time remaining after work and maintenance activities have been completed Socioeconomic Variables and Their Effect on Tourism Demand 0 Age The relationship between tourism and age has two components a The amount of leisure time available relative to age a The type and extent of activities undertaken at various age levels 0 Generational In uence The generational in uence is the common set of shared experiences that all member of a generational cohort went through by those who came of age approximately between the ages of 17 and 23 during a particular decade 0 Income 0 Gender Women travel for one of three reasons a Restrelax a Friends D Social 0 Education Life Cycle Stage families evolve through a certain cycle The characteristics of the family at the various stages of its life cycle offer certain opportunities or exert various pressures that affect purchase behavior 0 Presence of Children 0 Empty Nesters o Barriers to Leisure Enjoyment Three general constraints to travel have been identi ed a lntrapersonal such as individual attitudes n Interpersonal perhaps where a partner is not available a Structural such as a lack of time money bad weather etc Personality 0 Personality Traits If a relationship between certain activities and certain personality traits can be established an appropriate marketing strategy can be developed 0 Personality Types lntroverted El Look into themselves and tend to be shy Extroverted El Otheroriented looking outside the self and tending to be objective rather than subjective in oquok Psychographics has developed as a way of describing consumer behavior in terms of a distinctive way of living in order to determine whether or not people with distinctive lifestyles have distinctive travel behaviors El quotIf you attract more dependables and become more touristy you are going to sow the seeds of your decline for your destinationquot 0 More ideal to attract nearventurer travelers El El Less venturesome and less exploring Cautious and conservative Prefer popular wellknown brands of consumer products Often look to authority gures for guidance and directions in their lives Structure and routine lntellectually curious Live with risk Experiment with new products Look to their own judgment rather than authority gures for guidance and directions Prefer a day lled with varying activities and challenges rather than routine tasks The ideal position for a destination is to attract near venturer travelers Ch 11 Why Do People Take Vacations Needs Wants and Motivation 0 Importance of Motivation 0 Five classes of tourist motives Climateatmosphereenvironment Relaxationhaving a good time Adventuresomething newnoveltycuriositya desire to experience something rsthand Personal reasons including VFR and prestige Educational including seeing other cultures how others live particular sights 0 Eight motivational groups Experientials Family focused Casual travelers Trail blazers Reconnectors Af uentials Back to basics Quintessential travelers Push n Determine whether we should go I lnternal to individual n Psychological needs and desires Escape reconnect novelty relax adventure I Determine where to go I External to individual I Characteristics of destinations 0 Activities events attractions Pull factors can satisfy push factors I Must understand your market Cultural differences in push and pull factors a Matching important 0 Ex Pull for japanese tourists Motivation Occurs when a person wants to satisfy a need Homeostasis A state of psychological stability Obiective perception that a 5 speci c travel destination or service will satisfy the need 0 Travel as a NeedWant Satis er 0 Needs Wants and Motives Maslow s Need Theory and Travel Motivations n Survival hunger thirst rest activity a Safety security freedom from fear and anxiety El El Belonging and love affection giving and receiving love Esteem selfesteem and esteem from others Selfactualization personal selfful llment Motivators El Intellectual component extent to which individuals are motivated by such mental activities as learning exploring discovery though or imagery Social component extent to which individuals are motivated by such things as the need for friendships and interpersonal relationships or the need for esteem of others Competence mastery component extent to which individuals are motivated by such things as the need to achieve master challenge and compete Stimulus avoidance component extent to which individuals are motivated by such things as avoiding social contact seeking solitude resting and unwinding Ch 12 Selecting a Travel Destination The Importance of Image 0 The Search for Information 0 Information Sources The sources of information used varies depending on El Nature of decision making the extent to which the trip is a routine weekend drive for example or a rst time cruise Composition of traveling party Whether an individual is traveling along or with friends andor family Purpose of trip Mode of travel Stage in the family life cycle Socioeconomic status Length of stay 0 Getting the Message Noticed Technical factors that affect consumer sensitivity and perception the object product or service as it actually exists o The Process of Perception Image the set of meanings by with an object is known and through which people describe remember and relate to El Organic Image formed by news reports magazine articles etc uncontrolled Induced Image advertisements and other paid marketing controlled Induced image characteristics 0 Functional directly measurable Ex price average temperature crime rate of dive boat operations etc o Psychological more abstract cannot measure directly Ex Friendly relaxed rugged adventurous exotic o How We Perceive F El El El Real self who we are deep down ldeal self who we want to be Apparent self how we are seen by others Reference group self how we believe we are seen by others ldeal social self how we want to be seen by others Strive for match between destination image and selfconcept El El Create induced image that matches segment s selfimage The more information a touristtraveler has the less time they will spend evaluating whether there is selfcongruity with destination 0 Bene t Segmentation o Marketinglmplications High expectation and negative perceptions n Least satis ed Low expectations and negative perceptions n Moderate dissatisfaction High expectations and positive perceptions n Moderate satisfaction Low expectations and positive perceptions a Most satis ed Want expectationspositive perceptions gap to be as high as possible Positive discon rmation when perceptions outperform expectations Ch 13 Travel Purchase The Traveler s Buying Process 0 Travel Purchase The Traveler s Buying Process Unawareness set Awareness set U Knows but does not express any affection with 0 Knowledge and Comprehension o Attitudes Interest and Liking Evoked set U Destinations considered for next vacation Surrogate set a Destinations not prioritized but kept as spare alternatives Exclusion set U Automatically reject this destination Dream set a ldeal but permanently unavailable Unavailable set U Considered but temporarily unavailable Available set U Feasible realistic possible 0 Purchase Trial and Action O I l I I l LIEIiEIth Ell i il39l ih I II I I a I b I II DTEELIIT 521 I I ll l I I r I l II39ilIIE39III11IIILT m I ha E I 1quot l E a l I 3 mdriHIIEiIl mII IL 3 A r A A ll I I I a II p fr 91 II 1 Awareness I quot In MIME III139 I I quot Fmol I n I m I flirtijf39a 5E II Sil 39 glll quot1quot Winnmu HI F ILL I r I I i I I I i1 i I I I E I I I l E I i In Exclusion sol I I E I l I 3 I 1 Io I a I I II l I l MARKET Consideration I Evaluation Emmottmots I E hoioo I 0 Ideal path AwarenesslevokedlevailabeFinal Choice 0 Adoption 0 postponing or deferring product purchases 0 As perceived risk increases hesitation increases 0 As perceived risk decreases hesitation decreases 0 As knowledge increases strength of relationship is weakened o IIIJ TiH knnwle w Tim r ihil risk I ll iftaliiti ptrtuplgum Traveler s Decision Making Process 0 All destinations travel choice 0 Move in quotchoice setsquot 0 Each set is in uenced by different things 0 Internal push and external pull factors 0 In uenced by image 0 Involves information search risk reducing behavior Model of Travel Decision Making Process 0 4 distinct stages 0 Consideration evaluation constraints choice Consideration n Unawareness set or awareness set reveals knowledge not intention Evaluation n Exclusion set automatically reject this destination I Surrogate set destinations not prioritized but kept as spare alternatives n Evoked set destinations considered for next vacann Constraints a Dream set ideal but permanently unavailable n Unavailable set considered but temporarily unavailable n Available set feasible Choice a Final choice El
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