Kin 202 study Guide
Kin 202 study Guide KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Avi Fox on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN202 Wesley Smith Applied Nutrition for Health & Performance at University of Miami taught by Wesley Smith in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 528 views. For similar materials see Applied Nutrition for Health and Performance in Kinesiology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
What were Terry wahls Recommendations 3 cups of sulfur rich vegetables 3 cups of green leaves 3 cups of Organ meats and color and seaweed Rich in vitamins in BACK Kale is the best What is the MYPlate Recommendations The MyPlate created a better portion control Recommend that you balance calories and made to ght obesity But setbacks are that it doesn t limit dairy it recommend you drink either milk or water and gives information on the bottom as to what types of food What was an interesting aspect of the informative video by the department of health The bottle of pills on the dinner table Guidelines for weight management prevent obesity through improved eating and physical behaviors caloric balance increase physical activity and reduce a sedentary lifestyle maintain caloric balance at each stage of lide Know physical activity recommendations 617 60 minuts of physical activity a day 4060 1864 150 minutes a week of moderate intensity 75 intense Know some things that make energy balance complicated Functioning set point calories in vs calories out Weigh more now than 6months ago has other things that have to do with it Hormonesintestinal ora efficiency complicates it Children cant be at a negative caloric balance need a surplus to grow Obese individuals don t burn fat as well as lean people What is the rate of obesity in the US and in children The rate of obesity in the US is 35 13 of children and 23 of minorities are expected to be obese and develop diabetes in their lifetime What are the types of diabetes mellitus and the de nition of each Type 1 more of an genetically inherited autoimmune disease that attacks the pancreas and is not linked to lifestyle choices Type 2 your body doesn t respond well to insulin which causes your blood sugar to rise The extra insulin causes the weight gain Diabetes is the leading causes of limb amputations blindness and kidney failure What is your EER Daily hydration need EER estimate energy requirement lts calculated by taking your body weight X 11 to nd your RMR and then multiplying it by your activity factor This is usually associated with sedentary lifestyle so activity factor of 125 Daily hydration need mL to your total caloric need divide that value by 1000 to get the amount of L you need What is the association of weight loss and diabetes risk Losing 10 of your body weight equates to a 60 lower risk of getting diabetes Creating a positive lifestyle change has a 40 increase in preventing diabetes What is a quick estimate of caloric need using body weight lbs TDEE total daily energy requirement Find your RMR and multiply it by your associated activity factor What are 10 key recommendations related to food to add 0 Increase vegetables and fruit intake 0 Eat a variety of vegetables dark green red orange vegetables and beans and peas Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains lncrease whole grai intake by replacing re ned grains with whole grains 0 Increase intake of of fatfree or low fat milk with milk products or forti ed soy beverages Choose a variety of protein foods seafood lean meat and poultry eggs beans and peas soy products and unsalted nuts and seeds 0 Increase the amount and variety of seafood consumed by choosing seafood in place of some meat and poultry Replace protein foods that are high in solid fats and choose the ones low in calories and sources of oil 0 Use oild to replace solid fats where possible 0 Choose foods that provide more potassium dietary ber calcium and vitamin D How do current American diets compare to recommendations Most American diets are lacking in key vitamins and minerals They are to processed lled with carbs fats and way to much sodium How does sugar intake now compare to a century ago A century ago sugar intake was 1020lbs year Today its 100 250lbsyear Be able to de ne the DRIs Dietary reference intake RDA recommended daily allowance Started in 1941 to prevent de ciencies currently used to prevent overconsumption Calculation mathematically 98 of Americans who eat it wont be malnourished o AlAdequate Intake not as well established more likely to uctuate When RDA isn t set due to insuf cient data the Al is a reasonable judgment based on limited scienti cbasis AMDR Adequate macronutrient distribution range Know the AMDR for Fat Protein Carbohydrates fat 2035 Protein 1035 Carbohydrates 4565 RDA s Fat Protein 46gday for women 56gday for men ZgkgUL 08gkg Babies 3gkg Body Builders 18gkg Active people 159kg Saturated Fat should be less than 10 of all fat consumption Cholesterol 300 mgday changing because no direct link between blood cholesterol and cholesterol from diet Sugar 130gday 25g for women 359 for men Fiber 25g women 35men General functions of Fat insulation organ protection energy nerve conduction maintenance of cell membranes Protein everything in the body is either made up of proteins or made by proteins Carbohydrates only used as an energy source that s why sedentary lifestyle is bad if its full of carbs Cholesterol synthesis of hormones Fiber RDA s for linoleic and alpha linoleic acid What are there responsibilities in the body Linoleic acid IOgday it is an omega6 fatty acid Omega6 s are responsible for in ammation blood clotting vassal constrictors In plants Alpha Linoleic acid lgday in plants its an omega 3 fatty acid it stops in ammation lowers bp lowers blood clotting and can be used as a mood enhancer Found in axseeds and oils Down side is only 16 gets converted to EPA and DHA that is found in sh Pasture raised eggs chickens and meat Differentiate between the food guide pyramid MyPyramid my plate and Harvard healthy eating Pyramid no water or physical activity mentioned portion control wasn t really told Could have 30 servings of foodday Based more on economy than health MyPyramid added activity but still no water Starts talking about better food My plate more portion control and about tackling weight control Limited in it doesn t reduce dairy and tells you to drink water or milk Harvard healthy eating most founded on research and has no hidden agenda Tells you what types of foods you should and shouldn t be eating Takes into account BMI and other factors Tells you to dink water coffee or tea instead of high sugarjuices and soda Fat soluble Vitamins and RDA Vitamin D 15micrograms day Used by immune cells to nd cancer cells and viruses Heart health and muscle function Reduces fall risk for the elderly 15minutes outside in the sun Vitamin A Females need 700micrograms males need 900micrograms Powerful antioxidant ghts signs of aging and reduces oxidizing stress in the body Fights heart disease ghts cancer and reduces in ammation Vitamin k females need 90micrograms males need 120micrograms Helps with clotting factors in the liver and in bone density ghts osteoporosis Vitamin E 15micrograms Powerful antioxidant Helps reduce fats from being oxidized Seeds nuts and veggie oils Water soluble Vitamins and RDA Vitamin C females need 75mg males need 90mg powerful antioxidant and important for connective tissue Preserves life span of tissue Take as much as you want becasuse its water soluble just piss it out Collagen connective tissue synthesis Found in citris fruit and vegetables Found in seaweed non heme iron Vitamin BlThiamin 1112 mg Used for metabolism and biochemical pathways Legumes veggies nuts seeds asparagus Vitamin BZRibo avin females need 11 mg and males need 13 used for metabolism and biochemical pathways spinach mushrooms asparagus Vitamin B3Niacin females need 14mg and males need 16mg meats mushrooms asparagus bell peppers tomatoes and peanuts Vitamin BS pantophenic acid 5mg used for metabolism and biochemical pathways mushrooms sweet potatoes and avocado Vitamin BG pyridoxine 13mg protein synthesis Needed for CNS neurotransmitters tuna spinach cabbage bok choy garlic greens and cauli ower Vitamin B7Biotin used for metabolism and biochemical pathways Vitamin 89 folatefolic acid 400mg Extremely important in protein synthesis and DNA replication Very important in making the neurons and the neural tube Pregnant women should supplement lentils beans asparagus Vitamin BlZcolalamine 24micrograms Should be 4 7micrograms Only source comes from animal products Salmon tuna sardines meat Choline females need 425micrograms and males need 450micrograms Important for metabolism Homosystine high risk of heart disease similar to that of a smoke 812 and foate convert the homosystine back to methylamine Vitamin Bl 2357 used for metabolism and biochemical pathways Be familiar with prudent dietary guidelines to achieve a healthy body weight and to reduce sofas and sodium 1 2 3 4 5 Maintain calories in and out Caloric balance Eat for nutrient density Increase fruit and vegetable consumption Limit sodium Limit saturate fat avoid trans fat RDA for minerals MACRO Calcium 1300mgday Once you reach early 20 s down to about 1 gday Bone and nerve conduction Dairy sardines clams oysters kale sesame seeds Chloride sodium chloride is the extracellular electrolyte that is the charge in the cell membrane Sodium UL 2300mgday for 12 of American other half its 1500mgday diabetic African American hypertensive Causes oxidizing stress to the body and penetrates into the cell membrane Magnesium used in ATP as part of a coenzyme Most Americans are low in magnesium causing sluggishness Tofu green leafy veggies Phosphorus Used in ATP We make our bodyweight in ATP everyday Potassium 4700mgday strong intercellular electrolyte that combats stress caused by sodium Micro Chromium insulin receptor lowers risk of diabetes Find it in whole grains Avoid supplementationwrong form is dangerous Copper antoxidizing agent and immune function Fluoride dental health Iodine used in the thyroid glandmetabolism Seafood seaweed milk table salt water Iron males need 810mgday females need 18mgday Used in red blood cells to carry oxygen Lean red meat poulty lamb egg yolk Maganese antioxidizing agent destroys free radicals Zinc immune function and antioxidizing agent Beef liver chicken eggsherring cereal Selenium antioxidizing agent GPX 55 microgramsday Know the difference between complete and incomplete proteins Complete proteins have all 10 essential amino acids come from animals quiona and soy Incomplete proteins don t have all of them come from plants Be able to name and identify the EAAs essential amino acids TV TILL PM AH Tryptophan used to make serotonin and melatonin competes with BCAA s to get passed the blood brain barrier As it goes up you get tired Valine One of the BCAA s easily converted to sugar in liver when the body is low on blood sugar They are nonlinear amino acids in our muscles that enzymes easily break apart to convert into sugar lsoleucine One of the BCAA s easily converted to sugar in liver when the body is low on blood sugar They are nonlinear amino acids in our muscles that enzymes easily break apart to convert into sugar Leucine Main BCAA s easily converted to sugar in liver when the body is low on blood sugar They are nonlinear amino acids in our muscles that enzymes easily break apart to convert into sugar Competes with Tryptophan to go through the blood brain barrier and make dopamine Threonine used for glycolytic metabolism Lysine important in handling calcium for muscle contraction and connective tissue Phenylalanine important in generation of dopamine and adrenaline stress hormones Methionine needed in the beginning step of protein synthesis when replicating DNA Abundant in meat When methionine is used it becomes homocystine correlated coronary artery disease gets converted back to methionine with pholate Arginine makes nitric oxide increases blood ow and is needed to dilate blood arteries Histidine used to make histamine in allergic reactions What are the effects of daily multivitamin Supplementation No signi cant data shown for multivitamin supplementation and reducing chronic diseases What changes are taking place to the guidelines for vitamin 812 The Recommended Daily allowance is being raised from 2 3mgday to 47mgday 32 Where do most Americans obtain their sodium From preprepared food and eating out high in preservatives little from kitchen 33 Know the key protective roles of ber in the human body Lowers cholesterol Lowers glycemic index Increases thermic effect of food Reduces exposure to carcinogens Increases intestinal health Ergothyionine mitochondrial antioxidant found in microbes in the soil that distributed in plants and animals Found in mushroom Nutrition behaviors 1 mm 9 10 11 Having breakfast if you skip it you have huge feasts before bedtime associated with increased risk of heart disease and obesity It works so you maintain your lean body mass and to stabilize blood sugar throughout the day Diabetes and heart disease are postprandial diseases after eating big meals Limit sugar sugar is in everything Most juices salad dressing cereals pizza lts loaded in sugar that overloads the liver which increases the synthesis of saturated fat Increases lipid content Promotes in ammation and heart disease Terrible high in sugar and no activity Should have ber from stopping our bodies from absorbing it all Avoid excess sodium most Americans consume more than 2300mg they are de cient in potassium that need 4700mgday Long term studies show its very detrimental Eat less pre prepared foods African Americans diabetics hypertensive and individuals with kidney disease should have less than 1500mg Avoid processed carbs and too much conventional meat should try to have vegetables with a side of meat not other way around Meat shouldn t be more than 30 and should be as organic and Pasteur raised as possible Leafy greens BACK 34 handfuls of dark greeny vegetables Consume sulfur rich vegetables Brassacas prevents cancer Lowers in ammation Colorful plant foods antioxidants increases metabolic rate lowers your risk of gastrointestinal cancers reduces risk of diabetes obesity and heart disease Folate important for protein synthesis Omega3 fatty acids improve blood ow myelin along neurons stabilize heart rhythm 16gomega 3 and 10gomega 6 Fish oil chia seeds axseed oil axseeds Alaskan ice cream Animal products free range chicken and eggs grass fed meat cold water sh Moderate alcohol avoid binge drinking u shaped graph a couple drinks are good for you Get adequate sleep less than 68 maintain fat free mass and help in growth lower bp More than 8 hours is bad Stay hydrated color of lemonade dehydration can cause accelerated aging Chicken or egg CDC less energy than you release burning more calories Sensitivity to insulin increase energy stores doesn t burn well Thyroid problems 42 risk of obesity is increased if sibling Obese friend risk goes up 170 Chidren no study shows that cutting calories helps them lose weight They need 58calg tissue growth Taking the stairs doesn t do anything gut ora how many calories we absorb absorb in intestines not mouth infect obesity pathogens that make people obese fat storage regionaly Nuts Growth and maturation hormones have no control Endocrine disorders Fuel oxidation those who can t burn well store better 4lbs 2bs of plants mainly processed crapscarbs re ned arti cially and preserved Sofa39s solid fats and added sugar and re ned grains SUGAR increases fat storage reduces fat utilization chronic insulin response reduces cellular sensitivity increased risk of type 2 diabetes Which one of the following would compete with tryptophan to get across the blood brain barrier The BCAA sbranch chain amino acids 13 of children in the us are obese 12 are minority Seaweed is rich in iron vitamin c sulfur What fatsoluble vitamin do we get from sun D What vitamin is important for protein synthesis and found in green leafy vegetables Pholate Diabetes metabolic syndrome high triglycerides low hcl lots of abdominal fat high blood pressure High glycemic index carbs are more likely to turn into fat then low glycemic acid Protein highest thermic effectburn 20 while digesting How could you create a caloric de cit without changing the amount of calories eat more protein and lower fat higher thermic effect Makes you feel full Simple carbs SOFAs solid fats and added sugar True and false there is good and bad cholesterol False only cholesterogt the carriers cause diseases What are antiin ammatory and shown to improve heart ow Omega 3 fatty acids True or false replaced saturated fats with carb it will reduced cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease FALSE no change in risk or readings Current trend continues 13 are expected to get diabetes kidney failure blindness and McDonalds French fries are cholesterol free True cholesterol comes from animal fat will raise cholesterol but are cholesterol free Nutrition DO s and Dents131s Soda main contributor to diabesity neurological issues cancer kidney failure and blindness is sugar 1 Phosphoric acid weakens bones and rots teeth Excessive artificial sweeteners make you crave more Carmel color tainted with carcinogens doesn t enhance avor Formaldehyde carcinogen that you get when you digest aspartame High fructose corn syrup concentrated form of sugar increases body fat cholesterol and triglycerides 6 Potassium benzoate preservative that can be turned into a carcinogenbenzene 7 Food dyes impairs brain function hyperactive behavior lack of impulse control Bacon increase nitrosamine production a powerful carcinogen and has increase association with vascular disease 40 increase risk of stroke Refined oursugar increasing triglycerides in the blood lowers HDL Causes Visceral Obesity and fuels cancer increases rates of cancer cell proliferation Triglycerides block Leptin from connecting with the brain causes creeping obesity Pastries and dessert sugar is more addictive than cocaine to animals Leading cause of obesity Decreased senses to sugar need more to get same effect High in transfat preservative Hot dogs cured meats have a lot of preservatives like bacon is bad for you 9593 Fried foods form carcinogens and increases cancer risk Smokers lung and bladder cancer those who cook fried fats are more likely to get similar cancer from cooking Why doesn t exercise increase aging and damage to the body since you take in more oxygen thereby creating free radicals In response to exercising we build up our protection against oxidations Cant recommend less than 1200 caloriesday Metabolic syndromeneed 35 Risk of diabetes goes up 2400 1 Dominal obesity male 40in belly button female 35in 2 High blood pressure over 130 3 High triglyceridesover 150 circulating fats in blood 4 Low HDL good cholesterol high density lipoproteins High blood glucosesugar blood glucose over 109 Chicken and the egg did you gaining weight cause an insulin resistancesensitivity or did you have a sensitivity to insulin that caused you to gain weight
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