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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Drake Kuhlmann

Final Exam Study Guide 130

Marketplace > Kansas > Computer Information Systems > 130 > Final Exam Study Guide
Drake Kuhlmann
GPA 2.7
Speaker Audience Communication

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Speaker Audience Communication
Study Guide
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drake Kuhlmann on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 130 at Kansas taught by in Spring2012. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Speaker Audience Communication in Computer Information Systems at Kansas.

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Date Created: 02/19/15
Rhetorical Situation De nition 04302012 History 0 Ancient discipline concerned with the techniques and ethics of speech Compose of four parts 0 Audience 0 Identify with the audience in order to be effective Occasion o Circumstances for which it is occurring 0 What s the context 0 Why are we here 0 Speaker 0 Our ability to communicate Speech 0 Effects everything 0 Content and organization De nitions 0 The art of conveying a point in a convincing eloquent and effective way Refers to exaggerated talk What it does 0 Links your supporting material to your claim so that you and the listeners can decide if it supports your claim Inference o Reasoning is not explicit but is instead implied Types of Reasoning Causal Reasoning 0 Draw the conclusion that a cause often the presence of something or some act leads to a speci c effect or effects 0 Examples Because that patch of ice was there I fell and broke my arm explicit After the dog ate the food he became ill inferred o Analogical Reasoning 0 Draw conclusions based on comparisons o Suggests that many things in our world are believed to be associated 0 Examples Many have enrolled in this program and have bene ted greatly If it can work for them it can work for you too You are a great public speaker so you would make a great attorney Reasoning from Speci c Instance 0 Making use of specifc facts to draw a broad conclusion 0 Example My sister s PE class was easy My roommate s PE class was easy My friend s PE class was easy Therefore all PE classes are easy 0 Reasoning from Principle 0 Person applies a general premise to arrive at a very speci c conclusion 0 Opposite of reasoning from speci c instance 0 Example Politicians who are guilty of corruption do not deserve to be reelected Last year several US representatives were found to be corrupt by using campaign donations for personal nance gain De nition 0 Errors in reasoning 8 types of fallacies Hasty Generalization o How to recognize Speakerjumps to a conclusion based on poorly selected speci c facts Example I She has lost a lot of weight recently She must be bulimic Mistaken cause 0 How to recognize Speaker erroneously assumes that the rst event must have caused the second event Example I Andy would not loan me his notes so I failed the test lnvalid analogy o How to recognize Using fallacious reasoning to suggest similarities in two cases when they are truly different Example I How could raising a child be any different from taking care of a pet All you have to do is feed it give it shelter and keep it safe Red herring o How to recognize Diverting attention from the issue at hand by bringing in irrelevant issues Example I Why should we be concerned with international crisis when we have homeless people here who need out help Ad hominem o How to recognize Attacking the messenger rather than the idea Example I How can you possibly support the war in Iraq President Bush is an untrustworthy idiot False dilemma o How to recognize Forcing listeners to choose between only two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist Example n The university must either raise student tuition or cut operating budgets of all departments next year Bandwagon o How to recognize Based on the notion that is something is popular it is correct good or desired Everyone is doing it Example I You should buy this toothbrush 9 out of 10 dentists recommend it Slippery slope o How to recognize Illogical chain of events one thing will lead to another Example I If I don t make an A on my next persuasive speech I will fail the course and then I will never get into law school and will die a bum How to avoid these 0 By using good supporting material to back up your claims De ned The intentional in uencing of receivers attitudes and behaviors through communication Takes place when messages in uence the attitudes andor behaviors of receivers How persuasion works Receiver oriented o The success of the message depends on how the receivers react In uence where the audience stands 0 Continuum of attitudes and beliefs Four Purposes Strengthen commitment o Reinforcing beliefs and attitudes already held by the audience Takes advantage of people s desire to seek out and accept messages that with which they already agree Weaken commitment o Hostile audience People who are opposed to the views of the speaker 0 Not asking audience to abandon already held attitude and beliefs 0 Goal is to make the audience less sure of their beliefs 0 Conversion 0 Speaker aims to alter beliefs of audience Accept something they previously rejected Reject something they previously accepted 0 Hardest to do Rarely achieved through a single speech Inducing a speci c action 0 The speaker seeks the audience to actually act Example a Political campaigns 0 Difficult Usually a discrepancy between people s attitudes and behaviors How to plan your strategy 0 Determine your target audience 0 De ned The group of people that you are most interested in in uencing during the speech 0 Most important Should be rst 0 Assess your audience s motivation o Are your appeals linked to their own motives and needs 0 Determine your purpose 0 What are your motives as a speaker o What do you want to achieve 0 Quickest way to ruin a speech is if you leave this step out Things to remember 0 Establish positive ethos 0 Most important 0 How your audience views you 0 Select appropriate supporting materials 0 Use sound reasoning 0 Follow appropriate organizational patterns Three types of persuasive speeches Question of fact 0 Like an informative speech but you are going to take a side You are going to be an advocate for a cause You are persuading the audience to accept a particular view of the facts 0 Examples To persuade my audience that life currently exists on Mars To persuade my audience that Lee Harvey Oswald didn t kill PresidentJFK 0 Typical organization pattern Main points should be the reasons why your claim is true or false 0 Question of value 0 Focuses on the worth rightness morality etc of an idea or acUon 0 Examples Are samesex marriages morally right Who is the best college basketball coach of all time o Organized topically Main points should be the reason why something is good or bad right or wrong or better or best 0 Question of policy 0 Focuses on whether a speci c course of action should or should not be taken Key word is should 0 Examples What measures should be taken to protect the country against terrorism Should samesex marriages be legalized Should we abolish the Electoral College 0 Two major organizational patterns Problem solution 4 steps a Identify the problem or tell us why a change is needed n Evaluate the situation as a problem 0 tell us why it is a problem and how it relates to us a Propose a solution 0 should be detailed enough to address the problems as you have described a Argue for the solution 0 convince listeners that your solution really works 0 Give reasons as to why we should believe and supports your solution Monroe s motivated sequence 5 steps a Organized in terms of the audience s motivations o Attentions speech Introduction 0 You must gain the attention of the audience 0 Start with a rhetorical question or story 0 NeedProblem rst main point in body 0 Explain the reason why a change is needed Convince the audience that there is a serious problem with the existing situation that requires change Satisfaction second main point in the body 0 Propose solution to the problem identi ed in the need phase of the speech Present an indepth plan to make clear how and why the plan would work 0 Visualization third main point in the body 0 Bene ts are explained in this step by showing what will be improved if your solution is adopted Show how similar situations have adopted this solution and bene ted Explain exactly how change can be made and how to do it 0 Action speech conclusion 0 Remind the audience what needs to be done or what you want them to do Tell the audience exactly how to take action who to contact where to go De nition 0 Aims to gain audience understand of a theory concept or program Goals 0 Help your audience gain understanding Stimulate learning Raise awareness Arouse interest and curiosity Educate or enlighten Articulating alertiveness Types of Informative Speeches 0 Speech of Description 0 Hope to help the audience get a clear picture of their subject 0 Precision color and clarity are essential 0 Avoid bring overly reliant on visuals Speech of Demonstration o Aim to teach an audience how something works or how to do something 0 Usually involve visuals to show clarify and make the information more memorable Speech of Explanation 0 Speaker who wants to help the audience understand concepts that are complicated abstract or unfamiliar o Demands that the speaker be knowledgeable about the topic and be able to explain it clearly to the audience 0 Usually will de ne the key terms or concepts in the speech Explain their signi cance and offer examples 0 Informative Oral Report 0 Usually in business professional and community settings 0 Often technical in nature To inform others in the organization of recent events Audience CenterednessGoal Adapt speech to the needs values and beliefs of the audience Egocentrism 0 Having little or no regard for interests beliefs or attitudes other than one s own 0 Very bad Understanding diverse audiences Age and values 0 Will in uence the way they receive the message o Saliency Personal relevance for people of different ages 0 Shared experiences social mores and personal concerns related to age all have an impact on one s values Gender roles and stereotypes o Socially constructed Different cultures have different ideas about what roles behaviors or even modes of dress are appropriate for men and women 0 Stereotypes Common assumption about people of a particular group often proved misguided Race and ethnicity 0 Racism The belief in the superiority or inferiority of particular races leads to prejudice antagonism fear and oppression o Ethnocentrism The belief that one s own ethnic heritage is superior to all others Cultural differences 0 Affect all of our efforts to communicate and we need to make strenuous and sincere efforts to bridge cultural divides and emphasize what we all have in common Religion 0 Can in uence your audiences attitude toward political controversies Geographical environment 0 The audiences outlooks can differ depending on the kind of community in which they live Educann o In uences how audiences react to messages 0 Determines how well they are familiar with your speech topic but whether they can intelligently evaluate the message 0 Occupation or Profession 0 Can make a difference in the attitudes you hold and the ways in which you grasp speci c information 0 Make us feel differently about the world around us 0 Economic status 0 The income of listeners may in uence their responses Five questions 0 Who is the audience 0 Demographic variables Age race sex religion culture Respect what people do 0 Why is my audience here 0 2 types captive n have to be there a business meeting voluntary n students 0 What is the audience knowledge and interest on the topic 0 What is audiences attitude towards topic setting speaker Adapt to feedback Deals with Audience s perception of the credibility of the speaker and his or her sources 0 How the audience sees a speaker not to the actual intelligence or character of that person 0 Four major qualities that contribute to positive ethos o Trustworthiness People are more likely to listen to and act on the advice of people who they think are honest and concerned about their best interests 0 Competence Listeners tend to be persuaded more easily by speakers they view as intelligent well informed or personally competent o Openmindedness Audiences value speakers who seem willing to enter into a dialogue with them 0 Dynamism Audiences look positively on speakers who are energetic and enthusiastic Shaped by the content structure and clarity of your speech as well as by how you deliver it o 2 kinds 0 Priorethos Reputation of the speaker before the speaking event 0 Speakerethos Level of credibility that we maintain during the speech Bad delivery could hurt your ethos Constructing a reasonable argument Adheres to certain rules of evidence and reasoning Argument must be complete by having all the basic components of the socalled Toulmin model 0 Claim of evidence to back it up and a warrant that links the evidence to the claim 0 Must be reasonable worthy of serious consideration by a hypothetical listener who is reasonably intelligent and well informed Claims 0 The debatable assertions put forward by a speaker Takes sides on a controversial matter and invites debate Claims of fact 0 Debating whether something exists 0 What caused something to happen 0 The scope or magnitude of some phenomenon Claims of value 0 Debating whether something is good or bad 0 Claims of policy 0 Debates over what we should do over future courses of action 0 Hardest to prove Quali es 0 Words that indicate our level of con dence in our claims Possibly probably or beyond any doubt Reservations o Exceptions to our claim or stipulated conditions under which we no longer hold to our claim Evidence 0 Can use statistics testimony examples or comparisoncontrast Three basic tests of the adequacy of your evidence 0 Should justify the audience s acceptance Some questions should be asked about particular types of evidence such as a Are the examples representative a Are the statistics reliable Is the evidence accurate recent and complete Is the source of the evidence credible 0 Must be relevant to the claim 0 Must be sufficient to support the claim Warrants General assumptions principles or rules that connect our evidence to our claims 0 Can sometimes be controversial and need to back them up with additional support The Burden of Proof 0 Way to anticipate what might be considered a reasonable argument 0 Doesn t mean you will win a debate but it does mean that you have made an argument that is at least reasonable enough to warrant serious consideration and further debate 0 Simile Direct comparison can be made between things that an audience may not see as being similar Introduced by the work like or as 0 Example 0 Mr Snow was more like a stepfather meeting his wife s children for the rst time Metaphor Compares objects that the audience may think of as quite dissimilar Comparison is not so direct and does not use the words like or as o Create a certain feeling or mood in the audience 0 Example 0 A glory had departed and the sun that warmed and brightened our lives has set and we shiver in the dark Antithesis Used to make contrasts between words or ideas 0 Way of putting together two things that have sharply different meanings 0 Example 0 On this campus we re engaged in an important struggle We must not support the forces od death and personal pro t but instead we must choose the forces of life and personal responsibility lrony Used to make ideas more believable or understandable 0 Can strongly imply a meaning that is opposite that which is stated 0 Can be a potent way of pointing out the discrepancies between professed values and real actions Alliteration Uses a repetitive pattern of initial sounds that can hold the audience s attention and reinforce the idea 0 Examples o More than just a passport to plenty o A doorway to democracy Personi cation Gives the characteristics of human beings to nonhuman forms or things Adds interest and may also enhance emotional appeal 0 Example 0 The White House reacted to the debate in Congress Oxymoron Speaker can combine seemingly contradictory expressions to emphasize the contrast between two things 0 Thunderous silence o Cheerful pessimist 0 Virtual reality Rhetorical questions Pique the audience s curiosity and stimulate thinking Parallelism Can bring force clarity rhythm and interest to a speech 0 Can add emphasis to particular ideas 0 Example 0 I see millions of families trying to live on incomes so meager that the pall of family disaster hangs over them day by day Style Manner of putting thoughts into words or the characteristic mode of construction and expression in writing and speaking De ned by the writer s choice of words gures of speech devices etc Onomatopoeia Use of words that suggest by their sounds the object or idea being named or the imitation of natural sounds by words such as bang or buzz Maxims Short easily remembered expression of a basic principle general truth or rule of conduct 0 Examples 0 The bigger the better 0 Good things come in small places Jargons Can be incomprehensible to people who are not familiar with the topic under discussion 0 Used among followers of a particular trade or hobby characterized by the usage of terms which are unfamiliar to most people Assonance Repeating sound of vowels usually within the words 0 Examples 0 Read em and weep 0 Bake me a cake RepeUUon Words or phrases are repeated throughout the text to emphasize certain facts or ideas Concrete words Refers to objects or events that are available to the senses Examples 0 Spoon table walking nose ring Abstract words Refers to ideas or concepts they have no physical referents Examples 0 Love success freedom good Active voice 0 The subject of the sentence is doing the action 0 Example 0 Steve loves Army Passive voice 0 The target of the action gets promoted to the subjects position 0 Example 0 Army is loved by Steve Ceremonial speaking Also called special occasion speaking We often give these speeches Have to play a role Short and sweet 0 Remember the occasion 0 When talking about ceremonial speaking we talk a lot about different things 0 Difference is the end goal Guidelines 0 Feel free to be creative 0 Alter the moodrhetorical situation 0 Dress in certain ways Adapt the speech to the occasion and audience o Is this context formal or informal Answering this will help determine your dress outline podium etc 0 Use your voice and body effectively 0 Typically be more conversational Even if its formal o Won t look down at notes as much Don t be reading your speech More conversational more eye contact 0 Use more non verbas With our face hands etc Different types 0 Speech of introduction 0 Very important for setting the stage OOOO Often overlookedforget Major purpose is to introduce the speaker The information is about the person not you 3 goals Build enthusiasm I Give audience information about speaker Build enthusiasm for speakers topic I Give audience information to view topic favorably Establish a welcoming climate that will boost the speakers credibility n Sets a good environment How to introduce someone well Be brief a People aren t there to see you a 23 minutes at most Be accurate I Don t just say something because it sounds good be able to back it up I Be complimentary but realistic Adapt your remarks to the particular speaker n One size doesn t t all when it comes to the person your introducing I Be respectful to the person with how much information you talk about them Tell us what the person is going to talk about a Preview a Tell what the person is going to talk about Try to create a sense of anticipation and drama a Try to get people excited Commemorative speeches o Speeches of praise or celebrating When you graduate At a funeral Wedding toast a Two stereotypes 0 Trying to be funny but aren t Trying to close before its over General purpose a Short and sweet I To inspire people 0 Be fundamental of the speech rules 0 After dinner speech 0 Usually fund raisers 0 Keep people interested and entertained 0 You re the set up person 0 Speech of presentation 0 When your presenting an award Oscars 0 Keep it short sweet about the person 0 Speech of acceptance 0 Instead of you being a set up person the attention is on your 0 Your accepting the award 0 Keep it short and sweet How Patterns of Organization Connect Ideas Chronological Order 0 Begin with a speci c point in time and the move forward or backward depending on the nature of the subject 0 Sequential Pattern Would use if you wanted your audience to understand some stepbystep process 0 Spatial Order 0 Use space as your ordering principle Categorical Order 0 Emphasizes distinct topics 0 You address types forms or aspects of the speech subject Climactic Order 0 Sequence that goes from simple to dif cult least important to most important 0 Casual Order 0 Arranged in order that leads from cause to effect or from effect to cause 0 Useful if the audience wants to understand how an idea has unfolded o ProblemSolution Patterns 0 Most common in persuasive or political speeches 0 Based on John Dewey s Thinking Sequence 0 Motivated Sequence Arouse Dissatisfy Gratify Visualize Move 0 Narrative Patterns 0 Because of the cultural background some speakers may prefer to use less direct and more organic patterns of organization 0 Are coherent rather than scattered or fragmented o Fidelity Must quotring truequot with the stories that listeners know to be true in their own lives 0 Spiraling Narrative Speaker wants to build in a sense of drama or climax Introduction 0 Establish common ground 0 Listeners listen to speaker with who they share common experiences problems or goals 0 Speaker may also want to emphasize similarities between himself and the audience 0 Capture and maintain the listener s attention 0 Tell a story Commands attention 0 Use rhetorical questions Encourages involvement and assist movement in a speech Can prompt listeners to think about an issue or idea without seeking an immediate response 0 Begin with a memorable quotation Will get the listener s attention and interest right away if the quote is by a person that the audience respects and admires 0 Use humor Must be relevant to the point that you are making Should never be disrespectful Stress relevance 0 Take time to establish the signi cance of your topic 0 Establish your credibility o The audience should know of any special relationship you have with the topic that would enhance your ethos Clarify your purposeadvance your thesis o Helps your audience discern your central theme or argument 0 Preview your main points 0 Introduces your main ideas offering a road map so that listeners can more easily follow your speech Conclusion Summarize your ideas 0 Reinforces your ideas and reminds the audience of your most important points 0 Challenge your audience 0 To act on what you have said 0 Appeal to your audience 0 Final attempt to move your audience to act or believe more strongly about your proposition Visualize the future 0 Especially appropriate and powerful way to conclude 0 End with a quotation 0 Can help reinforce your thesis and restate the major points you made 0 Refer to the introduction 0 Can achieve a sense of symmetry and reinforce your major theme 0 Citing Orally Guidelines for Citing Sources During Speech 0 O O O 0 Don t provide complete bibliographic information Provide enough information to convince the audience of the credibility of the source Allow the audience to see that the information is up to task Need full citation for every source you use Avoid interrupting ow of speech Using Handouts Functions OOOOOOOO Promoting clarity Assisting retention Providing emphasis Providing support Encouraging emotional involvement Stimulating interest Enhancing your credibility Facilitating extemporaneous delivery Transitions as Connectives Notes 0 Helps the audience see the relationships among your ideas 0 Transition A bridge that connects one idea to another lnternal Previews 0 Helps focus listeners of what s to come 0 Have to have in the introduction Internal Summaries 0 Brie y going over the information covered so far before moving on to the next point 0 Have to have in the conclusion Signposts 0 Provide verbal markers to alert your audience to the fact that you are moving from one idea to another by enumerating each point or by signaling the next point to be made First second third etc Rhetorical questions 0 Help to highlight movement and assist ow with the added bene t of encouraging listeners involvement 0 Title Thegs Introduction Body Conclusion Transitions Bibliography


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