Final Exam Study Guide
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This 33 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drake Kuhlmann on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 269 at Kansas taught by in Spring2012. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Exercise Science in OTHER at Kansas.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
De nitions 05052012 Exercise 0 the performance of any physical activity to condition the body improve health maintain tness or as a means of therapy Science systematic attempt to explain observed phenomena and the knowledge gained from those attempts 0 Experiment set up to disprove something true def Exercise Science 0 study of how and why the body responds to physical activity Anatomist describes the muscles involved in walking Exercise Physiologist studies how various bodily systems react to walking Biomechanist examines the ef ciency of each stride Exercise Psychologist wonders what motivates a person to walk V02 Max 0 higher it is the harder your walking 0 How much oxygen we get to the working muscles Sport Nutritionist describes how the food we eat is used to supply the energy to walk Epidemiologist examines the relationship between walking regularly and the risk of developing certain diseases Acute how we respond during an exercise bout 0 During the walk the heart rate increases Chronic How we adapt to exercise training Overtime resting heart rate decreases Physiology 0 The study of the processes and functions of the human body 0 Meeting place of the sciences Anatomy 0 Gross study of organ structure and function Kinesiology Study of the human motion Health and Fitness Epidemiological study of diseases Internet 0 Can provide access to highquality objective material 0 Can provide subjective opinions that lack research support Scienti c Literature Undergoes a peerreview process Allows readers to draw conclusions from the results of a study and from author s interpretations Nonscienti c Literature Consists of popular magazines newspapers and websites o Is not peer reviewed Measurement in Exercise Science 0 A eld of study that involves procedures for developing evaluating the accuracy of and re ning measurement practices associated with variables of interest to an exercise scientist Measurement 0 Act of assigning a number to each member of a group based on the amount of a speci c attribute each possessed Evaluation 0 Statement of quality goodness value or merit about what was measured Validity o The degree of truthfulness in measurement ReHathy The consistency or repeatability of a measurement 0 Correlation coef cient of one is quotperfect reliabilityquot 0 The objectivity of the measurement and the person doing the measuring Content Considers the degree to which the sample of tasks of items on a test represent the actual content to be assessed 0 Football linemen and 40 yard dash Criterion Determined by examining how well the measurement correlates with a criterion measure believed to be a true assessment of the characteristic of interest 0 Underwater weighing versus skinfolds for BF Construct Refers to the degree to which a test measures an intangible quality or attribute 0 Concept of IQ is a construct Nominal Assessment of equality or difference 0 Only a minimal amount of information Ordinal Ranking of people or objects measured 0 Greater than or less than becomes relevant lnterval Statement about the equality of intervals 0 Temperature is an example Ratio 0 Statement about comparison 0 An absolute zero point is necessary Cognitive Knowledge and mental achievement Psychomotor Physiological and physical performance Affective Attitudes and perceptions Taxonomies 0 Explain the hierarchical nature of elements in a domain 0 Each level is based on the idea that earlier levels have been achieved Anatomy 0 The study of the parts of the body and their relationship to each other 0 More than just the names of the body parts 0 Location of structures 0 Their relationship to other structures 0 Their growth 0 Theirfunction Gross Anatomy 0 Systemic or regional anatomy Histology The microscopic study of the anatomy of tissues and their cellular basis Comparative Anatomy 0 The comparison of anatomical structures of different animals both the similarities and differences Embryology The study of anatomical structures in tissues from conception to birth Developmental Anatomy o The study of embryology as well as the anatomical changes tat occur from birth to death Pathological Anatomy 0 The study of anatomical changes that occur in tissues as a result of disease Exercise Physiology 0 How the body from a functional standpoint responds adjust and adapts to exercise 0 The muscular activity and functional responses and adaptations during exercise Response to Exercise 0 An acute or shortterm change in the body that is associated with exercise Adaptation to Exercise 0 A longterm change in the body due to exercise training 0 Heart rate Nervous system 0 Voluntary Control of movement by way of the skeletal muscles Muscular system 0 Primary responsible for creating movement 0 Many changes take place during exercise in skeletal muscle Bioenergetics and metabolism 0 The study how the body generates energy for muscular work 0 The energy for exercise in the form of ATP is derived from the breakdown of food Endocrine system o Is the system of hormones Chemicals released into the blood by certain types of gland called endocrine glands Immune system 0 Fights off pathogens and infections Skeletal system Serves as a structural framework and provides the level system by which muscle contraction can lead to movement De nitions of Epidemiology The study of quotfactors associated with participation in a speci c behaviorthat is physical activityand how this behavior relates to the probability of disease or injuryquot Incidence rates o Is the frequency or number of events that occur over a de ned time period divided by the average size of the population at risk Crosssectional surveys Measure risk factors and the presence or absence of a disease at the same time Casecontrol studies 0 Use subjects who are selected base on the presence of the disease being investigate and then are matched with controls Prospective cohort studies o Is a study in which the subjects are randomly selected from a de ned population and baseline information is collected regarding potential risk factors for the disease of interest Randomized controlled trialexperimental ls considered the gold standard for testing a research hypothesis because it gives the research more control than any of the other research designs Athletic Trainer 0 quotMedical professionals who are experts in injury prevention assessment treatment and rehabilitation particularly in orthopedic and musculoskeletal disciplines quotSpecialists in prevention recognition and rehabilitation of injuries incurred by athletes Nutrition 0 The science of food ingestion digestion absorption and metabolism Dietetics The science of applying food and nutrition to health and disease Exercisesport nutrition 0 Integration of principles of nutrition and physical activity as they relate to enhancement of sports performance or prevention of chronic diseases De nitions of biomechanics o The study of the human body in motion 0 The study of forces that act on the body and the effects those forces produce Kinesiology o A science that investigates human movement 0 The parent discipline of biomechanics Statics Branch of mechanics that investigates bodies masses and forces at rest or in equilibrium Dynamics 0 Investigates bodies masses and forces in motion Temporal analysis 0 Uses time as the sole bases for analysis Kinematics Investigates motion without reference to masses or forces Kinetics 0 Investigates the actions of forces in producing or changing the motion of masses Motor learning 0 Study of the acquisition of motor skills 0 How one learns to control muscles and coordinate limbs in order to produce a chosen action Motor control 0 Study of how the nervous system controls movement 0 How one s nervous system produces actions Openloop control theories 0 No feedback 0 Used to learn a new skill Closedloop control theories 0 Direct feedback in the loop 0 Used for a new skill Supplementary motor cortex 0 Has been shown to be involved in the movement planning process BasalgangHa Initiates action and also control movement amplitude or distance Motor cortex 0 Determines which muscles are involved in the action and the particular level of force required for the action Muscle spindle Muscle spindles stretch re ex play a role in maximal force production Frontal lobe Where are personality is Motor cortex Where the light switch is Cardiovascular System Components Integrates the body as a unit 0 0 oxygen 02 transport and delivery Removes metabolic byproducts Arteries and arterioles A high pressure distribution circuit Capillaries Exchange vessels Veins and venules A low pressure collection and return circuit Maximal limits of aerobic energy transfer are set by ATP synthesis capacity 02 transport and delivery Provides impetus for blood ow Located in the mediastinum of the thoracic cavity Provides active muscles with continuous stream of nutrients and 0 23 of its mass including the apex lie to the left of the body s midline o weighs less than 5 kg Myocardium Cardiac muscle Cardiac myocytes Cardiac muscle cells Morphology Many similarities to skeletal muscle but a few important differences 0 Cardiac myocytes interconnect in a latticework fashion 0 lntercalated discs 0 Gap junctions o Tsystems occur at the Zlines Syncytium Network of cells Ephatic conduction 0 Transfer of impulses from one cell to another Right heart Receives deoxygenated blood from systemic circulation Pumps blood to the lungs for aeration through pulmonary circulation Left heart Receives oxygenated blood from pulmonary veins 0 Pumps blood to the systemic circulation o Ascending thoracic aorta Interventricular septum o A thick solid muscular wall that separated the right and left hearts Atrioventricular valves separate the atria from the ventricles 0 Allow blood ow in one direction Semilunar valves 0 Valves that allow blood to exit the ventricles Actually exist in the arterial walls just outside the myocardium o Prevent blood ow back into the ventricles Right semilunar valve 0 Pulmonary semilunar valve 0 From right ventricle to pulmonary trunk to pulm veins Left semilunar valve 0 Aortic semilunar valve 0 From left ventricle to ascending aorta to aorta arch Atria o Thinwalled sacklike Receives and stores blood during ventricular contraction 70 of blood returning to atrium ows directly into the ventricles before the atrium contracts Ventricles As ventricular pressure builds the AV valves snap shut Arterial system Arteries to arterioles to capillaries Arteries known as resistance vessels Peripheral vessels 0 do not permit blood to quotrun offquot as fast as it is ejected from the left ventricles Systolic Blood Pressure SBP 0 At rest in normotensives the highest pressure that is generated in the left ventricles averages 120 mm Hg Diastolic Blood Pressure DBP Pressure exerted against arterial walls during diastole of the cardiac cycle 0 7080 mm Hg Venous Pooling The rhythmic action of muscular activity and the consequent compression of the vascular tree Active Cooldown Reduces venous pooling Increases lactate removalbuffering Hype engon Resting SBP can exceed 300 mm Hg Arteries have become hardened with fatty deposits within the lumen or because the vessel s connective tissue layer has thickened Arteries offer excessive resistance to peripheral blood ow because of neural hyperactivity or kidney malfunction RatePressure Product RPP 0 An estimate of myocardial work Cardiovascular Regulation and Integration 0 Balance between systemic blood pressure and blood ow to various Ussues Intrinsic Regulation Heart s Electrical Activity Electrocardiogram ECG Cardiac Cycle Extrinsic Regulation Autonomic Neural In uences Central Command In uences Peripheral Input 0 Distribution of blood Intrinsic Regulation of Heart Rate Myocardium is selfexciting tissue 0 Inherent rhythmicity is 100 bpm Normal excitation sequence Sinoatrial SA Node Pacemaker of the heart right auricle Atrial intermodal pathways o 3 pathways through which electrical impulses travel more rapidly than through normal cardiac mms ces Atrioventricular AV Node 0 ntraatria septum small sow conducting bers that slow the electrical impulse just enough for a 1 second delay Ventricular Purkinje system Specialized cardiac muscle cells that rapidly conduct impulses up to 6 times faster than normal myocardial cells Depolarization waves 0 P wave 0 Atrial depolarization QRS complex 0 Ventriculardepolarization Repolarization waves 0 Atrial T wave 0 Atrial repoarization 0 Usually occurs during QRS unnoticeable o Ventricular T wave 0 Ventricular repoarization Time domain amplitude The amplitude is dependent upon several factors 0 The distance between the heart and the electrodes 0 The tissue makeup between the heart and electrodes 0 The orientation of the lead axis P wave amplitudes o 12 mV QRS amplitude 14 mV T wave amplitude o 23 mV Cardiac Cycle 0 The events occurring from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next is one cardiac cycle Diastole Period of relaxation Systole Period of contraction lsovolumetric isometric relaxation All valves are shut large decrease in ventricular pressure 36 sec enough to pull open the AV valves EndDiastolic Volume EDV 0 During diastole lling increases ventricular volume to 110120 mL Stroke Volume Output SV 0 During systole ejection decreases ventricular volume by 70 mL Endsystolic Volume ESV End diastolic stroke volume end systolic volume 0 4050 mL Ejection Fraction EF 0 Stroke volume divided by enddiastolic volume ejection fraction 0 60 Sympathetic division 0 Innervates the atria and ventricles Parasympathetic division 0 Innervates the atria only Peripheral Input 0 Peripheral receptors in blood vessels joints and muscles Q o The amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute Dependent upon 0 Heart rate 0 Stroke volume Direct Fick method 0 2 factors 0 Mean change in 02 saturated between arterial and mixed venous blood 0 Oxygen consumed in 1 minute Indicator Dilution method 0 lnvoves arterial and venous puncture but not catheterization o lnject inert dye in a vein and measure its concentration in a known quantity of arterial blood C02 rebreathing method 0 Determining cardiac output by substituting C02 for 02 in the Fick equann Uses a rapid C02 gas analyzer Pulmonary Ventilation o The process of ambient air moving into the lungs and exchanging gases Pulmonary respiratory Pulmonary ventilation 0 Minute ventilation Air moves into the lungs from the atmosphere External respiration Exchange of 02 and C02 between lungs and blood Gas Transport 0 From lungs to tissue through the circulation Actually a function of the circulorespiratory system lnternal respiration Exchange of 02 and C02 between blood and cells where tissue respiration is going on Alveoli Site of gas exchange from external respiration 0 Extensive capillarization in alveoli walls Pores of Kohn Small pores located throughout each alveolus 0 Release pulmonary surfactant Dead space ventilation Vd 30 of TV at rest Alveolar ventilation Va 0 70 of TV at rest Air ow 0 Movement of air into and out of the lungs Occurs because of the intrapulmonary pressure changes lntrapulmonary pressure changes are the result of changes in the size of the thoracic cavity Negative pressure ventilation intrapulmonic pressure Expiration at rest 0 lnspiratory muscle relaxation Expiration during exercise Expiratory muscles Diaphragm Contraction occurs from stimulus of right and left phrenic nerves 0 Flattens and makes the thoracic cavity longer External intercostals o Contraction lifts ribs Increases transverse diameter Scalene muscles 0 Raises rst 2 ribs Pulmonary surfactant resistance to plural cavity expansion increases during inspiration Conducting Zone Trachea bronchi bronchioles Passageway of air Humidifies and lters Protects lung tissue from drying out o No gas exchange occurs Respiratory Zone 0 Gas exchange 0 300 million alveoli surface area for diffusion tennis court alveolus and capillary only 1 cell thick 0 blood gas barrier only 2 cell layers wide Total lung capacity TLC Entire air that can be contained in all the air passages Gas in lungs after maximum inhalation Vital capacity VC Largest volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration Residual volume RV 0 Volume of air remaining in lungs after a complete exhalation air left in alveoli lnspiratory capacity IC 0 Volume of air inspired from rest to maximal inspiration 0 TV IRV Functional residual capacity FRC 0 Volume of air in lungs at rest Tidal volume 0 Volume of air inspired or expired per breath lnspiratory reserve volume IRV Volume of air that can be inspired after a normal inspiration Expiratory reserve volume ERV Volume of air that can be expired after a normal expiration Dynamic lung volumes Sustained air ow levels rather than air movement during a single breath Gas Exchange 0 Inspiration brings oxygen intro the lungs Concentration of oxygen is higher in alveoli than capillaries Concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in the capillaries than the alveoli Gas exchange occurs because of diffusion Muscle bers muscle Cells myocytes Isometric Muscle remains the same length despite building tension lsotonic Tension on muscle remains the same throughout the range of motion Concentric Muscle shortens as it contracts Eccentdc Muscle lengthens as it contracts lsokinetic Speed of the muscle motion remains the same despite changes in force amounts Flexion Decreasing the angle of components of a limb Think of exing your bicep Extension 0 Increasing the angle of components of a limb o Straightening your leg Adduction o Brings a limb closer to the midline of the body 0 Think of adding to your body AbducUon o Takes a limb away from the midline of the body Supination Rotation of the forearm so palms face upout Think of the typical barbell bicep curl exercise Pronation Rotation of the forearm so palms face downback Rotation 0 Movement of limb in circular motion Origin 0 Is one end of the muscle that is attached to a bone that doesn t move when the muscle contracts Insertion o Attaches to the structure that will be moved by the contraction of the muscle Tendons Transfer force from the muscle to the bone Epimysium Surrounds the entire muscle Perimysium Surrounds the fasciculi Endomysium Surround each individual muscle ber Fasciculi Tendon that surrounds a collection of muscle bers Muscle ber 0 Myo bril Sarcomere Smallest functional unit of a skeletal muscle ber LengthTension Relationship 0 The practical application of the sarcomere lengthtension curve 0 There are joint angles at which strength expression is greatest during isometric muscle contractions Hypertrophy Increases in the size of cells Lifting weights puts a stress on the muscle Enough stress will cause muscle damage Two basic dissociations among ber types 0 Contractile properties 0 Metabolic characteristics Slow twitch bers ST 0 Motor units selectively recruited during aerobic activity Prolonged exercise relies almost exclusively on ST bers Fast twitch FT 0 Generate force quickly high power 0 Speed of shortening is 35 times faster than ST bers Size differences 0 ST bers are generally smaller than FT bers 0 ST to FT continuum from smallest to largest Capillary densities Aerobic energy production requires oxygen 0 Must have a good blood supply 0 ST bers have high capillary densities compared to FT bers Structure of motor neurons 0 ST to FT size continuum from smallest to largest motor neurons 0 This is true for 0 Size of the soma 0 Diameter of the axon 0 Thickness of the myelination Conduction in ber structure 0 ST to FT continuum from slowest to fastest motor neuron conduction velocities Force production 0 Usually ST bers can t produce as much force as FT bers Fatigue resistance 0 ST are fatigueresistant Basic components of neurons 0 Cell body Nucleus o Decides if the impulses is worthy to send down the axons Dendrites 0 Receive impulses o Axon o Myelination o Nodes of Ranvier 0 Send impulses o Axon terminals Synaptic end bulbs Neurotransmitter Gastrocnemius 2000 muscle bers per motor neuron Eye muscles 0 lt 10 muscle bers per motor neuron Motor neuron determines ber type Exercise Science Study Jobs Classes 0 Heath 0 related Aspects of Physical Activityhow exercise can affect the immune system potentially in uence the risk of developing various diseases and improve health and well being Sport Performance 0 Growth and development of young athletes o Nutritional needs of athletes 0 Prevention of and rehabilitation from injuries Athletic training cardiac rehabilitation allopathic medicine physical therapy dentistry chiropractic physician s assistant Foundation in the basic sciences 0 Anatomy biology chemistry physiology Exerciserelated courses 0 Biomechanics exercise physiology laboratory techniques sports nutrition Anatomy Classes 0 Gross anatomy neuroanatomy histology embryology human physiology chemistry biochemistry also experience in dissection Exercise Physiology Parent Disciplines Physiology 0 Study of the body s functions 0 lnvolves anatomy biochemistry and cellular biology 0 To physiologists exercise can serve as a stressor Physical education 0 Study of physiology can help improve health and enhance performance during physical activity Classes 0 Physical therapy 0 Medicine Chiropractic 0 Dentist Physician s assistant Optometry Jobs 0 Clinics 0 Cardiac and pulmonary rehabilitation o Exercisestress testing and ECG monitoring 0 Health and tness venues 0 Trainer in a health clubYMCA 0 Personal trainer 0 Sports conditioning venues o Strengthconditioning coach for athletes sports teams and athletic programs Exercise Epidemiologists Jobs 0 College or university settings 0 Teachers or researchers 0 Nationally funded organizations 0 US department of health and human services 0 Centers for disease control 0 Healthrelated tness settings 0 Personal trainers YMCA directors health club owners strength and conditions specialist physicians Athletic Trainer Jobs 0 Clinical settings employ most athletic trainers Industriaoccupationacorporate settings Secondary schools Colleges and universities Professional sports Study 0 Risk management and injury prevention 0 Pathology of injuryillness Assessment and evaluation 0 General medical conditionsdisabilities Nutritional aspects of injuryillness Psychosocial intervention and referral Health care administration Pharmacology 0 Therapeutic modalitiesexercise Professional development and responsibilities Nutritionist Parent disciplines 0 Parent 0 Biology and chemistry 0 Foundation for understand almost every aspect of nutrition exercise and health 0 Related 0 Dietetics food science and pharmacology Study sport related Intake and performance 0 Carbohydrate Have a direct relationship to fatigue 0 Protein 0 Fat 0 Vitamins and minerals Water electrolytes and physical performance Ergogenic aids 0 Nutrition and its application to injury rehabilitation and sports medicine Study health related Coronary heart disease 0 Genetic engineering and transgene technology Obesity Hyperlipidemia 0 Hypertension Diabetes Osteoporosis Biomechanics Study developmental biomechanics 0 focuses on evaluations of essential movement patterns across the life span biomechanics of exercise and sports 0 focuses on postures and movement patterns to minimize risk of injury and improve performance rehabilitative biomechanics 0 studies the movement patterns of injured and disabled people occupational biomechanics 0 focuses on providing a safer and more efficient environment for the worker forensic biomechanics 0 focuses on legal issues Abstract Shortened version of the paper and should contain all information necessary for the reader to determine 0 What the objective of the study is o How the study is done 0 What results were obtained 0 Signi cance of the results Introduction Discusses the results and conclusions of previously published studies to explain why the current study is of scienti c interest Methods 0 Provides all the methodological details necessary for another scientist to duplicate your work Narrative of the steps you took in your experiment or study Resu s o Presents the results of the experiment but does not attempt to interpret their meaning Summarize the data with text Discussion 0 Are free to explain what the results mean or why they differ from what other workers have found Literature Cited 0 Provide published work you cited in the text of the paper
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