Microbio Study Guide More Answers
Microbio Study Guide More Answers Bio 210
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Remmuel Marie C. Natac on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 210 at San Francisco State University taught by brinda govindan in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 922 views. For similar materials see microbiology in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
Study GUIDE for Exam 1 this is only a guide use it as a PRACTICE TEST What are the three main groups into which living organisms are now classified and on what basis was this change made Archaea Bacteria amp Bacteria Groups based on ribosomal RNA On what basis would you classify a new microbe from another planet what characteristics would you observe What are the microbial groups and how do they each contribute to life on our planet Archaea their cool chemistry benefits us Bacteria they create antibiotics amp digest our food for us Protozoa good for the ecosystem Fungi they re decomposers Algae biofuels biomass benefits the sea 70 oxygen Viruses vaccines cancer treatment etc How are microbes both friend and foe Archaea are nonpathogenic Bacteria make vitamins protect us from pathogens responsible for antibiotics in cheese wine beer bread chocolate etc but cause diseases Protozoan cause diseases like malaria and dysemetry Fungi spoils food amp also cause diseases Algae causes redtides in the ocean Viruses take part in gene therapy but diseases sars ebola u measles west nile virus How did scientists change people s ideas about where microbes come fromquot Leeuvenhoek invented the 1St microscope Pasteur established biogenesis 5 1 5 How did scientists change people s ideas about what causes disease Semmelweiss importance of handwashing What is the scientific method and how has it been applied in the history of microbiology hint ulcer case study Questioning observation hypothesis experiment analyzing etc The case of the ulcer patients was further researched because of the scientific method How have tools and techniques determined what scientists know about microbes Leeuvenhoek and his invention of the microscope to see what they looked like in higher magnification than the naked eye Culturing colonies in order to examine individual ones to further research Modern microscopy What is the microbiome and why should we care about it The set of all microbes in our system Our second genome Our microbiome makes up more than our own human cells Fully developed by the age of 3 If your cousin s doctor told him that he has high levels of H pylori in his stomach should he be pleased or not Why What would you tell him given what you have read for homework If he s under the age of 40 he shouldn t be worried about it The negative effects of H Pylori only take into effect once he has reached age 40 If you wanted to show that a particular microbe causes a new disease how would you go about proving it Perform the 5 I s Do viruses belong to one of the three domains Why or why not No because they are acellular Describe a significant experiment in the history of microbiology that affects your daily life today Explain to a friend how the 5 I squot are applied when he has an infection His infection specimen is It is in an environment to where it s assumed to grow Colonies of the same sort are for further to hopefully be able to what microbe is causing the infection Why is aseptic collection and transport of clinical specimens important Describe a few ways that this might be practiced To prevent from harmful microorganisms to come in contact with the specimens When performing the 5 I s make sure to use sterile equipment wash your hands minimize exposure to air Explain the difference between selective and differential media Can a particular media be both Give an example of each Selective Hektoenenteric allows quotcertainquot not all microbes to grow Differential MacConkey s differentiates between similar organisms Both Mannitol Salt mostly selective but high salt content prevents some organisms from growing What do you need to know about a particular microbe in order to design media that will support its growth What is the relationship between a cell and a colony What are some characteristics that can be used to describe colonies like the ones you observed on your air samplequot plate Cell is the smallest part of an organism Colonies are groups of fungi bacteria that grow on a spore or cultured media Characteristics are green white yellow fuzzy elevated etc What is the difference between magnification and resolution What is contrast How can all three magnification resolution and contrast be optimized for good microscopy Magnification the enlargement of an image Resolution the ability to tell 2 objects apart Contrast refers to the darkness of the background relative to the specimen Lighter specimens are easier to see on darker backgrounds What would happen if you had magnification without good resolution All you see would be a closeup picture with lack of detail and clarity to the image How can you calculate the resolving power resolution of your microscope RP 061 wavelength of light numerical aperature Explain to a friend what you can see with a microscope that has a resolving power of X microns X can be any number Describe situations in which the following types of microscopy may be used Brightfield phasecontrast uorescence TEM SEM Brightfield stained and unstained cells simplest form of illumination Phasecontrast can view living cells enhances the contrast of unstained cells Fluorescence UV light views specific proteins within the cell TEM view inside of cells or REALLY small organisms SEM viewing the surfaces of the organisms in GREAT detail What is the difference between a simple stain and a differential stain Simple stain cationic dye illuminates cationic cells Differential stain uses more than 1 chemical stain better differentiates between different microorganisms What are the main structural differences between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria How are these differences highlighted in the Gram stain Gramnegative bacteria are a class of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method of bacterial differentiation making positive identification possible The thin peptidoglycan layer of their cell wall is sandwiched between an inner cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane What is the purpose of each step of a differential stain How does this apply to the Gram stain Gramstaining is a type of differential staining Describe the primary functions of the various parts of a bacterial cell which structures are essential for survival Which structures are extras and how do they provide advantages for bacteria that have them
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