Midterm Exam Study Guide
Midterm Exam Study Guide 130
Popular in Speaker Audience Communication
Popular in Computer Information Systems
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Psych 105- Intro to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 28 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drake Kuhlmann on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 130 at Kansas taught by in Spring2012. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Speaker Audience Communication in Computer Information Systems at Kansas.
Reviews for Midterm Exam Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/19/15
Writing a Speech Intro Introduction should have 5 main purposes 0 Attention getting device 0 Relevance of topic to audience 0 Establish credibility Thesis 0 Preview 0 Mapping 0 Word Association 0 Brainstorming over the internet 0 Transition into the Body Always write intro after your body paragraphs 4 objectives 0 gain the attention of audience 0 000000 state the importance of the topic question the audience use a quote startle the audience arouse curiosity of audience use an analogy use humor 03022012 in uence audience to view you and topic favorably o be prepared 0 be con dent 0 give examples they can relate too 0 tell them your credibility reveal the purpose of speech 0 done through a thesis preview the body of your speech 0 provide a road map of your speech 3 tips 0 keep it brief 0 be creative 0 practice Citizenship involves sharing ideas with others and talking about important issues and controversies 0 Being a citizen means communicating with others Public Speaking and Civic Engagement 0 o Putman argues that in the last 4 decades we witnessed troubling declines in voter turnout newspaper readership and participation in voluntary and civic associations 0 Our social and community bonds have been disintegrating and this unraveling of our civic culture poses a serious threat to our democratic ways of life 0 The Challenges of Democratic Citizenship 0 Over the past half century barely half of all eligible Americans have bothers to vote in presidential elections 0 We have become a nation of spectators rather than participants in public life 0 Americans came together after 911 0 At the University of Texas the Annette Strauss Institute for Civic Participation has a mission To conduct cuttingedge research on how civic participation is understood To develop new programs for increasing democratic understanding among citizens 0 Project Pericles Provides funding to colleges to improve their communityservice efforts and to make civic engagement a part of the curriculum 0 Internet literacy The ability to distinguish between good and bad information on the information superhighwaywill become a critical skill for every citizen 0 The Engaged Citizen 0 The good citizen is not just an effective communicator buy one with a strong code of ethics and a commitment to serving others 0 The good citizen not only helps others but also strives to be well informed and thoughtful o Rhetorical tradition Study of public speaking dates back to ancient times and that knowledge has been handed down to us The Rhetorical Tradition o Rhetoric is an ancient discipline concerned with the techniques and ethics of speech 0 3 traditions the tradition of rhetorical theory that dates back to ancient Greece and Rome the tradition of rhetorical criticism which emphasizes the critical analysis of public discourse in all its various forms the tradition of historical studies in public address which focuses on the lessons we may learn from the speakers speeches social movements and persuasive campaigns of the past 0 Speaking Responsibly 0 Civic virtue Devotion to one s community and the common good 0 lsocrates Greek orator Viewed the study of rhetoric not only as a preparation for life and leadership in Athenian politics but as a tool for creating unity out of diversity Rhetoric was a source of communal values 0 If we hope to resolve the difficult problems of the 21st century we must learn to deliberate together and nd a common ground 0 Thinking Critically 0 We must learn to protect ourselves against those who may seek to manipulate us 0 Citizencritics Ready and able to make our own judgments about who deserves to be believedand why 0 Lessons of the Past 0 Americans have forgotten much of their own country s history 0 One of the best ways to learn about our past is by studying the great speakers and speeches of American history 0 By studying such scam artists we can learn to guard against demagoguery and deception in the future 0 As citizencritics we need to speak out against those who engage in reckless or divisive political speech Communication Challenges of the 21st Century 0 0 Your success as a citizenand as a leaderwill depend on your ability to communicate effectively 0 We communicateand we react to communication by others every day no matter what our role in life 0 We must overcome the anxieties of speaking in public We must develop the con dence to voice our opinions The Importance of Public Speaking 0 Important for personal success 0 Surveys show that most of us experience problems at work arising from poor communication 0 The inspiration to speak out remains the hallmark of effective leadership 0 The ability to speak well is an essential part of being a quotgood citizenquot 0 Speaking and Listening Today 0 Promiscuous audience An audience composed of both men and women 0 Effeminate style A style that emphasizes storytelling selfrevelations and emotional appeals On television the best speakers are the ones who seem to talk with us not at us 0 To be a good citizen is to be an informed and critical consumer of public communication The Responsible CitizenSpeaker O 0 You want to be an effective public speaker but you also want to communicate responsibly Characteristics of the Responsible CitizenSpeaker 0 Speaking honestly and truthfully o Committed to respectful dialogue o Deliberation Citizens come together to talk about their common problems and to make collective decisions 0 Legal and Ethical Issues in Public Speaking 0 Speech that threatens public safety is outside the protections of the First Amendment How Patterns of Organization Connect Ideas Chronological Order 0 Begin with a speci c point in time and the move forward or backward depending on the nature of the subject 0 Sequential Pattern Would use if you wanted your audience to understand some stepbystep process 0 Spatial Order 0 Use space as your ordering principle Categorical Order 0 Emphasizes distinct topics 0 You address types forms or aspects of the speech subject Climactic Order 0 Sequence that goes from simple to difficult least important to most important 0 Casual Order 0 Arranged in order that leads from cause to effect or from effect to cause 0 Useful if the audience wants to understand how an idea has unfolded ProblemSolution Patterns 0 Most common in persuasive or political speeches 0 Based on John Dewey s Thinking Sequence o Motivated Sequence Arouse Dissatisfy Gratify Visualize Move 0 Narrative Patterns 0 Because of the cultural background some speakers may prefer to use less direct and more organic patterns of organization 0 Are coherent rather than scattered or fragmented o Fidelity Must quotring truequot with the stories that listeners know to be true in their own lives 0 Spiraling Narrative Speaker wants to build in a sense of drama or climax Conclusion Restate purpose and review of main points 0 Close with impact 3 main points 0 to signal that the end of the speech is coming 0 don t signal too early 0 to summarize main points 0 remind audience 0 end with a dramatic nal statement 0 tips end strongly don t give another speech in conclusion 0 look for other research on ides o remember that this is what the audience will remember Types of Informative Speeches 0 Speech of Description 0 0 Hope to help the audience get a clear picture of their subject Precision color and clarity are essential 0 Avoid bring overly reliant on visuals Speech of Demonstration o Aim to teach an audience how something works or how to do 0 something Usually involve visuals to show clarify and make the information more memorable Speech of Explanation O 0 Speaker who wants to help the audience understand concepts that are complicated abstract or unfamiliar Demands that the speaker be knowledgeable about the topic and be able to explain it clearly to the audience 0 Usually will de ne the key terms or concepts in the speech Explain their signi cance and offer examples 0 Informative Oral Report 0 Usually in business professional and community settings 0 Often technical in nature To inform others in the organization of recent events Organizing the Informative Speech Chronological Illustration 0 Used when you want to discuss an event over time 0 Show a stepbystep progression 0 Spatial Illustration 0 Used when you want to help the audience visualize something you are describing 0 When you want to describe something by moving from point to point through space Categorical Illustration 0 Used when you want to emphasize the signi cance of the categories in some way 0 When you ware interested in a exible approach to organization Causal Illustration 0 Used when you want your audience to understand the factors that have contributed to some outcome 0 When you want your audience to understand the impact of some problem Vividness Notes 0 One of the primary goals in any public speech is to increase audience retention Vivid material has a more lasing effect Vivid material leaves a stronger memory trace makes it easier to recaH Making Claims Stand Out Personi cation 0 Putting a face on a concept 0 Using speci c language in all speeches will make the claims more vivid o Narrative O O O O 0 Stories to help persuasion and audience identi cation Helps build vividness and imagery Stories help the audience remember your claim as well as establish your credibility Helps improve retention Should last no longer than 40 seconds Making Evidence Stand Out 0 Use examples that are related to individuals in the audience 0 Make sure the evidence provided is understandable to all audience members World Wide Web Library Interviews Email and Online networking Surveys Citing Orally Guidelines for Citing Sources During Speech 0 Don t provide complete bibliographic information 0 Provide enough information to convince the audience of the credibility of the source 0 Allow the audience to see that the information is up to task 0 Need full citation for every source you use 0 Avoid interrupting ow of speech Transitions Transitions as Connectives 0 Notes 0 Helps the audience see the relationships among your ideas 0 Transition A bridge that connects one idea to another 0 Internal Previews 0 Helps focus listeners of what s to come 0 Have to have in the introduction 0 Internal Summaries 0 Brie y going over the information covered so far before moving on to the next point 0 Have to have in the conclusion Signposts 0 Provide verbal markers to alert your audience to the fact that you are moving from one idea to another by enumerating each point or by signaling the next point to be made First second third etc Rhetorical questions 0 Help to highlight movement and assist ow with the added bene t of encouraging listeners involvement 0 Preparing Yourself to Speak 0 Know Yourself 0 Beliefs abilities knowledge and potential are the foundation on which any speech is built 0 Think about your credibility o Ethos Describe how an audience perceives your character intelligence and motives as a speaker Know Your Audience 0 Consider the audiences needs interests beliefs and knowledge 0 Consider carefully the characteristics of the audience and take them into account when you speak 0 Know the Situation 0 The setting for a speech can in uence how your audience responds to you o The temporal context of your speech will in uence how it is received Speaking with Con dence Understanding Communication Apprehension 0 Factors People don t understand what it is they fear or why they feel anxious is speaking People know they are illprepared Trait anxiety I Heart races when asked to speak State anxiety I A particular set of circumstances trigger feelings of communication apprehension 0 Managing Communication Apprehension 0 Address substantive issues to which you are committed To commit to your topic can help overcome anxiety You ll be more con dent if you address a topic that you really care about 0 Be well prepared Best psychological defense Your delivery will re ect your careful preparation 0 Develop a positive attitude Help to manage speech anxiety Don t dread on making a speech 0 Practice your speech Over a few days not few hours 0 Anticipate the speech situation Gathering information about your audience and the speaking situation before you speak helps you focus on the audience from the start 0 Practice active listening Listening to other speakers will draw your attention away from your own anxieties 0 Exercise for relaxation Deep breathing allows you to take in a large quantity of air giving you a good supply of oxygen and the potential for enhanced voice control Isometric exercise which involved tensing and then relaxing speci c muscles n Clenching and unclenching your sts n Pressing legs together then relaxing them Aerobic exercise before your speech can help reduce communicate apprehension n Walking jogging running or swimming helps reduce tension 0 Maintain a sense of perspective The unpredictability is what makes public speaking both challenging and interesting Prepare well do your best be exible and pay attention to feedback Functions of Presentational Aids 0 Promoting Clarity 0 Research shows that human brains extract valuable information from audiovisuals more quickly than purely from verbal information 0 Assisting Retention 0 Makes information more understandable and more memorable 0 Can help make recall easier faster and more accurate 0 Providing Emphasis 0 Can help a speaker underscore what is more important 0 Graphical icons More memorable 0 Providing Support 0 Shows evidence to your ideas 0 Adds credibility 0 Types of graphs Line I Helps show comparative relationship through time Bar Helps show comparisons and contrasts between two or more items or groups Pictographs n Listeners nd them interesting I A graphical icon is used to form lines to convey information in the same way others graphs do Pie a Most often used to show numerical distribution patterns 0 Encouraging emotional involvement 0 Can prompt increase attention 0 Stimulating interest 0 Helps engage multiple senses o Helps keep listeners from feeling bored Enhancing your credibility 0 Shows the audience that you care enough about your presentation to prepare carefully o Demonstrates your trustworthiness Facilitating extemporaneous delivery 0 Can assist delivery by serving as speaking notes Guidelines for Using Presentational Aids 0 Practice 0 Allows one to present more smoothly and con dently Preview in the venue 0 Check out the setting ahead of time 0 Have everything set to go 0 Will be relaxed and get off to a good start 0 Use only when needed 0 Displayed long enough for the audience to process the information then put it away 0 Help listeners focus 0 Helps show the audience what to focus on 0 Stay connected with your listeners 0 Talk to your audience not to the visual aid 0 Monitor your bodily movement Rhetoric An ancient discipline concerned with the techniques and ethics of speech Rhetorical Questions Pique the audience s curiosity and stimulating thinking 0 May be used to gain the attention of the audience at the beginning of the speech or used as transitions Rhetorical situation 0 Audience 0 Identify with them in order to be effective Occasion o Circumstances for which it is occurring 0 Speaker 0 Our ability to communicate Speech 0 Effects everything 0 Understanding diverse audiences Age and values 0 Will in uence the way they receive the message 0 Saliency Personal relevance for people of different ages 0 Shared experiences social mores and personal concerns related to age all have an impact on one s values Gender roles and stereotypes o Socially constructed Different cultures have different ideas about what roles behaviors or even modes of dress are appropriate for men and women 0 Stereotypes Common assumption about people of a particular group often proved misguided Race and ethnicity 0 Racism The belief in the superiority or inferiority of particular races leads to prejudice antagonism fear and oppression o Ethnocentrism The belief that one s own ethnic heritage is superior to all others Cultural differences 0 Affect all of our efforts to communicate and we need to make strenuous and sincere efforts to bridge cultural divides and emphasize what we all have in common Religion 0 Can in uence your audiences attitude toward political controversies Geographical environment 0 The audiences outlooks can differ depending on the kind of community in which they live Educann o In uences how audiences react to messages 0 Determines how well they are familiar with your speech topic but whether they can intelligently evaluate the message Occupation or Profession 0 Can make a difference in the attitudes you hold and the ways in which you grasp speci c information 0 Make us feel differently about the world around us Economic status 0 The income of listeners may in uence their responses Five questions Who is the audience 0 Demographic variables Age race sex religion culture Respect what people do Why is my audience here 0 2 types captive n have to be there a business meeting voluntary n students What is the audience knowledge and interest on the topic What is audiences attitude towards topic setting speaker Adapt to feedback Citing Sources Bibliography 0 List of sources at the end of the outline MLA Modern Language Association APA American Psychological Association Owl Purdue Google When to cite Not common knowledge Quoting someone directly Paraphrasing someone else 0 Using someone s general idea 0 Chronological Sanal Topical Problemsolving Cause and effect Compare and contrast Narrative The Importance of Good Organization 0 A well organized presentation is one of the best ways for you to show respect for your listeners 0 Shows that you care about making yourself understood Clarity of Ideas 0 To be clear an idea must rst be complete Simplicity of Ideas 0 Must be clear and the simplicity of main ideas is important Suitability to the Situation 0 Appropriate for the particular audience and context Guidelines for Organizing your Speech 0 Making the pattern a strategic choice 0 Designed to enhance the chance that you will elicit the audience response you are seeking Developing main ideas with concern for symmetry 0 Symmetry Balance 0 May be discussing an idea that is particularly controversial or complex so you may need to devote a bit more time to it 0 Determining the number of main ideas 0 To many ideas may result in the inadequate development of each 0 Time allowed for the speech will in uence how many ideas can be fully developed 0 Choosing the placement of main ideas 0 Primacy First 0 Recency O Last Researchers agree that primacy and recency are most powerful on whether arguments are more memorable and persuasive As speakers we should back up our statements with evidence from reputable sources Supporting ldeas With Evidence 0 Facts 0 Data that can be veri ed by observation 0 De nitions 0 Provide for any information that may be unfamiliar Examples 0 O 0 Provide concrete evidence and can interject life and meaning into the ideas Actual examples Deals with a real case something that happened Narrative as actual examples May come from your research or your own experiences Hypothetical examples One that plausibly could be real yet its not actual or true Narrative as hypothetical examples Use of proverbs stories to illustrate an idea Thinking critically about examples Best type is typicality The importance of an example must also be considered 0 Statistics 0 Used as supporting material 0 Understanding statistical support Offer a way of showing how some things are related to others 0 Using averages reliably Average n A notoriously vague measure even though it seems to give an air of statistical weight when it is used Mean n Adding up a list of gures and dividing by the number of gures Mode n Choosing the gure that occurs most often Median n Choosing the gure that is midpoint between the two extreme gures 0 Descriptive versus inferential statistics lnferential n One generalizes from a small group or sample to some larger population Descriptive n Describes how the entire population actually voted 0 Thinking critically about statistics Statistics should only be used when they provide needed support 0 Testimony o Consists of the opinions interpretations or judgments of other people 0 Personal testimony A person s personal appeal can have signi cant impact on listeners 0 Lay testimony Base on rst hand experience except the evidence is not yours 0 Expert testimony To make speech more persuasive borrow in effect the those of experts 0 Thinking critically about expert testimony Both the ethical speaker and the critical listener need to evaluate expert testimony o Prestige testimony of evidence Can provide support for your argument if the source of that testimony is perceived as smart dedicated well educated or inspirational Comparison and contrast 0 Form of reasoning focusing on similarities and differences 0 Techniques of comparison and contrast One of the most used ways to make ideas more understandable Can make people more at ease with the idea of change 0 Thinking critically about compare and contrast The basis of comparison should be carefully considered The importance of effective listening Diverse purposes for listening 0 Listen for appreciation When we listen to good music We don t expect to be analytical or critical Listen for enjoyment o Empathic listening Listening to show our support and understanding for the feelings of another person 0 Informal listening Seek to take in information accurately and expand our knowledge about a subject We want to understand and remember what we are headng 0 Critical listening We aim to analyze and evaluate the speaker s message 0 Understanding the listening process 0 Hearing First step is hearing what the speaker has said This is the physiological part of listening 0 Focusing We are able to lter out competing messages concentrate on the message at hand and begin to grapple with its meaning Easier to focus when we respect the speaker and view the message as important 0 Understanding When we can t understand the message we fail as listeners o Responding Agree disagree neutral indifferent nonverbal verbal o Remembering Can help by taking notes by relating the speaker s ideas to what we already know and by discussing the topic with others 0 Positive outcomes of effective listening 0 Listening carefully helps us become better informed Many of our ideas come from listening to others Students who are good listeners usually perform better in class 0 Listening to others is part of our responsibility as citizens Shows respect for their views and can respond more thoughtfully and intelligently Helps us communicate a desire for dialogue 0 Listening gives us clearer sense of who we are and what we value Allows us to compare and contrast our own beliefs and values with those of our fellow citizens 0 Good listening helps us develop and sustain better interpersonal relationships Shows that we care about them I People are more likely to give our views full and fair consideration 0 By becoming better listeners we can become better speakers I By observing others we can learn to communicate more effectively Listening helps us better understand our audience when we speak 0 Preparing for critical listening our responsibly as citizens 0 We must possess suf cient information and knowledge to comprehend and asses the ideas of others 0 Make an effort to be as well informed as possible A product start 0 Working thesis 0 An attempt to articulate the overall idea you are examining 0 Finding relevant information o Skim through articles to detect which ones contain relevant information and ideas 0 Scan the dropdown menus of credible web sites 0 Evaluate the table of contents and index of books The creative enterprise of building a speech 0 Notes 0 Begin envisioning the areas you will discuss material you will include your purpose and thesis and how to introduce and conclude your speech 0 The creative process 0 Have various stimuli that will help you formulate ideas for yourspeech 0 Time for re ection To evaluate information to test ideas and to begin making sense of all you have found 0 Breaks are important because when you come back you may have thought of ideas 0 Thinking aloud with a friend 0 Incorporation Involves deciding if and where speci c information and ideas belong in the speech Productive note taking 0 Keep tract of where you got what information Transmission Model 0 Based on Shannon and Weaver s Mathematical Model that describes the components of information transfer in communication 0 Sourcesender Originator Encodes the message 0 Message Verbal Nonverbal 0 Channel Ways a message can be sent a Face to face a Telephone n Written language 0 Destinationreceiver Decodes the transmission 0 Originally developed to depict the process of transmitting information through electronic devices 0 Simple way to understand communication gt
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'