Exam Two Study Guide
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drake Kuhlmann on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 269 at Kansas taught by in Spring2012. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Exercise Science in OTHER at Kansas.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Ch 5 02062012 o The study of the parts of the body and their relationship to each other 0 More than just the names of the body parts 0 Location of structures 0 Their relationship to other structures 0 Their growth 0 Theirfunction 0 Gross Anatomy 0 Systemic or regional anatomy Histology o The microscopic study of the anatomy of tissues and their cellular basis 0 Comparative Anatomy 0 The comparison of anatomical structures of different animals both the similarities and differences Embryology o The study of anatomical structures in tissues from conception to birth 0 Developmental Anatomy 0 The study of embryology as well as the anatomical changes tat occur from birth to death 0 Pathological Anatomy 0 The study of anatomical changes that occur in tissues as a result of disease 0 Why study Anatomy 0 To measure our progress as humans 0 To see how ideas concepts and practices have developed over time 0 To see how certain ideas have or have not been accepted by contemporaries Earliest Periods o Prescienti c Period Some knowledge of anatomy may have been necessary for survival n Cave drawings a Butchering of animals for meat and other tissues provided these early hunters with practical knowledge about the structures and functions of some organs 0 Scienti c Period Knowledge of the human body as early as 2000 BCE Mesopotamians Egyptians Chinese Japanese and Indians Greeks laid the foundations for the study of science medicine and anatomy Egypt a First to mention the brain and explored the tissues of the brain China a Determined that all blood was under control of the heart Greece In Alcmaeon Empedocles Hippocrates Aristotle etc Often their ideas were wrong or misguided Alexandria and the Roman Empire In Alexandria founded by Alexander the Great became the center of intellectual pursuits for several centuries First public dissections o Dissections were starting to be very common a Many written works stored in the great libraries were destroyed by Christians or stolen and lost by invading Arabian forces a Claudius Galen Considered to be the greatest of early physicians Middle Ages 0 O O O O Decline in advances of anatomy and other scholarly pursuits Decline in experimentation and observation Rise in power of a powerful church that forbade dissection Church forbade study of the human body and dissection Arabian armies actually preserved the written works Zodiacal man Related body functions and illnesses to the movements of planets The Renaissance O O O Started with the rise of the universities Major advancements in literature art and science Invention of the printing press New emphasis on dissection Leonardo da Vinci Produced many detailed anatomical drawing and made anatomical discoveries o Developments of 17th19th Centuries o Explanation of how blood circulates William Harvey n Correctly predicted capillaries without microscope 0 Development of the microscope Robert Hooke n Coined the word cells 0 Progress in anatomy and knowledge of the human body Marcello Malphighi n Developed techniques for preparing tissues for microscopic study Con rmed the presence of capillaries 0 Publication of Gray s Anatomy First published in 1858 and is still in print 0 20th Century to Present 0 Increased specialization of anatomical study 0 Research at cellular and subcellular levels invention of electron microscopes 0 Body World Exhibits Exhibition of real human bodies seen by millions of people 0 Advancements in imaging techniques Xrays Computerized tomography SpiralCT scans n Threedimensional views of internal organs Positron emission tomography PET Detect metabolic activity chemical activity Advancements in imaging techniques Digital subtraction angiography n Monitor blood ow through organs like the brain Peripheral quantitative computed tomography Provide crosssectional images of limbs Magnetic resonance imaging MRI Great clarity Best way to image anything in the human system Dual energy xray absorptiometry DEXA Mainly used to examine bone strength Used to image bones see how dense they are Ultrasound imagery sonography Most cost effective way to get a picture of a muscle Bioelectrical impedance analysis Tells how much muscle a person has PhD is necessary to teach anatomy at major universities and medical schools Master s degree in anatomy or biology may be sufficient to teach introlevel courses 0 Courses to study 0 Gross anatomy neuroanatomy histology embryology human physiology chemistry biochemistry also experience in dissection How the body from a functional standpoint responds adjust and adapts to exercise 0 Fox Bowers and Foss 1993 o The muscular activity and functional responses and adaptations during exercise 0 ACSM 2006 0 An acute or shortterm change in the body that is associated with exercise 0 A longterm change in the body due to exercise training 0 Heart rate 0 Clinical Settings 0 Work in a clinical athletic or tness setting Practitioners 0 Design implement and monitor exercise programs 0 Research Setting 0 Study mechanism of adaptation and response to exercise 0 Interest in physical activity dates back to ancient Greeks Formal study of exercise physiology is relatively new 0 Historical development of exercise science is in CH 2 Physiology 0 0 Study of the body s functions lnvolves anatomy biochemistry and cellular biology 0 To physiologists exercise can serve as a stressor Physical education 0 Study of physiology can help improve health and enhance performance during physical activity 0 Cardiovascular system 0 O 0 Primary components Heart arteries veins Responsible for blood transport Exercise physiologist focuses on the acute and chronic adaptations to the cardiovascular system Effects of exercise on blood vessels Decrease in resting blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels Effects on exercise on the neurological control of the heart 0 Pulmonary system 0 O O 0 Important for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air and the blood Primary component Lungs Exercise places ad great deal of stress on the pulmonary system Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production are increased during exercise Minute ventilation Ve breathing rate x Tidal Volume Tidal volume volume inspiredexpired per breath Nervous system 0 O 0 Voluntary Control of movement by way of the skeletal muscles Firing rate versus rate coding to increase force Exercise physiologies are interested in neuromuscular fatigue and neurological adaptations to strength training Involved in the involuntary control of body functions Sympathetic nervous system a Active during situations of increased stress such as during exercise Parasympathetic nervous system a Active during resting conditions During exercise Increase in sympathetic activity and a decrease in parasympathetic activity a Involved in the redistribution of blood ow away from inactive tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract and toward the active tissues o Autonomic system Eyes lungs heart liver stomach pancreas largesmall intestine bladder reproductive organs Muscular system 0 Primary responsible for creating movement 0 Many changes take place during exercise in skeletal muscle Temperature acidity and ion concentrations I These changes affect muscle performance and may lead to fatigue 0 Different types of exercise training affect skeletal muscle diff Endurance exercise a Increase concentrations of enzymes in skeletal muscle that are involved in the aerobic production of energy Strength training a Increases in the size of the muscle due to increased synthesis of contractile proteins with little change in anaerobic enzyme content Bioenergetics and metabolism 0 The study how the body generates energy for muscular work 0 The energy for exercise in the form of ATP is derived from the breakdown of food Protein fat and carbs 0 Speci c metabolic pathway used and the associated food broken down for energy and affected by the type of exercise that a person is performing Endocrine system o Is the system of hormones Chemicals released into the blood by certain types of gland called endocrine glands 0 Many hormones are at play during exercise Growth hormone increase in concentration in the blood a Helps regulate glucose concentrations The effects of hormones may be short term in that they affect the body during the exercise bout Other effects are prolonged and may be important in the longterm adaptation to regular exercise 0 Acute versus chronic adaptations Immune system 0 O O Fights off pathogens and infections Relationship between exercise and the immune system is under intense study Intense or exhaustive exercise may result in shortterm immunosuppression Marathon running has been associated with increased incidence of upper respiratory track infection Submaximal exercise may result in increases in immune system parameters Skeletal system 0 Serves as a structural framework and provides the level system by which muscle contraction can lead to movement Acts as a depot of important minerals such as calcium Research primarily focuses on the effects of exercise on bone mass Relationships between bone density and risk of fracture Decrease in bone mass with time in elderly Decrease in estrogen following menopause is implicated in the development of osteoporosis The effects of different types of activates on bone mineral dens y Microgravity and Space ight 0 Causes a variety of changes in humans Decreases in muscle bone mass and motor function 0 There is a focus on trying to design effective exercise programs to combat these changes Gerontology 0 Exercise has great potential to enhance the quality of life of individuals who are elderly and possible to extend life 0 Consequences of the aging process are a decrease in resting metabolic rate loss of muscle mass and increase in body fat percentage and a decline in aerobic capacity 0 Exciting area of research is strength training for elderly Capable of signi cantly increasing both muscle size and strength Increased muscle strength makes the performance of the activates of daily living easier Spinal cord injury 0 Approximately 10000 individuals experience a spinal cord injury every year in the US Depending on the severity and site of the lesion paralysis an result 0 Strength training and range of motion exercise are common in the rehab There is potential for inclusion of aerobic exercise in the rehab also 0 Stroke 0 Occurs as a result of a disruption of blood ow to an area of the brain Results in tissue death 0 There are a variety of effects of a stroke Hemiparesis a Loss of motor control Spasticity n Condition of exercise muscle tone and resistance to strength 0 Cardiac pulmonary rehab Body composition and weight control 0 Obesity is de ned as an excess amount of body fat 0 Exercise can facilitate fat loss in a comprehensive weight management program Aerobic exercise has traditionally been used to burn fat Resistance exercise helps maintain lean body weight during weightloss diets 0 Critical periods in childhood and adolescence when excessive weight gain will likely in uence adult obesity 0 Composition between methods of losing weight 0 Exercise and diabetes 0 Exercise and pregnancy 0 Muscle soreness and damage 0 Environmental exercise physiology Ergogenic aids o Refers to any substance device or treatments that can or is believed to improve athletic performance Carbohydrate loading Steroids Knee wraps 0 Applied exercise physiologists need to be up to date regarding efficacy safety and ethical issues 0 Pediatric exercise physiology 0 Exercise and HIV Technology and Research Tools 0 Treadmills and Ergometers Metabolic Measurements Body Composition Assessment 0 Muscle Biopsy Electromyography and Mechanomyography Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear resonance spectroscopy Educational Preparation Undergraduate 0 Degree in exercise science 0 Often preparation for a more advanced degree 0 Graduate 0 Masters Many programs emphasize training in clinical exercise physiology 0 Doctoral Focus on developing research skills 0 Courses in exercise science can be an important part of pre professional school degree 0 Physical therapy 0 Medicine 0 Chiropractic 0 Dentist o Physician s assistant 0 Optometry American College of Sports Medicine 0 Health Fitness Certi cations ACSM Certi ed Personal Trainer ACSM HealthFitness Instructor 0 Clinical Certi cations ACSM Exercise Specialist ACSM Registered Clinical Exercise Physiologist 0 National Strength and Conditioning Association 0 Certi ed Strength and Conditioning Specialist 0 NSCAcerti ed Personal Trainer certi cation 0 Clinics 0 Cardiac and pulmonary rehabilitation o Exercisestress testing and ECG monitoring 0 Health and tness venues 0 Trainer in a health clubYMCA 0 Personal trainer 0 Sports conditioning venues o Strengthconditioning coach for athletes sports teams and athletic programs Future trends in the US population 0 Dramatic incidence of obesity and associated Type 2 diabetes 0 Aging of the baby boomer population Cuttingedge trends in research 0 Genetics and molecular biology 0 Advances in digital measuring technologytechniques Increase in technical sophistication and medical importance of exercise physiology 0 Means a gradual move away from roots in physical education and toward physiology biology and medicine o The study of quotfactors associated with participation in a speci c behaviorthat is physical activityand how this behavior relates to the probability of disease or injuryquot 0 Study of physical activity levels in certain populations 0 Study of the relationship between exercise and the risk for various disease 0 To what extent are individuals within a particular society or culture physically active 0 In which physical activities are individuals most likely to engage 0 Why are some individuals physically active while others are not 0 What links exist among physical activity various diseases and mortality 0 Ancient Greeks 0 Used exercise as a treatment for improving mental health and overcoming physical illness Europeans in 17th 18th and 19th centuries o Advocated gymnastics to improve digestion strengthen the heart and improve blood circulation o Performed rst research studies into physical activity and heath o More recent research studies 0 Relationship between physical activity and coronary heart disease 0 Landmark studies that were basis for current research 0 Cardiovascular disease 0 Accounts for approximately 20 of all deaths each year 1 killer since 1900 o estimated economic cost of 2982 billion 0 expending about 1000 kca per week with physical activity resulted in a 2030 reduction in mortality risk Cerebrovascular disease and stroke o Is any disease resulting from the obstructive effects of atherosclerosis in the arteries that supply blood to the brain 0 Stroke is the loss or impairment of bodily function resulting from injury or death of brain cells after insufficient blood supply 0 A number of studies have reported that disease risk was inversely related to the amount of regular physical activity performed by the study participants 0 Hypertension o Is persistently high arterial blood pressure Essential no known cause Secondary associated with other primary diseases 0 Total peripheral resistance is the resistance to blood ow in the cardiovascular system 0 Studies have reported that exercise at intensities between 40 and 70 of aerobic capacity demonstrated fewer incidences of hypertension 0 Diabetes 0 Chronic disease caused by a de ciency in the production of insulin or in the use of insulin to transport glucose from the blood into other tissues thereby resulting in excess glucose in the blood O Type 1 n Typically develops during childhood and adolescence and is caused by failure of the pancreas to produce insulin Type 2 n Pancreas produces insulin but the cells do not respond normally to it Type 1 diabetics can certainly bene t from regular physical activity but Type 2 diabetes is preventable by diet weight loss and physical activity Osteoporosis O 0 Is a disease characterized by abnormally low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue that leads to an increase risk of factures Primary age related and postmenopausal bone loss Secondary bone loss caused by another disease that is independent of age or menopause Physical activity is particularly important for increasing peak bone mass during adolescence and young adulthood Cancer 0 O O Refers to a group of related diseases that result from the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells Approximately 50 of men and 33 of women in the US will develop some form of cancer in their lifetime Most investigations suggest that physical activity decreases risks for most cancers Mental health 0 0 About 150 billion is spent each year on mental health in the US Depression is one of the most common mental health problems lmbalances of neurotransmitters may be a cause of many mental illnesses Studies have reported that Americans between 25 to 74 years of age indicated that individuals who performed little or no exercise reported more symptoms of depression than those who regularly participated in physical activity Incidence rates o Is the frequency or number of events that occur over a de ned time period divided by the average size of the population at risk Crosssectional surveys 0 Measure risk factors and the presence or absence of a disease at the same time Casecontrol studies 0 Use subjects who are selected base on the presence of the disease being investigate and then are matched with controls Prospective cohort studies o Is a study in which the subjects are randomly selected from a de ned population and baseline information is collected regarding potential risk factors for the disease of interest Randomized controlled trialexperimental o Is considered the gold standard for testing a research hypothesis because it gives the research more control than any of the other research designs Use of surveyssurveillance systems rather than equipment 0 Behavioral risk factor surveillance system 0 National health interview survey 0 Youth risk behavior surveillance system Statistical software packages College or university settings 0 Teachers or researchers Nationally funded organizations 0 US department of health and human services 0 Centers for disease control Healthrelated tness settings 0 Personal trainers YMCA directors health club owners strength and conditions specialist physicians quotMedical professionals who are experts in injury prevention assessment treatment and rehabilitation particularly in orthopedic and musculoskeletal disciplines quotSpecialists in prevention recognition and rehabilitation of injuries incurred by athletes Prevention Clinical evaluation and diagnosis Immediate care Treatment rehabilitation and reconditioning Organization and administration Professional responsibility Ancient Greeks 0 Youth who provided massages and nutritional advice US in late 19th and early 20th centuries 0 Athletic training evolved with growth of intercollegiate athletics 19505 and 19605 0 professionalization of athletic training c 19705 0 most entrylevel jobs were in high school and collegiate settings 0 19805 0 jobs shifted to sports medicine clinics 0 less emphasis on teaching 0 Today 0 increased use of athletic trainers as physician extenders sokinetic and isotonic exercise machines 0 Assess and record patient progress Electrotherapeutic devices 0 Use electrical energy ultrasound microwaves etc in the treatment of injury or disease Undergraduate programs 0 More than 350 accredited undergraduate programs in the US 0 Accreditation guidelines are provided for competencies subject matter areas and clinical instruction 0 Graduate programs o Master s degree programs 0 Postcerti cation graduate athletic training programs Risk management and injury prevention Pathology of injuryillness Assessment and evaluation General medical conditionsdisabilities Nutritional aspects of injuryillness Psychosocial intervention and referral Health care administration Pharmacology Therapeutic modalitiesexercise Professional development and responsibilities Acute care of injuryillness Assessments of injuryillness Exercise physiology General medical conditions and disabilities Human anatomy and physiology Kinesiologybiomechanics Medical ethics and legal issues 0 Pathology of injuryillness Weight management and body composition Nutritional aspects of injuryillness Pharmacology 0 Professional development and responsibilities 0 Risk management 0 Injuryillness prevention 0 Statistics and research design 0 Strength training and conditioning Therapeutic exercise and rehab techniques 0 Therapeutic modalities o Handson instruction in athletic training clinical settings 0 High schools colleges clinics hospitalbased facilities 0 Instruction assignments include 0 Work and travel with a team 0 View surgeries 0 Complete injury evaluations with team doctors 0 Perform administrative duties 0 Certi cation exam to show a minimal competency level for entry level trainers Designed to test mastery of essential skills 0 Cognitive skills 0 Clinical pro ciencies o Psychomotor skills Written component 0 Consists of 150 multiplechoice questions Practical component 0 Administered by two certi ed athletic trainers Written simulation 0 Designed to evaluate candidate s reallike decisionmaking skills Certi ed athletic trainers must complete at least 75 continuing education units every three years 0 Seminars conferences symposia home study courses 0 Postgraduate education 0 Formal training in CPR EMT or rst aid 0 Individualized options Clinical settings employ most athletic trainers lndustrialoccupationalcorporate settings Secondary schools 0 Colleges and universities Professional sports 0 Athletic trainers in clinical settings 0 000000000 Documenting patient histories Applying cast Ordering and applying braces Determining body composition Providing nutritional counseling Doing gait analysis Giving exercise instruction for home programs Conducting injury rehabilitation Fabricating foot orthotics Assisting with minor inof ce surgery 0 Employment outlook O 0 Potential employment market is tremendous Need is considerable since millions of studentathletes participate every year Teacherathletic trainers O 0 Classroom instructor during the day Athletic trainer in afternoons and evenings g rjtrula Diet Diet and Exergcise an E ercise nly E ygma s Figurre SEES Khanng in handy mmpmj iujn wi 39l mmhimtiuns 11F l j l emmim li li EiEIZ im rahem me Ham39s EL a Emjsmm twining timing m mir mm mrbm h w Bream may might mamm amzna mj Clim HEM Ei39E E E4391 j mpgram 39539 LJF llun i39la39 39llllila TEe E WIRE
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