GeneralPsychologyMidtermNotes PSYC 1001
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Susannah Norris on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Gomez-Serrano in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Psych Midterm Notes Consciousness Consciousness o Moment to moment awareness of ourselves and our environment To Study It 0 Study brain lesions 0 Think aloud protocols Different States of Consciousness 0 Altered caused by LSD 0 Sleep U Became illegal in 1968 Alters consciousness The most potent drug Get high 50 100 mg Impossible to become addicted or OD High is 8 12 hours 1 Somatic Phase 0 30 minutes 1 hour 0 Activation of the sympathetic system 0 Release of inner tension 0 Euphona 2 Sensory Phase 0 1 3 hours 0 Hallucinations I Synesthesia mix of senses 0 See images with eyes closed 0 Perception of reality at a different level 0 Strange configuration of common objects 3 Psychic Phase 0 Swing of emotions 0 Panic attacks 0 Feeling of timelessness 0 Feeling of separation between mind and body Sleep Humans spend 30 of life sleeping o 14 16 hours a day for infants 0 9 hours a day for teens o 7 8 hours a day for adults 0 6 hours a day for elders We don t know why we sleep It39s been perceived through evolution Lack of sleep causes death 0 Fatal insomnia Why we need sleep 1 Conserve energy 2 Avoid predators 3 Restore and replenish the body I Glycogen get replenished I Secrete growth hormones to repair health 4 Immune system is stronger During sleep there is a change in brain activity We find 5 different stages based on brain activity 0 Slow Wave Sleep SW8 0 Rapid Eye Movement REM SWS and REM 1 cycle We have 4 cycles every night Duration of 1 cycle is around 100 minutes Slow eye movement Decreasing muscle tone Decreasing breathing Decreasing body temperature Lower blood pressure Lower metabolic rate Less body movement Rapid eye movement Pupillary constriction Dreaming Paralysis of large muscles Twitching of small muscles o Spontaneous erections Func ons o SW8 helps you to be alive 0 Die if you get woken up during this too many times 0 REM not necessary for survival 0 Function of dreaming is unclear Freudian o The ego releases the hold on id 0 Id is the most animalistic part of humans 0 Manifest dream 0 What the dream is about 0 Latent dream 0 What the dream really means 0 Focus of Freudian Dream Theories 1 Disposal of unwanted memories accumulated during the day 2 Help to consolidate learn tasks Learning Habituation Conditioning classical operant Observation 1 Habituation simplest form of learning 0 organism stops reactingresponding to stimuli 1 Conditioning learning by association 0 Classical readiness that your body is preparing o Pavlov experiment on digestion o 1904 nobel prize for research on digestion 0 Different processes I Acquisition I Extinction I GeneralizationDiscrimination I High order conditioning Acquisition Tone neutral stimulus Food unconditioned UCS does not have to be taught stimulus Salivation unconditioned response UCR Tone becomes a conditioned stimulus CS Dog learned to salivate after hearing tone conditioned response CR ToneFood forward conditioning FoodTone backward conditioning Food amp Tone at the same time simultaneous conditioning Ex nc on Tone Salivating without giving food as reward x40 Tone eventually no salivation GeneralizationDiscrimination Tone A food Tone A salivate Tone B salivate Tone C salivate x40 Tone X Don t salivate Higher Order Conditioning SQUARE PIC Tone Food X60 SQUARE PIC salivation Pavlovian conditioning teaches us that our body prepares for future events Phobias Watson Little Albert experiment Loud noises UCS caused Albert to cry UCR Furry things neutral stimulus NS Furry object Loud noise Cried x40 Furry object CS cried CR Operant conditioning Learning by association organism is learning from the consequences of its acts Thorndike maze studies Cats in the puzzle box Law of effect if a response is followed by a satisfactory consequence that response is more likely to be repeated if a response is followed by annoyance it most likely will not be repeated Car never had insight never solved the problem Skinner changed the language Satisfaction Used Reinforcement Annoyance Used Punishment Skinner box ratpigeon Operant processes Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Pos Punishment Neg Punishment Extinction Behavior Result Consequence Positive press gets food keeps pressing reinforcement bar reinf Negative press shock stops shock is being taken keeps pressing reinforcement bar away so its neg reinf Positive press gets shocked shock is added so its no pressing punishment bar pos punish Negative press food goes away food is taken away so no pressing Punishment bar its neg punish Extinction press nothing happens it stops bar Pos adding something Neg something taken away Reinforcement behavior more likely to be repeated Punishment behv less likely to b repeated 1 Positive reinforcement trip to europe for doing well in college 2 Negative reinforcement taking phone away when caught and losing 1 point Thirsty taking a drink positive reinforcement adding drink or negative reinforcement taking away thirst Schedules of reinforcement Ratio reinforced by responses lnterval reinforced time Fixed ratio FR FR5 the organism is reinforced every 5 responses Variable ratio VR VR 5 the organism is reinforced every 5 responses Fixed interval Fl Fl 5 sec the organism is reinf for 1st response after 5 sec Variable lnterval Vl Vl5 on average the organism is reinforced from the 1st response after 5 sec Sensa on Eye Sensation Stimulation of the sense organ and the transmission of the stimulus to the brain Perception How your brain interprets the stimulus Absolute threshold how much stimulus is necessary to go from no sensing to sensing Difference threshold percentage of change necessary to be felt If something is right under the threshold subliminal perception If you remove all sensory stimuli Liy built isolation tank Vision Organ eye diameter 25 cm weight 7g sensitive to wavelengths between 380760 nm Eye parts lris open or closes the pupil pupil cornea anterior chamber lens Posterior chamber filled with vitreous humour fluid Fovea full of cones retina optic nerve As you get older the lens becomes less flexible Light comes in through the cornea crosses the lens flexes and sends the light into the eye and posterior chamber and eventually hits the retina Retina 10 layers of cells photoreceptors at the back of the retina bipolar cells in the middle of retina Ganglion cells in the front of the retina Conesrods photoreceptors Light will initiate action potential Action potential Optic Nerve Thalamus Visual cortex greatest amount of info sent here amp Amygdala amp superior calliculus How do we see color Photoreceptors Cones 6Billion sensitive to light get excited see color Rods 1OOMillion doesn t need much light vision in the dark peripheral vision Cones 1st explanation cones for redblueyellow 2nd explanation cones for red amp green blue amp yellow black amp white Mg Stimulus sound 0 movement of particles in the air Phsyical Attributes Amplitude loudness of the sound Frequency pitch Psychological Timbre m 5 Outer o Pinna localization of sound directing the sound into the canal o Auditory Canal 3cm Protects the tympanic membrane Keeps temperature of middle ear Middle Function is to transfer the energy from the tympanic membrane to the small oval window 0 Ossicles Hammer Annil Stirrup o Muscles Tensor Tympani Stapidius Innen o Cochlea Transfers the soundwaves into neural impulse action potential Triangle shaped Cochlea JamieOn 4e Li I l l j Hair cells channel and string String attrached to a channel between hairs in hair cells String opens and closes channels as hair cells move Opens channels gt action potential Action potential gt travels through the auditory nerve gt cochlear nucleus gt thalamus gt auditory cortex gt neural stimulus becomes sound Deafness 1 Conduction sound can t reach the cochlea 2 Sensoryneural problem is in the cochlea Antibiotics Loud noises gt strings between hair cells snap 3 Central problem is in the brain auditory cortex 10 Gestatt Psychologist 0 Phi Phenomenom movement in the absence of movement perceiving movement when looking at a still frame 114 Laws of Gestatt Laws of Figure ground and laws of grouping similarity continuity proximity closure 11 1 Laws of FigureGround 0 Brain decides what the figure is and what the background is 0 Example a vase or two faces LAWS OF GROUPING 2 Similarity Brain groups together similar objects ex x x x o o o 3 Continuity Brain chooses to continue the pattern that is easiest to understand 4 Proximity Brain tends to put together things that are close in time or space ex IBM logo is reallyjust lines but we interpret it as letters 5 Closure Brain tends to full up the gaps so images make sense Depth 0 We use cues Binocular 1 Retinal discrepancy gt The bigger the discrepancy the closer the brain interprets the object is Monocular 2 Relative size gt If you are familiar with an object and the object appears large in your retina your brain interprets it as being closer to you 12 3 Relative clarity gt The clearer you see something the brain interprets it as being closer to you There is dust and dirt in the air and when you re looking through a larger amount of air the high amount of dust and dirt makes things in the distance less clear 4 lnterposition gt The object covered is farther away 5 Linear Perspective gt When parallel lines start closing the brain interprets them as being far away 6 Texture gradient gt lfwe see texture the brain interprets the object as being close no texture far Memory Memory capacity of the nervous system to acquire skills and knowledge Different types Sensory memory 0 length of 34 seconds 0 Capacity is very big o Echoic brain retains a sound you heard for 34 sec if you make an effort you remember if you don t you forget o lconic brain retains an image Short term 0 length of 20 seconds 0 Capacity is 7 items 2 0 Magic number Long term 0 Length is endless 0 Capacity is endless o Ebbiagbause 0 Created 2300 Consonant Vowel Consonant CVC trigrams and memorized them 13 I RIF I TOG I MUK o Concluded Forgetting curve see pic Techniques to improve Memory A Practice 2 Elaborate the material make the material yours by organizing in a way that makes sense to you Overlearn Get sleep Memory consolidation Mnemonics Using visual imagery Method of LociPalace 39FDP J F Diff types of Long term memory Declarative knowing what 0 Facts semantic 0 Events 0 Located in hippocampus Procedural knowing how 0 riding a bike 0 playing an instrument 0 Located in cerebellum amygdala Failures of memory Memories are not copies but reconstruction 1 Flashbulb o Emotionally charged 2 Source misattributions o Cryptoamnesia you remember the content but not the source what was told but not who told you c Sleeper effect Forget the doubtful source but remember the content 0 False fame affect you remember the name but not who it actually 3 Failures as eyewitnessBad witness 14 o Crossethnicity reasons hispanics identify other hispanics better than caucasians etc susceptibility and misinformation Elizabeth Loftus asked ppl questionsstudied how their responses changed 4 False memories 0 Kid thinking he was lost in a mail 5 Confabulation o recollection of episodic memories 0 Alcoholics o Capgrass syndrome lesions in the frontal lobe 0 Believe that the others are imposters 6 Repressed 0 Some of them are realothers are implanted and are false 15
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