Exam One Study Guide
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drake Kuhlmann on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 269 at Kansas taught by in Spring2012. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Exercise Science in OTHER at Kansas.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Ch 1 01302012 Exercise the performance of any physical activity to condition the body improve health maintain tness or as a means of therapy Science systematic attempt to explain observed phenomena and the knowledge gained from those attempts 0 Experiment set up to disprove something true def Exercise Science study of how and why the body responds to physical activity Anatomist describes the muscles involved in walking Exercise Physiologist studies how various bodily systems react to walking Biomechanist examines the ef ciency of each stride Exercise Psvcholodist wonders what motivates a person to walk V02 Max higher it is the harder your walking 0 How much oxygen we get to the working muscles Sport Nutritionist describes how the food we eat is used to supply the energy to walk Epidemiolodist examines the relationship between walking regularly and the risk of developing certain diseases Acute how we respond during an exercise bout 0 During the walk the heart rate increases Chronic How we adapt to exercise training Overtime resting heart rate decreases Healthrelated Aspects of Physical Activityhow exercise can affect the immune system potentially in uence the risk of developing various diseases and improve health and wellbeing Sport Performance 0 Growth and development of young athletes Nutritional needs of athletes 0 Prevention of and rehabilitation from injuries The reality Obesity among US adults and young people has risen Lack of physical activity 0 Poor diet The cost of obesity and chronic diseases Physical activity and weight loss save money Promising approaches for preventing obesity 0 Breastfeeding regular physical activity reduce the time children spend watching TV help overweight individuals get physically ache How young is too young to run a marathon Can you prescribe something if there is no data present 0 Most current college programs in exercise science grew out of applied professional discipline of physical education 0 Programs emerged in 19605 and 1970s in response to public concerns about society s lack of physical tness 0 Funding at universities has increased 0 Students are drawn to programs because 0 They want to apply training to their own exercise programs 0 They want to work with athletes 0 Programs offer diverse career opportunities 0 Due to the diversity in career opportunities 0 Athletic training 0 cardiac rehabilitation allopathic medicine physical therapy dentistry chiropractic physician s assistant 0 Foundation in the basic sciences 0 Anatomy biology chemistry physiology Exerciserelated courses 0 Biomechanics exercise physiology laboratory techniques sports nutrition 0 American College of Sports Medicine 0 American Council on Exercise 0 American Sport Education Program 0 International Society of Sports Nutrition 0 National Athletic Trainers Association 0 National Strength and Conditioning Association 00000 F 0 Foundation core 0 Exercise prescription for normal and special populations 0 Health promotions 0 Administrative talks Human relations 0 Professional development 0 Practical experience 0 Anatomy 0 Athletic Training Biomechanics Epidemiology Exercise Physiology 0 Exercise and Sport Nutrition 0 Exercise and Sport Psychology Kinesiology 0 Measurement 0 Motor Control and Learning Evolved as a result of advances in other sciences o Physiology The study of the processes and functions of the human body a Meeting place of the sciences 0 Anatomy Gross study of organ structure and function 0 Kinesiology Study of the human motion 0 Health and Fitness Epidemiological study of diseases 0 Need for scienti cbased principles 0 During WWI and WWII Need to correct myths regarding exercise 0 Heavy exercise Musce bound slow athletes down 0 Athletes heart Enlarged hearts similar to some heart diseases 0 Older individuals would not bene t from exercise training 0 Need for methodology for training athletes 0 Strength endurance speed exibility etc 0 Need for methodology for developing optimal health and tness 0 Potential bene ts of exercise prevention of cardiovascular disease metabolism and weight control 0 Potential bene ts of exercise 0 De nition of physical tness 0 How to test physical tness 0 Prevention of cardiovascular disease Metabolism and weight control 0 Physical growth and development 0 Age and exercise 0 Fatigue 0 Exercise and immune function Emergence of Exercise Science 0 Dudley A Sargent 18491924 Developed a comprehensive system for individual exercise programs at the Hemenway Gym Developed a system for measuring strength and power and recorded anthropometric measurements a Dynamometers vertical jump test 0 George W Fitz 18601934 Established the rst formal lab in physical education in the US at Harvard University in 1891 Father of exercise physiology 0 Lawrence Henderson 18781942 Established the Harvard Fatigue Lab in the School of Business Administration at Harvard University in 1927 0 David B Dill 18911986 Research director at the Harvard Fatigue Lab from 1927 to 1947 0 Sid Robinson 19031981 Student of David B Dill who conducted classic research on the effects of again on the heart and lungs o Ancel Keys 19042004 Developed the Lab of Physiological Hygiene at the University of Minnesota 0 Kenneth H Cooper 1931 Known as the father of aerobics for his many books on the subject and established the Copper Institute in Dallas Texas for the study of exercise and health Developed the rst aerobic test 0 YMCA Leaders and Exercise Science 0 Arthur H Steinhaus 18971970 Established the YMCAsupported exercise physiology lab at George Williams College in 1923 Identify himself as a middle man u Brought the science to the consumer First person to take research to the public First practitioner 0 Peter V Karpovich 18961975 Established the YMCAsupported exercise physiology lab at Spring eld College in 1927 0 Thomas K Cureton 19011993 Professor at the University of Illinois and a leader in the physical tness movement following WWII US Leadership by Scientists Trained Abroad o Bruno Balke 19071999 Professor at the University of WisconsinMadison who was in uential in starting the American College of Sports Medicine and was the rst editor in chief of the ACSM research journal Medicine and Science in Sport 0 Ulrich Luft19101991 Contemporary of Bruno Balke who became director of the Physiology Research Lab at the Lovelace Foundation in Albuquerque New Mexico 0 Wilhelm Raab 18951970 Cardiologist at the University of Vermont whose research provided a scienti c foundation for exercise in the prevention of ischemic heart disease 0 Hans Kraus 19051996 Coauthor with Wilhelm Raab regarding the physical tness of US school children and the need for exercise to improve health 0 British Exercise Scientists o Archibald V Hill 18861977 Shared the 1922 Nobel prize for physiology or medicine with Otto Meyerhof for research on energy metabolism 0 John S Haldane 18601936 Studied the role of carbon dioxide in the control of breathing and developed a respiratory gas analyzer that bears his name 0 Claude G Douglas 18821963 Conducted pioneering research with John S Haldane on the role of oxygen and lactic acid in the control of breathing during exercise and developed the Douglas Bag for collecting respiratory gasses 0 German Exercise Scientists O 0 Christian W Braune 18311892 Conducted early studies on human gait Otto Fischer 18611917 Coauthored pioneering studies with Christian W Braune on human gait Werner W Siebert First researcher to demonstrate experimentally that the increase in muscle size as a result of resistance training is due to increase in the diameter of existing muscle bers and not to an increase in the number of bers Julius Wolff 18261902 Proposed Wolff s law of bone transformation Otto Meyerhof18841951 1922 Nobel prize winner for physical or medicine who studied anaerobic energy transformation Erich A Muller Conducted pioneering research on various aspects of muscular fatigue and coauthored a popular paper in 1953 with Theodor Hettinger on isometric training and strength gain H W Knipping Published important papers on respiratory physiology and age changes in maximum oxygen consumption Wildor Hollmann 1925 Studied the effect of physical activity on the age trend of loss in aerobic power Scandinavian Exercise Scientists O 0 August Krogh 18741949 Danish Nobel prize winner in 1920 for physiology or medicine who studied capillary regulation and the effect of nutrition on ef ciency of muscle work Erling Asmussen 19071991 Best known for his classic review of research on muscle fatigue 0 Erik HohwuChristensen 19041996 Published a classic paper on the effects of exercise and work on heartrate responses which was the basis for later tests of physical tness 0 PerOlaf Astrand 1922 A student of Erik HohwuChristensen who coauthored a classic textbook with Kaare Rodahl in exercise physiology entitled Textbook of Work Physiology Mecca of exercise research in the late 19205 until its closure in 1947 0 Director David B Dill Major emphases were exercise and environmental physiology research a Tested military emergency rations cold weather clothing 0 Kenneth H Cooper stressed the importance of running and physical tness 0 His system which he called aerobics was well accepted by the US public who found his aerobics tness scoring system interesting and simple to use 0 Separation of physical education into two departments 0 Pedagogy or physical education 0 Training of allied health professionals and exercise science researchers 0 Enhanced preparation of exercise scientists should result in an interesting and rewarding future Notes 0 Exercise is easiest way to learn physiology 0 Lost of myths Most muscle mass burn more calories at rest 0 Harvard birthplace of ES 0 Harvard rst ES lab o Earliest writings o Aristotle and Plato Writings of the last 4050 years 0 Recent discoveries have cultivated a scienti c perspective Current knowledge changes rapidly and often Scienti c literature advances all aspects of exercise science 0 Internet 0 Can provide access to highquality objective material 0 Can provide subjective opinions that lack research support Important to teach consumers how to identify the quality and soundness of information 0 Scienti c Literature o Undergoes a peerreview process External reviewers I Accept or reject and provide comments back to the authors a Editor takes into account the comments from the reviewers o Allows readers to draw conclusions from the results of a study and from author s interpretations o Consists of primary and secondary sources Primary a Basic and applied research articles 0 Read single study and draw conclusions based on those results and the authors interpretations Secondary n lnclude review articles and academic book or textbook chapters Often summarize and synthesize the results of many research studies 0 Nonscienti c Literature 0 Consists of popular magazines newspapers and websites 0 Shape Men s Health and Muscle and Fitness Is not peer reviewed Subjective and opinion base 0 Can increase laypeople s awareness of issues 0 Abstract O 0000 The purpose of the study The methods used to collect and analyze the data The study s results Conclusion Required to be 150 to 250 words o Accessed free of charge on specialized websites 0 Introduction 0 Introduce the reader to important topics that are relevant to the manuscript 0 Provide a purpose statement for the study 0 Propose one or more hypotheses regarding the study s outcome 0 Methods 0 Detailed information regarding The characteristics of the study s participants Type of equipment used The tests performed Description of experimental design All dependent variables Useful for others who are interested in replicating the study 0 Results 0 O O 0 Very detailed and presents the results from all of the statistical analyses performed in the study Typically contains one or more gures Usually very technically written Results from statistical tests may be used in review articles referred to as metaanalysis Discussion 0 Written such that it relates the study s results to the information presented in the Introduction Connects the Introduction and Results 0 Contains detailed information regarding how the results from the study t within the theory 0 Developed a basis for future studies 0 Conclusions andor Practical Applications 0 Presented at the end of the discussion 0 Author brie y describes the most important ndings from the study and whether or not the results support the hypotheses 0 Purpose of practical applications is meant bridge the gap between the lab and the eld 0 References 0 Textbooks Educate students 0 Professional books 0 Review articles Narrative review Metaanalysis 0 Study the literature to determine where research is being conducted and by whom Contact the university or individual authorprofessor to learn more about a speci c graduate program o A eld of study that involves procedures for developing evaluating the accuracy of and re ning measurement practices associated with variables of interest to an exercise scientist Measurement 0 Act of assigning a number to each member of a group based on the amount of a speci c attribute each possessed 0 Evaluation 0 Statement of quality goodness value or merit about what was measured o Validity o The degree of truthfulness in measurement ReHathy o The consistency or repeatability of a measurement Correlation coef cient of one is quotperfect reliabilityquot 0 The objectivity of the measurement and the person doing the measuring Underwater weighing is best way to see your body composition 0 Content o Considers the degree to which the sample of tasks of items on a test represent the actual content to be assessed Football linemen and 40 yard dash Criterion o Determined by examining how well the measurement correlates with a criterion measure believed to be a true assessment of the characteristic of interest Underwater weighing versus skinfolds for BF 0 Construct o Refers to the degree to which a test measures an intangible quality or attribute Concept of IQ is a construct To be of any a measurement process must result in a consistent score for an individual 0 A measurement that is reliable but not valid is not useful Subjectivity low reliability and potential errors can be caused by differences in test administrators To achieve objectivity o Administer tests carefully and according to their instructions Multiplechoice tests are objective whereas essay tests are subjective 0 Nominal 0 Assessment of equality or difference 0 Only a minimal amount of information Ordinal o Ranking of people or objects measured 0 Greater than or less than becomes relevant lnterval 0 Statement about the equality of intervals 0 Temperature is an example Ratio 0 Statement about comparison 0 An absolute zero point is necessary Cognitive 0 Knowledge and mental achievement Psychomotor 0 Physiological and physical performance Affective o Attitudes and perceptions Explain the hierarchical nature of elements in a domain 0 Each level is based on the idea that earlier levels have been achieved Are of virtue to a measurement specialist who develops instruments and procedures that are appropriate to each situation Use written examinations 0 To determine the level of individuals knowledgeunderstanding about physical activity 0 To help individuals increase their knowledge 0 To measure cognitive processes 0 Be aware of the proper techniques for test construction 0 Have a thorough knowledge of the subject being tested 0 Be skilled at written expression 0 Be aware of the range and level of understanding of the people being tested 0 Realize that developing a good test requires much time and trial and error 0 Planning 0 Mastery test or achievement test 0 How to measure 0 When to test how many questions the format 0 Administrating the written test 0 Such concerns as examinee anxiety test distribution security and the prevention of cheating 0 Analyzing the written test 0 Determining its reliability and validity as a measuring instrument and assessing the effectiveness of each test item 0 Physical tness 0 Endurance runs calculation of percentage of body fat Musculoskeletal function pullups Physical activity 0 Selfreport surveys and direct observation motion sensors Sports skills and motor abilities Be reliable and valid Be simple to take and administer Have easily understood instructions Require inexpensive equipment Have reasonable prepadministration times Require only one performer Be neither too dif cult nor too simple Be meaningful Exclude extraneous variables Provide for accurate scoring State vs trait measures General vs speci c measures How do you select team members with regard to assessment of psychological traits What factors affect attitudes toward physical activity and motivation Classi cation Motivation Achievement assessment Forecasting potential and prediction Diagnosis Program evaluation Research 50 mc tf Second half of 19th century 0 Formal physical education began as well as interest in measurement Early 20th century 0 Realization of the importance of measurement mid 20th century 0 re nement of measurement techniques 0 advances in math and statistics Sputnik launch 0 Increase in researchdevelopment of measurement techniques 0 Beginning of specialization Recent decades 0 Increase in specialization o Technological advances Increased importance in measuring amount of physical activity 0 ln academia In areas concerned with importance of wellness and physical tness ln lab settings under direction of hospitals corporations and insurance companies Increase in specialization Increase in technological advances Increase in focus on areas of sociological and psychological aspects of physical activity ques ons 96 off ppts review guide ma inly de nitions
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