Final Exam Review fALL 2014
Final Exam Review fALL 2014 MGMT 102
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shannon Hamid on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 102 at University of California - Irvine taught by Grace McLaughlin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 245 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Managerial Behavior in Business, management at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR THE FINAL EXAM Mgmt 102 Organizational Behavior Fall 2014 Chapter 1 and reading 1 0 What is Organizational Behavior 0 It s a multidisciplinary field that seeks knowledge of behavior in organizational settings by systematically studying individual group and organizational processes What do we mean by saying that it is interdisciplinary 0 It relates to broad range of issues and approaches rather than studying a topic from only one particular perspective the eld of OB encompasses on a wide variety of social sciences Give three examples of its interdisciplinary nature Political science interpersonal con ict organizational power Psychology perception and learning personality attitudes motivation etc Anthropology organizational culture leadership Sociology group dynamics teamwork communication Economics Decisionmaking negotiation organizational power Management science organizational culture organizational change 0 What are the four key elements of Organizational Behavior You may use bullet points 0 OB is firmly grounded in the scientific method based of research utilizing the scientific method developing hypotheses testing them explaining the outcomes applying the knowledge to organizations 0 OB knowledge is used to improve organizational effectiveness and individual wellbeing The knowledge formulated through OB research is used to help organizations become more effective through an understanding of how to improve the productiveness of workers by organizational interventions And the knowledge is used to increase the well being of individuals by for example reducing their stress increasing their work life balance redesigning jobs to enable more autonomy and skill development and use etc 0 OB studies individual groups and organizations 0 OB is multidisciplinary in nature 0 What is an engaged employee and why are they important List at least three reasons 0 Engaged employees are referred using the term engagement which refers to a mutual commitment between employers and employees to do things to help one another achieve each other s goals and aspirations It s important bcs high engagement can result in increase in productivity high level of pride in organization high engagement can help the company move forward 0 High performance organizations emphasize three major elements Describe them 0 People are the center of everything emphasize teams relationships trust decentralization intrinsic motivation emotional connections collaboration communication personal responsibility empowerment 0 Focus on continuous improvement emphasize adaptability change innovation learning continuous improvement 0 Focus on commonalities emphasize strengths positive vision values Individual Differences Personality Skills and Abilities 0 What are the BIG 5 personality components Do not just list them Discuss them 0 Conscientiousness a tendency to show selfdiscipline to strive for competence and achievement 0 Extroversionintroversion a tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of other people And introversion is the opposite O Agreeableness a tendency to be compassionate toward others 0 Neuroticism emotional stability a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily 0 Openness to experience a tendency to enjoy new experiences and new ideas How might they be relevant at work In other words what types of behavior might you see from each The five basic dimensions of personality are related strongly to work performance task performance team performance organizational processes pg 120 I Extraversion is relevant to work bcs individuals with high extraversion tend to have higher salaries receive more promotions better relations with their coworkers etc Extraverts are the life of the party and enjoy interacting with people HIGH energetic enthusiastic sociable and talkative LOW retiring sober reserved silent and cautious I Agreeableness is relevant to work bcs individuals with high agreeableness tend to have nicer performance evaluations they want people to like them and the try to avoid con ict or drama HIGH goodnatured cooperative trusting and helpful LOW irritable suspicious and uncooperative I Conscientiousness is relevant to work bcs it shows a strong association with task performance the more conscientious someone is the higher their performance HIGH well organized careful selfdisciplined responsible and precise LOW disorganized impulsive careless and undependable at the low end I Neuroticism is relevant to work bcs it deals with emotional stability and can help to determine how you respond to stress LOW poised calm composed and not hypochondriacal HIGH nervous anxious high strung and hypondriachal at the high end I Openness to experience is relevant to the workplace bcs individuals who have higher openness are more imaginative and willing to experiment making them more likely to become leaders or entrepreneurs HIGH imaginative witty and having broad interests LOW downtoearth simple and having narrow interests 0 De ne the three types of intelligence discussed in your text Why is each important to managers pg 131 0 Cognitive intelligence the ability to understand complex ideas to adapt effectively to the environment to learn from experience to engage in various forms of reasoning and to overcome obstacles with careful thought It consists different cognitive skills and abilities This is important to managers because cognitive intelligence includes the abilities involving words numbers and visual images Practical intelligence adeptness at solving the practical problems of everyday life The ability to devise effective ways to get things done It is important for managers because people with high amounts of practical intelligence are said to be unspoken knowledge and knowhow of getting things done It s the ability for managers to solve problem I Tacit knowledge knowledge that cannot be passed on Emotional intelligence the ability to make accurate judgments of emotions and to use such knowledge to enhance the quality of one s thinking skills involved include the ability to recognize and regulate our own emotions to in uence those of others and to facilitate performance Made up of appraisal and expression of emotions in oneself ability to understand his or her own emotions and to express these naturally appraisal and recognition in others ability to perceive and understand others emotions regulation of emotions in oneself the ability to regulate one s own emotions the use of emotions to facilitate performance the ability to use emotions by directing them toward constructive activities and improved performance High levels of El correlate to high performance cascading model of El emotions must be perceived emotions must be understood emotions must be regulated increased performance 0 Discuss the personality trait of a person who tends to state The reason I got an F on the exam is that obviously the teacher had it in for me It wasn t a fair test O Perception External locus of control They are unwilling to accept personal responsibility for their bad grade but instead place blame on an external source They are probably low in agreeableness suspicious that the teacher had it quotin for themquot 0 What is Social perception 0 It is the process of combining integrating and interpreting information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them How gure out the people around us why they are doing what they are doing and acting how they are acting How does it work 0 It works as people decide which information to notice as well as how to categorize and interpret it We perceive things about other people and then make judgments about why they are behaving in specific ways What are the three types of characteristics that a ect social perception Give an example of each 0 Perceiver characteristics familiarity with target attitudesmood self concept cognitive structure Ex when we re in a bad mood it is more likely that we will perceive others in a negative way Target characteristics physical appearance verbal communication nonverbal cues and intentions Ex if the subject is wearing sweatpants to a job interview the interviewer will probably perceive them as lazy and unprofessional Situational characteristics interaction context strength of situational cues location Ex when you re walking alone at night and somebody walks behind you you assume that they are following you 0 Discuss the 5 basic perceptual errors 0 The Halo Effect assuming that a person who is good or bad at one thing will also be good or bad at another thing even if there is no relationship between them Similar to me effect rating others who are similar to ourselves more highly than we rate others who differ from us Similarities are not just demographic but also pertain to work attitudes values and habits Judge their values and attitudes to be the same as yours bcs of the similarities Assume they have the same work ethics values characteristics etc First impression error primary effects subsequent attributions are colored by our initial impressions of the person Selective perception individual s tendencies to focus on only part of the situation and ignore others Selffulfilling prophecy set up by me ourselves And we ve set up the conditions to fulfill the prophecy Like this is going to happen and set the conditions to make it happen unconsciously Can be either people tell us about it or our own prejudice stereotype I Pygmalion Effect This person can be perfect so we put the conditions to se them to be perfect And it turns out that she s doing well It s like taking something in your mind and you make it realhappen I Golem effect The negative one We think that this person will fail the project bcs somebody tells us about their working behavior We set them up to fulfill the prophecy by not giving enough resources to do it etc One of your coworkers has just received a glowing evaluation from your mutual manager You can t understand why From your viewpoint this coworker has been less than satisfactory as a new member of your product design team She is frequently late for meetings or skips them altogether constantly demands help nishing her part of the project preparation never o ers to help when someone else has a problem and often can be found talking to friends on the phone or surfing the net instead of working However she always smiles when the boss stops by and has even taking to imitating the boss s mannerisms dress and speech Today she is bragging about the excellent evaluation she received from the boss You remember several of your boss s comments about her perception of this coworker Your boss has frequently stated how impressed she was with this person s appearance and attitude during her initial interview She also liked the fact that they had both attended the same university and grew up in the same town Your boss also commented that she was sure this individual would be a success on your new product development project team because her resume showed previous success on a fund raising project and she planned great parties You are sure your evaluation won t be anywhere near as good After all you met with the boss for your evaluation right after your coworker met with the boss What perceptual errors might cause your boss to give such a poor worker a great evaluation The boss has some perceptual errors in this case The first one is primacy error or known as first impression error The boss judged her by how impressive she was during the interview and clothes that she wears daily The second perceptual error is similar to me effect just because she went to the same university with the boss the boss assumed that she has the same work ethics values characteristics etc The third one is the halo effect The boss stated that her resume is outstanding because she created successful projects and events in the past The boss is assuming that just bcs she was doing great previously she would also be good for the product development project Attribution Attitudes Use Kelley s Theory of Attribution to explain how the attribution process works and how we use it to make judgments about the causes of others behavior 0 Under the Kelley s Theory of Attribution it suggests that people will believe others actions to be caused by internal or external factors based on three types of information consensus consistency and distinctiveness I Consensus is the extent to which others behave similarly to those we are judging Low no one else complains but she complains High people complain and she complains I Consistency is the extent to which the person being judged has acted similarly in the past Low person normally doesn39t complain in this restaurant High always complain in this restaurant I Distinctiveness is the extent to which a person behaves in the same manner in other contexts Low doesn39t complain in this setting normally High normally complains in this setting Intemal consensus amp distinctiveness low consistency high External consensus amp distinctiveness amp consistency high Over the last couple of weeks you have noticed one worker frequently seems to be just sitting around doing nothing It is time for this worker s semiannual review You give her a less than satisfactory rating because of her laziness The worker disputes the rating claiming she is not lazy Could you have made in incorrect evaluation What error might you have made Explain Fundamental attribution error bcs it is the tendency to attribute others actions to internal causes lazy while largely ignoring external factors that may have also in uenced behavior How does prejudice dijfer from discrimination O Prejudice is those negative attitudes toward the members of specific groups based on solely on the fact that they are members of those groups 0 Discrimination is the actual acting on these prejudices whereas prejudices are attitudes not actions 0 What is Organizational Commitment 0 It is the extent to which an individual identi es and is involved with his or her organization andor is unwilling to leave it What are the three types of Org Commitment 0 The 3 types are affective continuance and normative commitment I Continuance commitment is the strength of a person s desire to continue working for an organization because he or she needs to do so and cannot afford to do otherwise I Normative commitment is the strength of a person s desire to continue working for an organization because he or she feels obligations from others to remain there I Affective commitment is the strength of a person s desire to work for an organization bcs he or she regards it positively and agrees with its goals and values Which type would you most want your employees to exhibit Affective commitment 0 What are the two ways in which attitudes are formed Attitudes are formed in the following two ways 0 Direct experience attitudes tend to be longlasting stable and more resistant to change 0 While social learning attitudes are adapted from parents friends environment etc 0 Discuss the three main theories of job satisfaction 0 Dispositional model of job satisfaction is the conceptualization proposing that job satisfaction is a relatively stable disposition of an individual that is characteristic that stays with the people through situations Ex people who like to work like their jobs and vice versa 0 The value theory of job satisfaction is a theory suggesting that job satisfaction depends primarily on the match between the outcomes individuals value in their jobs and their perceptions about the availability of such outcomes Ex when jobs provides more of what they value they are more satis ed 0 W is a conceptualization specifying that people adopt attitudes and behaviors in keeping with the cues provided by others with whom they come into contact Ex we are more or less satisfied depending on the satisfaction levels amp attitudes of the people around us Motivation 0 Why is it important to realize that expectancy theory is a multiplicative theory 0 First of all expectancy theory is the theory that asserts that motivation is based on people s beliefs about the probability that effort will lead to performance expectancy multiplied by the probability that performance will lead to reward instrumentality multiplied by the perceived value of the reward valence Motivation e p p o v Since this is a W theory if y factor zero there is NO motivation to perform 0 In terms of equity theory all individuals do not view equity in the same way Describe the three dijferent types of equity reactions 0 Sensitive Desire an exact 11 ration O Benevolent don39t mind getting a little less for their inputs 0 Entitled want equity equation to be balanced in their favor otherwise are dissatis ed 0 If an individual feels his or her work situation is inequitable explain what she might do to reduce the inequity hint there are ve actions one might take 0 They might I Change the outcomes I Change the inputs I Reevaluate the others inputsoutcomes I Change referent I Leave 0 Under what circumstances can setting speci c di icult goals backfire In other words can dijficult specific goals lead to low motivation and performance 0 When employee doesn t have necessary skills Steep learning curve coupled with total attention 0 Goals requiring creativity could go off track Ilob Redesign 0 What is a motivating potential score Discuss its components 0 Motivating potential score is that combination of skill variety task identity task signi cance autonomy and feedback that makes a job worthwhile to employees so that MPS SV TI TS Autonomy Feedback 0 3 O SV skill variety How many different activities and skills does the job require The more the better 0 T1 task identity Do you complete an entire piece of work or just a part of the whole thing 0 TS task significance Do others see what you do as important Does what you do have an impact make a difference to others 0 Autonomy Can you plan and schedule your work in your own way 0 Feedback how much information do you receive about your performance From the jobwork itself 0 What is the difference between job enlargement and job enrichment 0 Job enlargement is the practice of expanding the content of a job to include more variety and a greater number of tasks at the same level 0 Job enrichment is the practice of giving employees a high degree of control over their work from planning and organization through implementing the jobs and evaluating the results Groups 0 Define norms O Norms are those generally agreedupon informal rules that guide group members behavior Made up of prescriptive and proscriptive norm What is the difference between a prescriptive and a proscriptive norm PRESCRIPTIVE NORM are those expectations within groups regarding what is suppose to be done PROCRSIPTIVE NORM are expectations within groups regarding behaviors in which members are not suppose to engage Are strong norms always good Why or why not Strong norms are not always good bcs they can ostracize and harm some within a group For instance if a coworker is performing too high other coworkers may seek out to sabotage that person since he is making everyone else look bad 0 What is the perfect size for a group O Enough to get the job done Most are best at 57 members 0 What are the three types of roles commonly seen in groups Give an example of each 0 Task oriented activities of an individual in a group who more than anyone else helps the group reach its goal Focus on tasks 0 Socioemotional maintenance oriented activities of an individual in a group who is supportive and nurturing of other group members and who helps them feel good Help others who need help 0 Selforiented activities of an individual in a group who focuses on hisher own good often at the expense of others People who are looking to takeover loafers take credits 0 Discuss three 3 reasons why teams fail 0 Unwillingness to cooperate 0 Lack of management support 0 Managers unwilling to relinquish control 0 Failure of interteam cooperation unwilling to cooperate w other team The Nut Island Effect 0 What is the Nut Island E ect 0 An organizational behavior phenomenon in which a skilled team becomes isolated from distracted top managers resulting in a catastrophic loss of the ability of the team to perform an important objective COMMUNICATION 0 What is media richness theory Give an example of a rich and a lean medium and the type of message appropriate to each 0 Media richness theory is a conceptualization specifying that the effectiveness of any verbal medium depend on the extent to which it is appropriate for ambiguity of the message being sent 0 Rich media such as facetoface communication may discuss more sensitive and delicate issues like letting someone go 0 Leannonrich media would be like email and is used to send key information confirming and documenting facts and appointments like billing address 0 What is the MUM e ect O MUM effect is the reluctance to transmit bad news shown either by not transmitting the message at all or by delegating the task to someone else How does it a ect communication e ectiveness 0 It may downplay the seriousness of a problem giving it to someone else may not carry the same weight as the person who would have needed to say the information or no information is sent and the problem is not corrected 0 What is the Hurrier model 0 HURIER model is the conceptualization that describes effective listening as made up of the following six components I Hearing Understanding Remembering Interpreting Evaluating and Responding What would you use it for 0 Everyone should use the HURIER model for effective listening skills it is considered as an important management skill that could help one succeed or fail 0 Give three examples of ways in which men and women communicate di erently How can these di erences impact women in male oriented organizations 0 Men emphasize and reinforce their status when they peak whereas women downplay their status 0 Men tend to use the word I and women tend to say we 0 Men try to exude confidence and boast thinking of questions as signs of weakness while women usually downplay their confidence and are not afraid to ask questions People in powerful positions tend to reward individuals whose linguistic styles match their own As a result in most organizations where men tend to be in charge the contributions of women are often downplayed because the things they say tend to be misinterpreted CONFLICT Cooperation Trust and Deviance 0 Your text describes three types of trust Name and define each Which exists in short term relationships and which exists in longterm relationships a Calculusbased trust A form of trust based on deterrence whenever people believe that another will behave as promised out of fear of getting punished for doing otherwise This is a longterm relationship based trust b Identi cationbased trust A form of trust based on accepting the wants and desires of another person This is a longterm relationship based trust c Swift trust trust that occurs as a set of collective perceptions develops among members of temporary groups This is a shortterm relationship based trust 0 You are the team leader Looking around during a break in today s meeting you see Jordan heatedly debating Jane and Justin about which manufacturer to use as a supplier of parts for the new product the team is constructing In another corner Hank and Hubert are discussing alternative team reward structures with Lu and LaReine The group that is supposed to be putting together the timeline for the next stage in the project is getting nowhere because Alex and Andrew aren t speaking to each other after Alex insulted Andrew What types of con ict are occurring Name the type of con ict and say who is engaging in each Substantive con ict form of con ict that occurs when people have different viewpoints amp opinions with respects to a decision they are making with others This is seen between Jordan and J aneJustin Affective con ict Form of con ict resulting when people experience clashes of personalities or interpersonal tension resulting in frustration and anger This is seen between Alex amp Andrew Process con ict resulting from differences of opinion regarding how work groups are going to operate such as how various duties and resources will be allocated amp with whom various responsibilities will reside This can be seen between Hank Hubert and LuLaReine 0 What are the ve basic con ict management styles Which is the winlose style Which is the winwin style 0 Avoidance refusing to acknowledge the problems 0 Accommodating the other person involved in the situation is able to maximize his outcome 0 Competition situation in which the winner takes all WINLOSE O Compromise both parties realize they cant get everything they want so each side gives up a little 0 Collaboration requires solution generation both sides must be totally open The only WINWIN solution 0 The Article How Management Teams can have a Good Fight suggests six methods for improving communication and reducing interpersonal a ective relationship con ict in teams What are they 0 Focus on the facts arm yourselves with a wealth of data about your business and your competitors Multiply the alternatives in weighing decisions consider four or five options at once even some you don39t support Create common goals unite a team with common goals rallies everyone to work on decisions as collaborations Use humor relieves tension and promotes collaborative spirit within a team Balance the power structure letting others wield substantive power establishing fairness and equity Seek consensus with qualification if team can39t reach decision the most relevant senior manager makes the decision OOOOO guided by input of others POWER INFLUENCE amp POLITICS 0 Discuss the ve major sources of power Why are they divided into two categories what is the di erences between the two categories 0 Position power 0 Legitimate power the individual power base derived form one s position in an organizational hierarchy 0 Reward power the individual power base derived from an individual s capacity to administer valued rewards to others 0 Coercive power derived from the capacity to administer punishment to others 0 Personal power 0 Expert power derived from an individual s recognized superior knowledge skills or abilities in a certain area 0 Referent power derived from the degree to which one is liked and admired by others They are divided into two categories bcs the first three are tied to power that comes with having a position in an organization while the last two is individual power that sticks over time Where do groups and individuals get power 0 Controlling scarce resources 0 More control if you have the greatest share of valued organizational resources 0 Control of strategic contingencies 0 Ability to reduce ambiguity uncertainty the ability to provide info on the likelihood of certain events happening in the future supplies market growth regulations 0 Centrality the degree to which an organizational unit has a key impact on others because it has to be consulted and because its activities have immediate effects on an organization 0 Nonsubstitutability power comes from being the only unit that can provide a valued function Scarce Resource control and Centrality particularly in terms of control of information is also a sign of and source of power in individuals In fact all of these could be applied to individuals 0 As head of the department of Human Resources at XYZ Company you have noticed an increase in the number of employees with young children You think it would be a great idea if the company instituted some family friendly policies such as an onsite day care center parenting workshops etc You are considering various methods you might use to in uence top management to agree to these programs Discuss ve 5 in uence tactics you might use Name them and describe how you would use them 0 Rational Persuasion Using logical arguments amp facts to persuade one or more others that having these resources available would better the company Gives factual data of the increase in the number of employees W young children and why we should take this opportunity to create the day care 0 Inspirational appeals Arousing enthusiasm by appealing to the managers values and ideals regarding this subject Opening the day care can increase job satisfaction of the employees and performance bcs they don39t have to worry about leaving their kids at home 0 Ingratiation Getting someone to do what you want by putting them in a good mood or otherwise getting them to like you Wait for the top managers for the right timing to talk about this program 0 Coalition building persuading by seeking the assistance of others in a coalition or by telling them the support you already enjoy from elsewhere We can persuade other employees especially the one with children to help talk to the top managers as it will benefit them as well 0 Consultation Asking an individual to participate in decision making or planning a change 0 When is behavior considered to be political rather than justified as e ective management Two examples 0 When behavior is geared toward selfinterest without regard for the wellbeing of others or of their organizations Examples can include using a scapegoat to blame someone else for a mistake or selectively using information like withholding information that would make you look bad 0 Other examples cultivating a favorable impression building powerful coalitions associating with powerful others creating obligations and using reciprocity LEADERSHIP 0 What do F iedler s LPC theory and House s PathGoal theory have in common What is the major di erence between them a Both theories focus on the situation to explain leadership rather than the leader herself or her followers They show that there is not one best type of leadership but rather that the best type depends on the situation b The major difference is that Fiedler believed that one39s leadership style cannot be changed while House believed that leaders can adjust their style to adhere to the situation 0 What is leader competency theory a Leadership competency theory is the idea that everyone is born with leadership competency but your ability depends on how you leverage the competency elements What are the elements that make up a leader competency The elements include both personal attributes and skills How does this theory di er from earlier trait theories of leadership This theory differs from trait theories of leadership by suggesting that people are not born leaders as everyone has the ability to become a leader 0 What are the distinguishing traits of a charismatic leader Have a strong need for power Have exceptionally high selfconfidence Believe strongly in their espoused ideas and ideals Model desired behaviors for followers Communicate high expectations for followers behavior Engage in extensive impression management mopping Emphasize ideals values and lofty goals
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