Archaeology Midterm Study Guide
Archaeology Midterm Study Guide 1003
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicki Graham on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1003 at George Washington University taught by Susan Johnston in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
1015 multiple choice Short answers choices of which we want to answer 34 sentences Longer essay question What is archaeology Study of past through the material remains people leave behind Focus on material objects 0 Focus in this class on anthropological archaeology 0 Ideas like culture and ethnological information 0 Classical archaeology 0 Interest in ancient cultures in Rome and Greece trying to understand styles of artifacts Historicalarchaeology 0 Study of archaeology during documented periods Biblical archaeology 0 Interest in trying to nd archaeological evidence to the biblical past Egyptology 0 Study of the archaeology of Egypt its own discipline as a whole Archaeology is not 0 History 0 Not a written recordtext Paleontology 0 Dinosaurs and ancient animal life 0 Physical anthropology 0 Biological remains of ancient humans and their ancestors more of a median Anthropological Archaeology 0 Culture differences between people 0 Out cultures de ne the way that we see the world 0 Learned shared symbolic 0 Agreement that certain ways of behaving are normal 0 Culture is both ideological and physical material culture 0 Objects re ect those shared ideas 0 Culture is patterned within and between human groups 0 People with shared ideas produce similar things 0 Some material culture is shared everywhere 0 We can use patterns of material remains to reconstruct the cultural meaning of those remains Thinking about the past 0 The scienti c process 0 Forces us to think about the evidence ahead of time and how the info you collect will answer those questions Your hypothesis is your prediction about what you think is going to happen Step 1 de ne the problem 0 Step 2 establish a hypothesis Has to be testable Had to be repeatable Falsifiable can be proven incorrect The absence of evidence does not equal evidence of absence Step 3 determine the implications of the hypothesis Step 4 collect data Step 4 test the hypothesis compare to the implications 0 Accept reject revise and retest the hypothesis Occam s Razor 0 quotEntities must not be multiplied beyond necessity Best explanation 0 Accounts for the most evidence 0 Does violence to the least evidence 0 Requires fewest assumptions 0 000 Review discussion notes Is there evidence 0 Must be informed in some way about the evidence 0 Steps of archaeological research 0 A problemquestion of some sort Background research and feasibility of your work 0 How are you going to get people there 0 How will you secure the site 0 Weather 0 Implementation Permits licenses funding logistics Data acquisitions 0 Data processing For every one day in the eld is 510 days in the lab cleaning organizing measuring 0 Analysis and interpretation 0 Publication 0 What constitutes archaeological data 0 What would survive in the room 0 3 main categories 0 Artifacts Anything we can produce that is portable O 0 Features Things people create but cannot be moved dug into the ground quotEcofactsquot Things from the natural environment that tell us about people what they ate and climate 0 Archaeologists are interested in things as well as the context 0 Original deposition 0 Things get into the ground because it was buried abandoned trash lost things things stored in the ground 0 Artifacts do not stay in the exact same position from when they re buried and when they re found by archaeologists O O O O O Freezing and thawing Water Gravity Plants Animals Culturaltransformations O 0000 O O 0 Agriculture Road construction Reuse Reconstruction ancient reconstruction Example Neanderthal Buried in pits what does that mean Found clumps of pollen speci cally local ower pollen Shanidar site is covered with Persian birds who break off owers and put them in their burrows Flowers in the grave or rodent activity Preservation Material what is it made of O O 0 Organic materials are the least likely to survive Stone and bone are the most likely to survive as well as parts of pottery Materials have been a big impact on what survives 0 Original condition of material determines if it survives O O O 0 Example wood no charcoal yes Clay may or may not survive but if you make it into pottery it probably will survive Whole pots will survive Whole pots no pieces of pots yes 0 Matrix 0 Condition it is in wet or dry soil cold or how climates Climate 0 Stable climates are better than changing climates Pompeii It was sudden and people did not have time to get out 0 Human remains decayed but ash solidi ed around them poured plaster into the holes and saw the shapes of bodies 0 Concentration of remains from the past 0 You can see a change in plant growth slightly darker or lighter Different patterns in plants can be seen Oblique light casts shadows in ways that can t be seen on the ground 0 Accidental nds Detectors that can read materials underground 0 Stories about different sites 0 Previous research gives clues about different sites Necessities of human life people need water and other resources 0 Speaking to locals Oral history Mythology Shovel testing 0 You don t dig for sites except in the context of read building or building a shopping mail 0 Lay out a grid and dig a hole every 50 meters or so 0 Only time you dig to nd sites Ways to nd sites 0 Survey 0 Finding artifacts on the ground Transects 0 You talk a straight line 0 Grid 0 Find everything in one square Sampling 0 Don t pick up everything 0 Collect a certain percentage of what you need to get a general idea of what was going on at that site Remote sensing A variety of things that allows you to see under the ground 0 LiDar 0 Need a plane 0 Light detection and ranging 0 Attach a laser to the wings o The time it takes for the light to get to the ground and back to measure lumps and bumps on ground 0 Tiniest differences can be seen Review discussion notes Ground penetrating radar 0 You can see things at different depths Electrical resistivity o The more dense something is the more resistant it will be Magnetometry 0 Based on the idea that earth had magnetic signature and when humans dig into the ground they altar that magnetic signature so this measures the grounds magnetic signature Magnetic anomaly 0 At the base of St John s well Remote sensing 0 Can reveal features that you may want to later excavate Excavann 0 Key part of archaeology o Excavation occurs not to dig up artifacts Dirt forms in layers layers show the way the earth is Layers contain artifacts Process of taking the dirt off in the reverse order that it was put down Collect data as you reveal layers Data includes artifacts their context plants and animal remains and other important things Natural versus arti cial layers 0 Natural Observe actual layers 0 Arti cial Choose where layers begin take off every 10 cm of soil for example Sampling 0 Sample different parts of the site pick sample of squares and excavate those squares 0 Must establish a gridpoints in pace that allow you to establish different points 0 Come countries have national grids Need horizontal or vertical control 0 Exactly where it is on the grid as well as how deep it is Record keeping o Excavation is destruction 0 Very important to keep record of what is going on 0 Important to keep very good records 0 Keep notes write down what you do and take photographs Shovel test pits 0 Every little pit gets its own record 0 Site name designation list artifacts Screening 0 Recover little things that you can t see with the naked eye 0 Flotation o Recover small things you can t see with the naked eye Processed artifacts o For every one day in the end there is 510 days in the lab 0 Artifacts must be cleaned then labeled so you know where it came from bagged tagged or gets a number on it 0 Must be bagged then catalogued then stored Dun Ailinne Sword 0 Only iron sword excavated from a site in Ireland Photographed insitu Drawn Photographed again Catalogue reference DaUng Need to know how old something is 0 Most things are older than we thought they were 0 Time designations 0 Big bang The equivalent of a week in the earth s history 0 BC Before Christ BCE before common era 0 AD The year of our lord CE common era 0 BP Before present commonly used before about 10000 years ago usually can subtract about 2000 year 0 ln radiocarbon dating it means subtract 1950 to get an approximate BC or BCE date 0 Dates must be calibrated radiocarbon dates come back uncalibrated Ways of getting a date 0 Relative dating 0 Oldest kind of dating 0 Can determine if something is relatively older or younger than something else 0 Depth of burial does not have to do with the date of the artifact Absolute dating 0 Date you have can be correlated with a calendar date 0 Various kinds of technology that can assess carious chemicals and materials to receive the date Stratigraphy O O 0 Earth accumulates in layers Able to look at those layers to reconstruct the ways that they were formed Superpositioning Things on top of things are more recent than thing things below them Association Things in a given layer of dirt are roughly contemporary Real stratigraphy Layers are not so clear Layers get mixed up Not a simple straight line Relative dating is important even with absolute dates 0 O O 0 Most absolute dating requires very speci c techniques Absolute dating techniques are destructive Absolute dating can be expensive There are issues with absolute techniques Absolute dating work of the same principle 0 O 0 We know how much there was We know how much is there now We know the rate of change Carbon 14 dating 0 O O O O O O 0 We can measure the amount of carbon 14 that remains Carbon 14 gets into the living system and goes into anything that is living Continually reintroduced to the system Carbon 14 diminishes as dead bodies decompose We can date with carbon 14 dating anything that was once alive If it was not alive then carbon 14 dating cannot date it Cone is party organic so sometimes can be dated using carbon 14 dating You can date plant material Carbon 14 limitations 00000 O Requires organic material Destructive won t get sample back quotDatequot is statistical so it carries standard deviation Works back about 45000 years Dates the death of organic material The dates have to be calibrated Dendrochronology O 0 Counting tree rings trees add about a ring very year Can calibrate radiocarbon dates Potassiumargon dating 0 Ration of potassium to argon tells the date 0 Can only be used on super old artifacts o Requires hearing up the artifacts Thermoluminesence 0 Measured as trapped light captures electrons o Requires heating event 0 Combo of techniques 0 C14 o Stratigraphy o Artifact styles 0 Spatial relationships Structure of archaeological interpretation 0 Low level theory 0 Basic observation in eld and lab settings 0 High level theory 0 What we think is going on 0 Middle level theory 0 Link low and high level theory Uniformitarianism Assumption in science 0 Assume a process we can see now happened the same way in the past 0 Referring to physical processes 0 Example erosion natural selection glacial melting Analogy If you compare two things and they share things you can see then you assume they may have unseen things in common Direct analogy From direct ancestors Generalized analogy 0 From human condition 0 What other humans have done in the past o Is technology or cultural connection more important 0 Must weigh out the options Experimental archaeology Make one and try it o If you think something was made a certain way then make it and see how it works Ethnographic analogy 0 Different ways that humans do things 0 See how people solve problems 0 Look at out culture as well as other cultures Ethnoarchaeology The huntergatherer problem 0 Understanding life ways that didn t make its way into today s lifestyle 0 Look at living hunter gatherers Assume hunter gatherers are on the edge of starvation untrue Hunter gatherers today don t own but they take advantage of technology 0 They ve been affected by non hunter gatherers There are bene ts for hunter gatherers that food producers don t have 0 We have to use present hunter gatherers to understand the past hunter gatherers because we ultimately don t have a choice quotecofactsquot Plants and animals 0 Plant remains 0 Dry or frozen or very moist environments preserve plants Leaves owers seeds pollen phytoliths plant stonesplant decays and leaves these stones behind 0 Seeds are recovered through dry sifting or through otation 0 Finding these things does not necessarily mean it was in the area Phytoliths show that plant was actually grown there Otzi Had tons of plant remains with him 0 Had shoes a hat a cloak a backpack and fungi on a string possibly medicinal Pollen ingested from a different area suggests he was traveling Neadertal plant consumption 0 Used tartar to recover plant remains among neandertals Cooked some of their plants Faunal remains Animal skins leather mummi ed cats 0 More likely bones even more likely is bits of bones Questions 0 What were the bones used for o What species they are o If they were domestic or wild Age and sex of the animal 0 Are they using airy products from the animals 0 Determine age from changes in the bones porosity of bones teeth 0 Long bones are more likely to survive more mineral deposits 0 Fewer bones means more likely to survive 0 Minimum species present 0 Number of specimen present 0 Individual bones count 0 Minimum number of individuals 0 Number of animals of one species 0 Take most common bones so there are that many individuals 0 500 bone 150 back legs so at least 150 sheep 0 Estimate of actual number of animals Taphonomy 0 Estimating processes that has to do with animal remains 0 Did they die there or did humans put them there 0 Original size and density of the bones Why animals become preserved Star Carr England 0 On a lake edge 0 Very good preservation Red deer antlers 0 Collecting antlers to make them into harpoons People didn t live at the site year round Antlers were shed in April but many antlers found were attached to the skill so they must have killed them 0 Babies are born in spring and remains of babies were found 0 Could collect dear antlers Bone tools are very useful show evidence of wear Dun Ailinne Lots of bones tools found there 0 Used for weaving and sewing o Ritual ceremonial sire Dairying Animals produce secondary products 0 Once animals are domesticated they can be milked o Containers with bones have traces of milk fat Probably used to make cheese Human remains Unintentionally mummi ed but placed in a bog which creates a mummy Bogs are partly water partly land 0 In most cases human remains are bones Age and sex 0 Age determined by bone porosity length epiphyseal union and most precisely teeth 0 Young adults can be determined most accurately because their teeth grow quickly 0 Male bones are heavier and more robust Female pelvis is wider than male 0 Hole in female pelvis is wider o Notch is wider in females U shape and narrower in males V shape Diseases 0 Anemias if very severe can affect bones leaving visible marks in them Anemia makes other diseases much worse 0 Arthritis beaks down the pads in joints resulting in worn out bones Tuberculosis is visible in the bone Ricker is a vitamin d de ciency Trauma can show heavelight musculature wear on bones Healed fractures shows in bones Cultural practices 0 Feel binding 0 Binding children to cradle boards attens their heads Diet 0 Teeth enamel on teeth 0 Harris lines 0 Different plants have different degrees of carbon Amesbury Archer Abscess in his jaw Knee cap had been torn off and healed Chemicals can tell you in someone spent their adult life in a different place than they grew up look at teeth DNA studies 0 Mitochondrial DNA only does from the mother to their child 0 Only changes as it is altered through mutation King Tutankhamen 13th king of 18th dynasty Reigned probably between 13321323 Took throne when he was 9 or 10 o Ultimately pretty unimportant Died in late teens didn t have time to do anything interesting 0 Tomb was more or less under the tomb of a later ruler Howard carter was looking for him but couldn t nd him and eventually found him in 1922 Tombs was essentially undisturbed Who was his mother 0 His father was Akhenaten Akhenaten s wife was Nefertiti Never says that Nefertiti is Tut s mom Tut is probably not Nefertiti s son Kiya was Akhenaten s second wife maybe she was signi cant because she was Tut s mother 0 No one knows for sure Did Akhenaten have a disease that he passed to his son 0 Hell broke lose when Akhenaten was king 0 He is depicted with a weird body shape did he actually look like that or was that just symbolic 0 Did he have a disease or is it a type of symbolism o If it is a disease could he have passed it onto tut How did Tut die 0 Died in his twenties why did he die 0 DNA samples show that genetically he is the grandson of Amenhotep III and son of Akhenaten Had a cleft pallet cub foot and Kohler s disease Probably dies as a result of an infected broken leg Also had malaria Broke eg then malaria caused infection Akhenaten and his sister seem to be the parents of Tut Kiya was never notes as being the king s sister Two stillborn fetuses in Tut s tomb assumed to be his unborn children but not known for sure 0 Akhenaten picked a portrayal of the sun god and made it the main one 0000 0000000 Richard I Become king in 1483 after his brother Edward IV died His brother had two sons with his wife but Richard decided the kids should not become king he had the marriage invalidated so the kids were not able to become king and he was Kingship was challenged by Henry VII started tutor line Had a battle and Henry won Richard dies and Henry becomes king Richard is buried in Greyfriar s Abbey and grave was essentially forgotten and then the Abbey was knocked down He was portrayed as having severe scoliosis severe deformity Tutors had not legitimate claim to the throne Used GPS ground penetrating radar and found a skeleton with feet removed after burial and extreme scoliosis No evidence of a cof n or clothing Suggestion that his wrists were tied together Died from severe trauma Genetically related to people in line from Richard III so it was most likely him Had roundworms Debate 2 Cowboy Wash Evidence recovered suggested the possibility of cannibalism Accusing someone of cannibalism is the ultimate insult from Europeans Evidence of cannibalism O O 0000 00 Human tooth marks on bones Written document describing cannibalism by the people themselves Stomach contents containing human meat Cut marks on bones Dismemberment and no skull Bones had been broken open to get the marrow from the inside Stone tools with blood traces on them Bones burned roasted in such a way to suggest the esh is still on the bones Charring on the end of the bone but not the meaty part of the bone The feces coprolites fossilized feces had a protein which comes from the ber of human muscle pretty de nitive evidence Evidence that it was not cannibalism O 0000 00 Cut marks on bones could be the result of ritual Burning could be a result of ritual burning Could be explained by violence Blood on stone tools could be an accidental thing Scenario where people are in a village someone falls in a re etc Time period in which a lot is happening Question the legitimacy of the result of the coprolite
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