Exam One Notes
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Drake Kuhlmann on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 120 at Kansas taught by Steve Ilardi in Spring2012. Since its upload, it has received 43 views.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Ch 1 02072012 Biological The view of personality that focuses on the way behavior and personality are in uenced by neuroanatomy biochemistry genetics and evolution Psychoanalytic o The theoretical view of personality based on the writings of Sigmund Freud that emphasizes the unconscious processes of the mind Behavioral The theoretical view of personality that focuses on overt behavior and the ways in which it can be affected by rewards and punishments in the environment Cognitive o The theoretical view that focuses on the ways in which basic processes of perception and cognition affect personality and behavior HumanisticExistential special 0 That pursues how conscious awareness can produce such uniquely human attributes as existential anxiety creativity and free will and tries to understand the meaning and basis of happiness Trait Theoretical view of personality that focuses on individual differences in personality and behavior and the psychological processes behind them 0 Are dimensional with each person somewhere on a continuum lgnores underlying causes focuses on traits as predictors of future behavior Personality 0 An individual s characteristic pattern of behavior thoughts and feelings stable over time and across situations Primary Sources of Personality Data SelfReport 0 Pros o Informant 0 Pros Only direct access to thoughts and feelings Best expertgreatest interest Even when distorted selfimage is important facet of personality Easy data to obtain Large amount of information Bias selfserving bias fundamental attribution error Unwillingness to disclose some data Vastly overused method Too easy and simple Can often see subject s blind sports Can often infer subject s thoughts and feelings Even when distorted other s perceptions important Large amount of information Common sense Limited information Bias Lack of evidence to private experience BehavioralObservation o 3 types Naturalistic Experiment Personality test Can target speci c situations for study Usually regarded as most objective form of data Wide range of contexts o Cons Dif culty of interpretation Ethical problems 0 Life Outcomes 0 Pros Often intrinsically important info that psychologists want to know Objective 0 Cons Indirect source of data can be misleading Multidetermination Lack of psychological relevance Walter Mischel created the marshmallow test Milgram 1961 designed a test about learning and behavior with electrical shocks Point of the test is to see if the teacher will stop the test if it gets to a lethal shock 65 of people continued the experiment Science 0 An attempt to understand the world despite our builtin biases Con rmation Bias 0 Once we hold a belief we quotcherry pickquot con rming evidence and ignorespindistort evidence to the contrary Discon rming evidence yields cognitive dissonance lngroup Bias 0 Divide world into ingroup and outgroup To question our group s beliefs is to risk being sent to outgroup Arguments from Authority Belief must be true because authority says so First Scientist Thales of Miletus 6th century BC 0 Few key assumptions The natural world is lawful and the lawas of nature are discoverable Arguments from authority mean nothingquestion everything Objective observation and experimentation are key Science serves as a corrective to our builtin biases Don t rely on quotarguments from authorityquot question authority Stay humble you have lots of biases and your beliefs may be false Be wary of groupthink lnnovate new ways of thinking Rely on objective evidence replicable experiments In essence science yields evolution of new ideas mutation and natural selections Correlation Coefficient A number between 1 and 1 that re ects the degree to which one variable traditionally called y is a linear function of another traditionally called x A negative correlation means that as x goes up y goes down a positive correlation means that as x goes up so does y a zero correlation means that x and y are unrelated Measures strength of association between two variables Correlation doesn39t imply causation 0 Correlation cant ever tell what s causing what Interpreting r rules of thumb 00 lt r lt 02 Weakly correlated 02 lt r lt 05 Moderately correlated 05 lt r Strongly correlated r to the power of 2 percentage of variability in one variable x accounted for by the other y PValue o The probability of obtaining any observed experimental results purely due to chance Psychologist typically reject the role of chances as an explanation when the pvalue is less than 05 ReHabH y When a given construct height IQ depression level etc is measured reliability refers to the likelihood of obtaining a similar value on subsequent measurements 0 The similarity of results on a test across different measurements Validity o The degree to which a given instrument experiment actually measures what it purports to measure Experimental Method 0 A research technique that establishes the casual relationship between an independent variable x and dependent variable y by randomly assigning participants to experimental groups characterized by differing levels of x and measuring the average behavior y that results in each group O WAIS is the most used IQ test 0 95 is the highest correlation you can nd If you know one variable you can nd out the other variable Personality test 0 Over a thousand new personality tests developed every year Projective test 0 Rorschach Not valid Helps personality disorder Test that asks subjects to interpret blots of ink o DrawaPerson Draw a person and the drawing is interpreted according to what kind of person is drawn 0 TAT Thematic Apperception Test Series of 20 black and white drawings Tell a story about the picture Drew Westondeveloped a scoring scheme for the TAT Style of handwriting gives away your type of personality 0 Don t have the opportunity to hide parts you don t want to give away 0 Unconsciously giving away information about yourself 0 Objective test 0 Rational Method each item rationally derived from underlying theory 0 Empirical Method quotdatadriven not relying on theory a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI n Advantagenot transparent so hard to fake repHes n Disadvantagequotshrinkagequot often poor validity 0 Factor Analysis Sophisticated extension of rational method a Uses sophisticated statistics to help measure target construct a Big Fivefactor analysis of 17953 trait words ve underlying factors McAdams Readings 3 levels of personality description 0 Level 1 Trait levelfairly super cial level of knowledge 0 Level 2 Traits modi ed by situations 0 Level 3 A person s core identity central mythsstories that guide and motivate Big Five Neuroticism 0 Negative emotionality reactions to stressful situations 0 3 classi cations Reactive highly negative emotionality El Ever alert to the possibility that something might be wrong Wonderfully sensitive to the distresspain of others Easily discouraged or overwhelmed Resilient low negative emotionality n Largely unfazed by negative possibilities or actual negative outcomes May ignore others discomfort or distress Can handle high levels of stress and remain calm in the face of crisis Responsive moderate negative emotionality n Able to use both reactive and resilient responses based on the situation Emotionally balanced but in some situations will lack the sensitivity of reactives and the un appability of resilients o Usefulness Clinical diagnoses treatment outcomes Extraversion o Sociability 0 Level of sensory stimulation with which a person feels comfortable 0 3 classi cations Extravert high extraversion n Craves high levels of stimulation a Energized by social interactions In Drawn to leadership roles I Usually has friendships El El El El a Very expressive and easy to read Introvert low extraversion n Craves quiet settings with lower levels of stimulation a Energized by isolation a Highly independent a Highly productive on projects a Reserved hard to read Ambivert moderate extraversion n Combines strengths and weaknesses of extraverts and introverts a Can provide highly insightful leadership a Highly versatile Effective in oneonone small and large group settings 0 Usefulness Life satisfaction Openness o Openness to new experiences perceptions and concepts 0 3 classi cations Explorer high openness a Highly imaginative and creative n Able to envision new possibilities for what could be in situations a Invites change easily bored n Broad curiosity Preserver low openness n Focused on the here and now u Wants to conserve and preserve a Uncomfortable with change a Prefers not to question views or beliefs Moderate average openness n Confortable with a balance of the familiar and the new a Tolerates limited questioning of existing practices 0 Usefulness Vocational interestfit Agreeableness o Interpersonal warmth and trust 0 Tendency to maintain a positive emotional tone in situations 0 3 classi cations Accommodator high agreeableness n Avoids con ict at all costs I Always puts on a pleasant exterior n Viewed as pleasant and likeable n Prefers cooperation to competition Challenger low agreeableness n Comfortable with con ict a Not at all concerned with how others view them a May be seen as aggressive a Highly skeptical n Often competitive Negotiator moderate agreeableness a Natural mediators n Neither gullible nor cynical n Utilize a balance of logic and emotion o Usefulness Cardiac health overall health Conscientiousness o Pursue goals in an organized fashion 0 3 classi cations Organizer high conscientiousness n Wellorganized and efficient I Prefer to plan ahead a Highly reliable Slacker low conscientiousness n Often disorganized a Highly spontaneous a Very processoriented Balancer moderate conscientiousness n A quotwork hard play hardquot ethic I Like things reasonably well planned 0 Usefulness job performance Universality of 5 factors Trait theorists o No real reason just happen to be 5 0 Biological model 0 Perhaps 5 major neural circuits 0 Evolutionary 0 Perhaps we re wired to assess 5 major things with adaptive signi cance about others Walter Mischel created the marshmallow test Milgram 1961 designed a test about learning and behavior with electrical shocks 0 Point of the test is to see if the teacher will stop the test if it gets to a lethal shock 65 of people continued the experiment Science serves as a corrective to our builtin biases 0 Don t rely on quotarguments from authorityquot question authority 0 Stay humble you have lots of biases and your beliefs may be false 0 Be wary of groupthink o Innovate new ways of thinking Rely on objective evidence replicable experiments 0 In essence science yields evolution of new ideas mutation and natural selections WAIS is the most used IQ test 0 95 is the highest correlation you can nd If you know one variable you can nd out the other variable Over a thousand new personality tests developed every year 0 Don t have the opportunity to hide parts you don t want to give away Unconsciously giving away information about yourself Universality of 5 factors Trait theorists o No real reason just happen to be 5 0 Biological model 0 Perhaps 5 major neural circuits 0 Evolutionary 0 Perhaps we re wired to assess 5 major things with adaptive signi cance about others
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