Exam 2 Study Guide MGT 304
Exam 2 Study Guide MGT 304 MGT 304
Popular in Management: Organizational Behavior
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma betito on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 304 at University of Miami taught by Cecily Cooper in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 248 views.
Reviews for Exam 2 Study Guide MGT 304
Great notes!!! Thanks so much for doing this...
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/18/15
MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Chapter 7 Motivation Key concepts Motivation 0 The process of arousing and sustaining goal directed behavior 0 The processes that account for an individual39s intensity direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal 0 The level of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times 0 The three key elements of motivation are 1lntensity concerned with how hard a person tries 2Direction the orientation that bene ts the organization 3Persistence a measure of how long a person can maintain hisher effort Selfactualization 0 Opportunities for creativity personal growth promotion Motivator factors Hygiene factors 0 When hygiene factors are suf cient people will not be dissatis ed Neither will they be satis ed To motivate people managers must emphasize intrinsically rewarding factors that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it Promotion focus 0 Those with a promotion focus strive for advancement and accomplishment and approach conditions that move them closer toward desired goals Prevention focus 0 Those with a prevention focus strive to ful ll duties and obligations and avoid conditions that pull them away from desired goals 0 It39s probably best to be both promotion and prevention oriented Cascading objectives Selfef cacy 0 Con dence you are in reference to your goals 0 Higher level ofjob ef cacy higher chance of achieving their goals lnstrumentality Valence Effective coaches Modem Maslow39s Hierarchy of Needs Theory 1 Exhibit 71 O O O O O O MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Maslaw39s Hierarchy 1quot Mess Physiollogiimil 3 Maslow hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of ve needs beginning with physiological needs that include hunger thirst shelter sex and other bodily needs The second level is safety needs that include security and protection from physical and emotional harm The next level is social needs that include affection belongingness acceptance and friendship Reaching a higher level we nd esteem needs that include internal esteem factors such as selfrespect autonomy and achievement and external esteem factors such as status recognition and attention At the top of the hierarchy is selfactualization needs this is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming and includes growth achieving one s potential and selfful llment Selfactualization opportunities for creativity personal promotion Esteem fancy job title recognition of achievements Social good team atmosphere friendly supervision Safety safe working conditions job security Physiological salary growth McGregor s Theory X and Theory Y 0 Douglas McGregor39s Theory X and Theory Y concluded that a manager s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions Theory X Assumptions are basically negative Employees inherently dislike work and must be coerced into performing Lowerorder needs dominate individuals Theory Y Assumptions are basically positive MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play higherorder needs dominate individuals Hertzberg39s Two Factor Theory 0 Exhibit TE Cinmpalrisnn Exaltisi iers and Di altis ers Fact rs thlumctm zingl 1i 3 53 Fancian ch r cmrizimg 1 w39nis an 39l39lllu iab Hal11 ItalII in lavmuffs am I39mc mah that illmud 39l39a E39JEI39I39EI39I IE mhisfatl39iinm Extra2mm dissa sl t i n 45 40 35 25a 3 E 39 25 5E 10 13 7 r it 2 E E i Equot 3quot E El w F hi quot5 e I E 2 TE 3 39 m 1 Q E E 0 7 r 7 7 E E E3 4 E 39 quotf m 39339 quot 7 Es a i E 4 a a E E E 1 Ti E gtJ E 21 u 3 E m quot El E 3 E 1 El E J m E i g 3 quot U m E g E 0 He investigated the question quotWhat do people want from their jobsquot the twofactor theory is sometimes also called motivationhygiene theory Herzberg asked people to describe situations in which they felt exceptionally good or bad about their jobs These responses were then tabulated and categorized 0 From the categorized responses Herzberg concluded that intrinsic factors such as advancement recognition responsibility and achievement seem to be related to job satisfaction Dissatis ed respondents tended to cite extrinsic factors such as supervision pay company policies and working conditions 0 Moreover the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors McClelland s Theory of Needs 0 The theory focuses on three needs 1Need for achievement nAch drive to excel to achieve in relation to a set of standards to strive to succeed 2Need for power nPow need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise MGT 304 Exam 2 Review 3Need for af liation nA desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships 0 Most support research out of the four early theories but we don39t use it SelfDetermination Theory 0 Proposes that people prefer to feel they have control over their actions 0 Research on selfdetermination theory has focused on cognitive evaluation theory People paid for work feel less like they want to do it and more like they have to do it o If you get paid you start feeling negative about whatever your task is because it demotivates you since it starts feeling like a chore and something you have to do 0 Proposes that in addition to being driven by a need for autonomy people seek ways to achieve competence and positive connections to others 0 When extrinsic rewards are used as payoffs for performance employees feel they are doing a good job Eliminating extrinsic rewards can also shift an individual39s perception of why he or she works on a task from an external to an internal explanation Goal Setting Theory 0 Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort is needed 0 Evidence suggests Speci c goals increase performance Dif cult goals when accepted result in higher performance than do easy goals Feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback 0 Three other factors in uencing the goalsperformance relationship 1Goal commitment Goal commitment is most likely to occur when goals are made public when the individual has an internal locus of control and when the goals are selfset rather than assigned 2Task characteristics 0 Goals themselves seem to affect performance more strongly when task characteristics are simple rather than complex well learned rather than novel and independent rather than interdependent On interdependent tasks group goals are preferable 3 National culture Goalsetting theory is culture bound and it is well adapted to North American cultures where individual achievement and performance are most highly valued Research has not shown that groupbased goals are more effective in MGT 304 Exam 2 Review collectivists than in individualist cultures In collectivist and highpower distance cultures achievable moderate goals can be more highly motivating than dif cult ones Equity Theory Exhibit 7 Equity Tl1eerfF Hetie Eemparieenei39quot Perception e l E lUlt 39 clue te leeingl underrewardeel lg lg Ettnulitgar lg lg en lneelltlitjpr clue te leeingl everrewerdedl l i lg Where i2 represents the em pleyee end i3 represents relevant ethers 1 El t J 0 Equity theory argues that individuals make comparisons of their job inputs and outcomes relative to those of others and then respond to any inequities If we perceive our ratio to be equal to that of the relevant others with whom we compare ourselves a state of equity is said to exist We perceive our situation as fair When we see the ratio as unequal we experience equity tension People who feel overpaid increase work ow Expectancy Theory ExhibitTu ExeetaneyTheery Etterl periermenee releiienehip Perlermenee rewerd reletienship Eewrs persenl geels relei ienehip t A o Expectancy theory argues that a tendency to act in a certain way depends on an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual An employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes that MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Effort will lead to a good performance appraisal A good appraisal will lead to rewards The rewards will satisfy his or her personal goals 1 expectancy 2 instrumental 3 valiance where you value the reward 0 Motivation Expectancy x Instrumental x Valiance Organizational Justice Theory 0 Overall perception of what is fair in the workplace lEIIIl39Iibi it T J l Miadell af r ganizati nal Jiulsi i e o Distributive justice Perceived fairness of outcome Ex I got the pay raise I deserve 0 Procedural justice Perceived fairness of process used to determine outcome Ex I had input into the process used to give raises and was given a good explanation of why I received the raise I did 0 lnteractional justice Perceived degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect When telling me about my raise my supervisor was very nice and complimentary MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Chapter 8 Motivation Applications Key concepts Skill Variety 0 Degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities and involves the use of a number of different skills and talents of the individual Task Identity 0 Degree to which the job requires the completion of a quotwholequot and identi able piece of work one that involves doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome Task signi cance 0 Degree to which the job is important and involves a meaningful contribution to the organization or society in general Autonomy 0 Degree to which the job gives the employee substantial freedom independence and discretion in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures used in carrying it out Feedback 0 Degree to which carrying out the work activities provides direct and clear information to the employee regarding how well the job has been done Employee Growth Need Strength 0 Enriched core job characteristics will create positive psychological states which in turn will create positive work outcomes only when Employee growthneed strength is high Motivating Potential Score 0 The core dimensions of the JCM can be combined into a single predictive index called the motivating potential score MP5 0 To be high on motivating potential jobs must be high on at least one of the three factors that lead to experienced meaningfulness and high on both autonomy and feedback 0 Ifjobs score high on motivating potential the model predicts that motivation performance and satisfaction will improve and absence and turnover will be reduced Job Rotation o Referred to as crosstraining 0 Periodic shifting from one task to another 0 Strengths reduces boredom increases motivation and helps employees better understand their work contributions MGT 304 Exam 2 Review 0 Weaknesses creates disruptions requires extra time for supervisors addressing questions and training time and reduced ef ciencies Job Enrichment o the practice of enhancing job content by building more motivating factors such as responsibility achievement recognition and personal growth into the job 0 vertical expansion giving you more autonomy responsibility Increases the degree to which employee controls the planning execution and evaluation of the work You control how to do all the tasks I give you 0 Job enrichment shows Reduced absenteeism and turnover costs Increased satisfaction 0 Job enrichment is not for everyone Because some people don39t want extra work or autonomy they39d ratherjust be told what to do do it again and again Employees need knowledge and skill forjob enrichment o Enriched core job characteristics will create positive psychological states which in turn will create positive work outcomes only when Employee growthneed strength is high The employee has the requisite knowledge and skill Relational job design 0 To make jobs more prosocially motivating Connect employees with the bene ciaries of their work Relate stories from customers who have found the company39s products or services to be helpful Meet bene ciaries rsthand Employees see that their actions affect a real person and that their jobs have tangible consequences Connections make customers or clients more accessible in memory and more emotionally vivid Leads employees to consider the effects of their actions more Fosters higher levels of commitment Flextime o Allows employees some discretion over when they arrive at and leave work Job sharing 0 Allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40hour aweek job Telecommuting 0 Employees who do their work at home at least two days a week on a computer that is linked to their of ce Employee involvement 0 a participative process that uses employees39 input to increase their commitment to the organization39s success Variable pay programs 0 Many organizations are moving away from paying solely on credentials or length of service MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Piecerate plans Meritbased pay Bonuses Pro t sharing Gain sharing Employee stock ownership plans Earnings therefore uctuate up and down Flexible Bene ts 0 individualize rewards by allowing each employee to choose the compensation package that best satis es his or her current needs and situation 0 Replaces the quotonebene tplan tsallquot programs designed for a male with a wife and two children at home that dominated organizations for more than 50 years Intrinsic rewards o Rewards are intrinsic in the form of employee recognition programs 0 Financial incentives might be more motivating in the shortterm but non nancial rewards are more important in the longterm Extrinsic rewards o extrinsic in the form of compensation systems Modem Job Characteristics Model Exhibit 3 1 The Jeb Chereeteriet iee Medell Crilieeil l7 Pereeneil n l llmenelene pey ehelegleel aides werk euleemee Skill Heriely39 Experienced High inlerrrell leek idenl ly39 L 39 7 memning jlneee werk milimiiem leek Signi cance mi ll39le writ I ll39Higheliutlll 1r H d werk ernneinee Experience re n ibimy m High eeliehe rin luleemee eff llhe werk lquot V 1h V p k WI e wer Aunemyr ll anledgie et lire w eieenrleeiem eehrel reeulle et the enrrd lurrrwver werllt meliviiiee T Empl 39 Erewlh T nee l elrenglh Feed melt MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Theob Characteristics Model JCM proposes that any job may be described by ve core job dimensions 1 Ski variety is the degree to which the job requires a variety of different activities so the worker can use a number of different skills and talent TEACHER 2 Task identity is the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identi able piece of work 3 Task signi cance is the degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people TEACHER 4 Autonomyis the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom independence and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out TEACHER college level teachers are very autonomous 5 Feedback is the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance TEACHER MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Chapter 9 Group Behavior Key concepts Groups formal and informal o A group is de ned as two or more individuals interacting and interdependent who have come together to achieve particular objectives 0 Formal groups like an airline ight crew are those de ned by the organization39s structure with designated work assignments establishing tasks The behaviors that one should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals 0 Informal groups are alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined but instead are natural formations in the work environment in response to the need for social contact So for example three employees from different departments who regularly eat lunch together is an informal group Social Identity theory 0 Considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups The more we identify the more impact it has on us identities help us understand who we are and where we t in with other people but they can have a negative side as well 0 Schadenfreude If we have very strong social identity we feel very strong for successfailure of group People have emotional reactions to the failure or success of their group because their selfesteem gets tied into the performance of the group 0 ngroup which occurs when we see members of our ingroup as better than other people and people not in our group as all the same Team Roles o a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit 0 Role expectation Role expectations refers to how others believe you should act in a given situation The psychological contract is an unwritten agreement that exists between employees and their employer It sets out mutual expectations what management expects from workers and vice versa It de nes the behavioral expectations that go with every role If roe expectations as implied are not met expect negative repercussions from the offended party unwritten agreement expectations between management and employees 00 MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Role Con ict 0 Role con ict refers to situations in which the individual is confronted by divergent role expectations It exists when compliance with one role requirement may make it more dif cult to comply with another During mergers and acquisitions employees can be torn between their identities as members of their original organization and of the new parent company 0 situation in which an individual faces divergent role expectations Team Norms o acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group39s members 0 Performance norms provide explicit cues about how hard members should work what the level of output should be how to get the job done what level of tardiness is appropriate and the like These norms are extremely powerful and are capable of signi cantly modifying a performance prediction based solely on ability and level of personal motivation 0 Appearance norms include dress codes unspoken rules about when to look busy and the like 0 Social arrangement norms focus on whom to eat lunch with or whether to form friendships on and off the job 0 Resource allocation norms include the assignment of dif cult jobs and the distribution of resources like pay or equipment Reference Groups 0 Individuals conform to the important groups to which they belong or hope to belong Conforming Deviance o a full range of antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and that result in negative consequences for the organization its members or both Status 0 is a socially de ned position or rank given to groups or group members by others 0 Status characteristics theory suggests that differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups Status is derived from one of three sources First is the power a person wields over others Second is a person39s ability to contribute to a group39s goals And third is an individual39s personal characteristics 0 Status and Norms High status individuals often have more freedom to deviate from norms 0 Status and Group Interaction MGT 304 Exam 2 Review High status people are often more assertive 0 Status Inequity Perceived inequity creates disequilibrium and can lead to resentment and corrective behavior 0 Status and Stigmatization Stigma by association 0 This quotstigma by associationquot effect can result in negative opinions and evaluations of the person af liated with the stigmatized individual Team Size 0 The size of a group affects the group39s overall behavior but the effect depends on the dependent variables 0 Group size affects productivity Extra people in group decreases productivity per person More people is good if we need ideas More people is bad if we are just doing boring and repetitive task 0 Large groups of a dozen or more members are good for gaining diverse input 0 Smaller groups of about seven members are better at doing something productive with that input Social loa ng o the tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than alone 0 WE CAN PREVENT IT BY 0 Keep group size small 0 Do peer evaluations Cohesiveness o the degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group 0 Cohesiveness is important because it39s related to the group39s productivity The relationship of cohesiveness and productivity depends on the performancerelated norms established by the group If performancerelated norms are high a cohesive group will be more productive If cohesiveness is high and performance norms are low productivity will be low Encourage group cohesiveness by Making the group smaller Encouraging agreement with group goals Increasing the time members spend together Increasing the status of the group and the perceived dif culty of attaining membership in the group Stimulating competition with other groups 0 Giving rewards to the group rather than to individual members MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Physically isolating the group Diversity surface level v deep level 0 the degree to which members of the group are similar to or different from one another 0 A great deal of research is being done on how diversity in uences group performance Some studies look at cultural diversity and some at racial gender and other differences Faultlines o perceived divisions that split groups into two or more subgroups based on individual differences such as sex race age work experience and educann Group Decision Making 0 The strengths of group decisionmaking include more complete information and knowledge increased diversity of views increased acceptance of a solution 0 The weaknesses of group decisionmaking include the fact that it39s more time consuming there are conformity pressures one or a few members can dominate group discussion responsibility can be ambiguous 0 Group decisions can be more accurate than the decisions of the average individual in the group but less accurate than the judgments of the most accurate Individuals are quicker at making decisions but groups can be more creative and may be better at accepting the nal solution Groupthink o situations in which group pressures for conformity deter the group from critically appraising unusual minority or unpopular views 0 Related to norms Groupshift or Group Polarization o a change between a group39s decision and an individual decision that a member within the group would make 0 The shift can be toward either conservatism or greater risk but is generally toward a more extreme version of the group39s original position Interacting Groups 0 Groups where members meet facetoface and rely on both verbal and nonverbal interaction to communicate with each other I o interacting groups often censor themselves and pressure individual members toward conformity of opinion Brainstorming 0 reduce problems inherent in the traditional interacting group Nominal group technique 0 reduce problems inherent in the traditional interacting group 0 restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision making process Modem MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Group members are all physically present but members operate independenUy it permits the group to meet formally but does not restrict independent thinking as does the interacting group Research shows that nominal groups outperform brainstorming groups Social identity theory 0 0 considers when and why individuals consider themselves members of groups People have emotional reactions to the failure or success of their group because their selfesteem gets tied into the performance of the group Schadenfreude Social identities help us understand who we are and where we t in with people lngroup favoritism Several characteristics make a social identity important to a person Similarity suggests that not surprisingly people who have the same values or characteristics as other members of their organization have higher levels of group identi cation Distinctiveness suggests that people are more likely to notice identities that show how they are different from other groups Respondents in one study identi ed more strongly with those in their work group with whom they shared uncommon or rare demographic characteristics Status is important because people use identities to de ne themselves and increase selfesteem so it makes sense that they are most interested in linking themselves to highstatus groups Graduates of prestigious universities will go out of their way to emphasize their links to their alma maters and are also more likely to make donations Uncertainty reduction is important because membership in a group helps some people understand who they are and how they t into the world 5 Stage Model of Group Development MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Exhibit 511 Stages af rm Develoment g 391 y ya 1 1 lP raalitiga ll Silage ll Silage llll Single llllll Silage W Single if Forming Slrmirlg Warming Farming Adl ourning 0 First is the forming stage It is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group39s purpose structure and leadership Members try to determine what types of behaviors are acceptable This stage is complete when members have begun to think of themselves as part of a group 0 Second is the storming stage This is a period of intragroup con ict Members accept the existence of the group but there is resistance to constraints on individuality Con ict arises over who will control the group When this stage is complete there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group Someone needs to lead 0 Third is the norming stage It is one in which close relationships develop and the group demonstrates cohesiveness There is now a strong sense of group identity and camaraderie This stage is complete when the group structure solidi es and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what de nes correct member behavior What are the norms of this group 0 Next is the performing stage The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted Group energy has moved from getting to know and understanding each other to performing For permanent work groups performing is the last stage in their development 0 For temporary committees teams task forces and similar groups that have a limited task to perform there is an adjourning stage In this stage the group prepares for its disbandment Attention is directed toward wrapping up activities Responses of group members vary in this stage Some are upbeat basking in the group39s accomplishments Others may be depressed over the loss of camaraderie and friendships Punctuatedequilibrium Model quota O MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Exhibit 92 The F39unctuatedlEquiilihrium Model lHighl IE 1 rst Complehen I T mailinni I hose 1 I I I llawi a Maya I3 Ti me Studies indicate they have their own unique sequencing of actions or inaction Their rst meeting sets the group39s direction This rst phase of group activity is one of inertia A transition takes place at the end of this phase which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time A transition initiates major changes A second phase of inertia follows the transition and the group39s last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity this pattern called the punctuatedequilibrium model Status characteristics theory 0 O O differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups Status is derived from one of three sources The power a person wields over others A person39s ability to contribute to a group39s goals An individual39s personal characteristics Status and norms can in uence behavior in organizations Highstatus members of groups often are given more freedom to deviate from norms than other group members Highstatus people also are better able to resist conformity pressures This explains why many star athletes famous actors topperforming salespeople and outstanding academics seem oblivious to appearance or social norms Status and group interaction is in uenced by status Highstatus people tend to be assertive Status differences can inhibit the diversity of ideas and creativity Moreover lowerstatus members tend to be less ache When status inequity is perceived it creates disequilibrium that results in corrective behavior Hierarchical groups can lead to resentment MGT 304 Exam 2 Review among those at the lower end of the status continuum Large differences in status within groups is also associated with poorer individual performance lower health and higher intentions to leave the group Managers who occupy central positions in their social networks are typically seen as higher in status by their subordinates and this position translates into greater in uence over the group39s functioning 0 Finally the status of the people with whom you are af liated can affect how others view you Studies have shown that people who are stigmatized against can quotinfectquot others with their stigma This quotstigma by associationquot effect can result in negative opinions and evaluations of the person af liated with the stigmatized individual 0 Experiments Zimbardo39s prison experiment 0 Stanford University psychologist Philip Zimbardo and his associates simulated a prison environment using two dozen emotionally stable physically healthy lawabiding students who scored quotnormal averagequot on extensive personality tests and randomly assigned them the role of either quotguardquot or quotprisonerquot and established some basic rules The simulation actually proved too successful in demonstrating how quickly individuals learn new roles as the researchers had to end it after only 6 days because of the participants pathological reactions 0 People learn new roles quickly The Hawthorne Studies 0 Performance norms enforced by group members eg sarcasm ridicule ostracize those who deviate Solomon Asch Conformity Study 0 Conformity to social norms despite disagreeing with them MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Chapter 10 Work Teams ALL TEAMS ARE GROUPS BUT NOT ALL GROUPS ARE TEAMS Key concepts Team vs Group 0 Teams Offer a better way to use employee talents Are more exible and responsive to changing events Can quickly assemble deploy refocus and disband Facilitate participation in operating decisions Exhibit 1 941 Comparing Wherk Greups and Wisark Teams Werl Gmups Werk Teams I A I I I I Simere iniermeliien 39i Goei Fquotquot Ceiieeliive peiriermeinice Neuirei eemeiimee negcalibre i Eymergy F Fensifive ilntiiyidiuei ii Aeceunfeieiiiff F Illnldiivitiiuleii anti miuliueii Reindent and varied Il Eikiiie l llelimpier rieriilziryr o j Problem Solving Team Exhibit 1D2 Four Types ef Teame lPlreHiemsdlviinl Eeliiirnuinljgei irelseiiuinlclliionili Virlmili K J 0 Problem Solving Team 0 In the past teams were typically composed of 5 12 hourly employees from the same department who met for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality ef ciency and the work environment These problemsolving teams rarely had the authority to implement their suggested actions Selfmanaged Team MGT 304 Exam 2 Review 0 groups of employees who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibilities of supervisors Crossfunctional team 0 made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level but different work areas who come together to accomplish a task Virtual Team 0 use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal Team composition 0 Abilities of members Part of a team39s performance depends on the knowledge skills and abilities of its individual members Research reveals that when the task entails considerable thought such as solving a complex problem like reengineering an assembly line high ability teams composed of mostly intelligent members do better than lowerability teams especially when the workload is distributed evenly The ability of the team39s leader also matters Smart team leaders help lessintelligent team members when they struggle with a task But a lessintelligent leader can neutralize the effect of a highability team 0 Personality Many of the dimensions identi ed in the Big Five personality model have shown to be relevant to team effectiveness Teams that rate higher on mean levels of conscientiousness and openness to experience tend to perform better and the minimum level of team member agreeableness also matters Teams did worse when they had one or more highly disagreeable members 0 Allocating roles Teams have different needs and people should be selected for a team to ensure that there is diversity and that all various roles are lled Managers need to understand the individual strengths that each person can bring to a team select members with their strengths in mind and allocate work assignments accordingly Put your most able experienced and conscientious workers in the most central roles in a team 0 Diversity of members Many of us hold the optimistic view that diversity should be a good thing Diversity in function and expertise are positively related to group performance but these effects are quite small and depend on the situation Proper leadership can improve the performance of diverse teams When leaders provide an inspirational common goal for members with varying types of education and knowledge teams are very creative MGT 304 Exam 2 Review Cultural diversity does seem to be an asset for tasks that call for a variety of viewpoints but culturally heterogeneous teams have more dif culty learning to work with each other and solving problems The good news is that these dif culties seem to dissipate with time 0 Size of teams 59 When it comes to the size of teams most experts agree that keeping teams small is a key to improving group effectiveness In general the most effective teams have ve to nine members When teams have excess members cohesiveness and mutual accountability decline social loa ng increases and more people communicate less 0 Member preferences Not every employee is a team player Given the option many employees will select themselves out of team participation High performing teams are likely to be composed of people who prefer working as part of a group Team re exivity 0 they re ect on and adjust their master plan when necessary Team ef cacy 0 con dence in themselves and believe they can succeed 0 Management can increase team ef cacy by helping the team to achieve small successes and skill training Small successes build team con dence The greater the abilities of team members the greater the likelihood that the team will develop con dence and the capability to deliver that con dence Relationship con ict 0 Relationship con icts those based on interpersonal incompatibilities tension and animosity toward others are almost always dysfunctional Task con ict 0 When teams are performing nonroutine activities disagreements about task content called task con icts stimulate discussion promote critical assessment of problems and options and can lead to better team decisions 0 Both relationship versus task con ict too much and too little disagreement about how a team should initially perform a creative task can inhibit performance Effective Teams 0 They have adequate resources effective leadership a climate of trust and a performance evaluation and reward system that re ects team contributions 0 They have individuals with technical expertise as well as problem solving decisionmaking and interpersonal skills and the right traits especially conscientiousness and openness 0 Effective teams also tend to be small with fewer than 10 people preferably of diverse backgrounds MGT 304 Exam 2 Review They have members who ll role demands and prefer to be part of a group The work that members do provides freedom and autonomy the opportunity to use different skills and talents the ability to complete a whole and identi able task or product and work that has a substantial impact on others 0 Effective teams have members who believe in the team39s capabilities and are committed to a common plan and purpose have an accurate shared mental model of what is to be accomplished share speci c team goals maintain a manageable level of con ict and show a minimal degree of social loa ng Exhibit 1303 Tealrn Effectiveness Masdie Ceniexl 39l39 Adiequcmfe reseurces 1quot Leadership and sir lecture 3 Climate oi trust 9 P39erlierrnence eveliua ien and reward swlxems Cempesifion I Abilif39ies oi members 1quot P39Er On iiiii 3 Aiocclring relies I Diversiij 39139 Size 01 liecnrns 9 Member exibility 393 Member preferences Process 394 Comman purpose Specific goalie quot Team ef cacy 39 Con ict quotevens 391 Special Icacn ng o x 2 Climate of Trust 0 a climate of trust must be created Members of effective teams trust each other and exhibit trust in their leaders When members trust each other they are more willing to take risks and are more willing to commit to their leader39s goals and decisions
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'