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UA / Civil Engineering Structures / CE 104 / Why were cities seen as both a place of promise and peril at the turn

Why were cities seen as both a place of promise and peril at the turn

Why were cities seen as both a place of promise and peril at the turn

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Civil Engineering Structures
Course: America Civilization Since 1865
Professor: Cindy jones
Term: Spring 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: Midterm Short Answer Outline
Description: Midterm Short Answer Outline
Uploaded: 02/19/2015
6 Pages 51 Views 18 Unlocks
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Midterm Short Answer Questions


Why were cities seen as both a place of promise and peril at the turn of the twentieth century?



Four of the following questions will be on your midterm. You must  choose and answer two of them.

1. To paraphrase WEB DuBois, following emancipation the freed slaves  stepped out of the darkness and stood for a moment erect in the  sunlight before descending into the darkness again. What does DuBois mean by this? Do you agree?

Freed Slaves were stepping out of the darkness by leaving their owners in search of opportunities and better living elsewhere. As a way to  express their new freedoms newly freed slaves would change their  name, reunite with families, buy land, and refuse to show difference  among white people. They were also able to speak their minds by  going to the government to discuss their concerns. Before too long  though they would descend back into the darkness due to the  Reconstruction period and Black Codes being enacted in southern  states. Black codes created slavery once more without the name,  restricting the freedoms of African Americans.  


In what ways was the country being pulled apart in the mid-19th century?



If you want to learn more check out What is kettlewell predation experiments?

Evidence: Letter to My Old Master (1865) – Jourdon Anderson  Jourdon’s master wants him back but he declines the  offer

 Lets out what he really feels

 Tells him he’d only come back if he got paid for all the  years he was a slave

 Black Codes (1865) – Mississippi Legislature  

 Laws governing the newly freed slaves

 Restricted them many freedoms If you want to learn more check out What happened in the second industrial revolution?

 Couldn’t quite work, own weapons, own land, marry a  white person, ect.  

2. Why were cities seen as both a place of promise and peril at the  turn of the twentieth century? We also discuss several other topics like What is psychology and two things that psychologists primarily study?

Promise: With the Second Industrial Revolution underway there were  numerous job opportunities in the city. This was also a time when the  economy was growing. The city was dazzling and upscale compared to  the rural areas which led to rural folks believing that if they moved to  the city, their lives would be just like that. They saw big buildings,  mansions, flashing lights, stores, and big parties.


In what ways did the 1920s represent both a loosening of social mores and a rise of social conservatism?



If you want to learn more check out What are dreams, and why do we have them?

Peril: With so many people living in the city, most houses were very  small. For the working class who made very little money, the living  conditions were horrible. They would live in tenants or urban ghettos.  The working conditions and living conditions were horrible in the city  due to the lack of safety and sanitation. Once someone found that  promising job, they quickly realized it wasn’t good enough because of  the low pay and excessive hours at work.  

Evidence: The Lure of the City (1900) – Theodore Dreiser   Carrie adventures into the big city of Chicago

o Mesmerized by the big buildings, lights, and  

shopping

o She will later turn her down a street that holds  

coal mines and railroad yards

o She saw men and women busily working

o She knew that she wouldn’t be able to work in an  

office  

3. In what ways was the country being pulled apart in the mid-19th century? In what ways was it being knit closer together?

Closer Together: Urbanization caused people to move from rural areas  to the city. It meant living closer to people and not having as much  land. This was the start of urban ghettos and tenants for the working  class and immigrants.  If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of magic window?

Pull Apart: The gap between the rich and the poor grew extraordinary  during the Second Industrial Revolution. This was the start of the  monopolization of companies causing those owners to become rich.  They would pay their employees very little and own the majority of the  industry they were involved with causing small businesses to go under.

Evidence: The Lure of the City (1900) – Theodore Dreiser   Carrie adventures into the big city of Chicago

o Mesmerized by the big buildings, lights, and  

shopping

o She will later turn her down a street that holds  Don't forget about the age old question of What does the consumer price index measure?

coal mines and railroad yards

o She saw men and women busily working

o She knew that she wouldn’t be able to work in an  

office

4. Explain how Progressives attempted to shape governments, the  cities, and people. How can their efforts be understood as both  uplifting and coercive?

Uplifting: Progressives would try to protect people and solve problems.  They would achieve this by enforcing safety regulations in the work  place and creating safe places to live like Settlement Houses.  

Coercive: Progressives tried to reform people. They would force people  to be better than what they were even if they couldn’t. During the  Playground Movement they would tell children and force them how to  play and interact with others. The progressives also tried to end child  labor when working class families relied on child labor in order to make enough money to live.  

Evidence: The Subjective Necessity for Settlement Houses (1892) –  Jane Addams  

 Hull House in Chicago

o Foothold of a house for immigrants

o Instead of the non-existence of leisure among the  

poor, settlement houses give them something to  

do

o Keeps them away from saloons

5. How was whiteness debated and defined in the late nineteenth and  early twentieth century? Why was this a political issue?

Whiteness: Naturalization Law- Free white people were citizens.  Anthropology- Blumenbach created 5 races through anthropology:  Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, Ethiopian, and American. Even ruled  out anthropology at one point and based whiteness on culture.  

Political Issues: Supreme Court Cases- The people weren’t considered  white so they were denied naturalization. They were Americanized and  some even fought in the Spanish American War. On one occasion  someone’s ancestors were Arian.  

Evidence: In re Ah Yup (1875) – District of California  

6. Explain the debate between imperialists and anti-imperialists at the  turn of the twentieth century. What arguments did each side use?

Imperialism: In order to be a strong nation, there must be a strong  military. America had to become an Empire and annex countries  because it’s a burden on nations to take a masculine role in the world

and take on the project of Empire. McKinley thought that if the U.S.  didn’t control the Philippines, another imperial country would take  control of them. Imperialists also argued that taking control of the  Philippines would be a crucial foothold in Asia in order to have a naval  base in Southeast Asia.  

Evidence: The Strenuous Life (1899) - Theodore Roosevelt  Linked the individual to the nation

o Men should be strong, masculine, and be a  

provider

o A nation must do the strong like men but to attain  

strength, there must be a strong military

 Talks about hard work, imperialism, duty, and annexed  colonies  

Anti-Imperialism: Anti Imperialists claim that annexing the Philippines  and other countries is against America’s founding principles. They  thought becoming an Empire would go against the constitution. They  also thought America wouldn’t be able to handle a surplus of non-white immigrants and threaten the body politic.  

Evidence: Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League (1899)   Under Lincoln and Washington all men are entitled to  life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness

o Imperialism of countries takes this away from  

people

 America use to be against strong countries taking over  the weak, now they don’t seem to mind

7. Examine the legacies of World War I. How does the war represent a  turning point in domestic and foreign policy?

Globally: Part of Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points that he brought up during  the Treaty of Versailles was to create the League of Nations. This was  an international body that would deal with future conflicts in order to  prevent global wars from happening in the future. After the war,  leaders of America, France, and Great Britain sat down and redrew the  map after Empires collapsed. During the war the Russian Revolution  started taking Russia out of the war. By the time the war was over, the  revolution was still going on. When it finished Russia became  communist leading to the Soviet Union in the 20’s.  

Evidence: The League of Nations (1919) - President Woodrow Wilson  The Monroe Doctrine will still rule the League

 Domestic problems will be accounted for by that nation

Domestically: Once Wilson announced his 14 points including the  creation of the League of Nations, he had to persuade congress into

joining the league. However, many republicans didn’t like the idea of  joining the league so it was turned down. By the end of the war the  progressive era ended as well.  

Evidence: The League of Nations Must be Revised (1919) Senator  Henry Cabot Lodge  

 Wanted people who served in the war to be Americans o In order to do that they had do be Americanized  

which meant not making them fight in the  

countries they come from

 Other nations tend to put America into war

 If America gets involved with European problems,  

Americas power will be destroyed and endangered

8. In what ways did the 1920s represent both a loosening of social  mores and a rise of social conservatism?

Social Mores: In the 1920’s America was starting to become a little  more modern. This had to do with a couple of things: consumerism,  economic boom, new women and gender roles, and Prohibition. Instead of industrial work in which America has thrived on for decades,  companies switch to consumerism. They create items that an  individual will buy. These consumer products vary from the automobile  to processed food to appliances. This was also the time when women  were reborn. They no longer wore layers upon layers of clothing. They  wore short dresses with a short hair cut. These women would go to  college, work outside of the house, drive automobiles, live a healthy  physical life, and smoke and drink. This was also a time of Prohibition.  That didn’t stop anyone from drinking though. There were underground speakeasies making alcohol easy to obtain. At the same time there was an underground gay culture which would hold drag balls for anyone to  attend.  

Social Conservatism: Not only did people disapprove of this modern  lifestyle, but there were other issues they were concerned about. As  the Russian Revolution was happening, the U.S. was afraid of  communism coming to America. The government did all it could to  keep people under control and investigate anyone with radical ideas.  This was due to the fact that businesses and the government didn’t  want much to do with Labor Unions, causing workers to not get much  of a say. Not only that, but at the end of the war there was a rise in  Americanism, especially with the Klan. They wanted people to be 100% American and not have any tithes to there ethnic backgrounds.  

 Evidence: Big Ideas from Big Business (1921) – Edward  Purinton

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