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Anthropology review exam 1

by: Alexandra Garcia

Anthropology review exam 1 ANP201

Alexandra Garcia
GPA 2.8
Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Lucero Radonic

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Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
Lucero Radonic
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexandra Garcia on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANP201 at Michigan State University taught by Lucero Radonic in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 02/19/15
Asian American 11132014 Mind and Body Linked 0 Often associate physical symptoms With mental illness than With emotional symptoms 0 Asian Americans may feel shame or embarrassment in experiencing mental illness 0 Prefer not to seek care therapy but instead goes to a physician for medical care 0 Health care is a family matter not an individual decision like US Mental Illness is an Alarming Problem 0 Many experience severe trauma before immigrating to US or during he process of eeing their homes 0 High rates of social anxiety social phobias depression and trauma related disorders 0 Young Asian Americans have the highest suicide rate out of all racial and ethnic groups in US High Rates of Depression 0 South Asian refugees report the highest rates among Asian Am Groups 0 The word depression does not exist in some Asian languages e g Chinese 0 The national Comorbidity Study NCS reported high rates of depression among Chinese Americans 17 for lifetime and 10 percent current Why the high rates of Suicide 0 Suicide rates are higher than the national average for some groups of Asian Americans 0 Among elderly women of all ethnic and racial groups Asians have the highest suicide rate 0 According to mental health care providers Asian American women ages 1524 have a higher rate of suicide than Caucasians African Americans and Latinos in that age group Sensitivity to Prescribed Medications 0 Majority seek alternative modes of treatment for illness 0 Herbal treatment may interfere With prescriptions medications Genetic differences may cause differences in the metabolization of prescription drugs Many have metabolic rate of Isoenzymewhich is responsible for metabolizing tricyclic antidepressants and many antipsychotics Removal of Barriers Communication between care giver and client can be a issue Some Asian languages do not have distinct words for feelings linked with mental illness 0 Anxiety insomnia pain 0 One word in several Asian languages express these feelings O Stigma and cultural perception associated with mental illness 0 Asian American Families General Trends and overview 4 of population fastest growth during 90s Diversity within represent over 28 subgroups Immigration began in mid1800s continuous today Large in ux since 1965 previously many attempts to curtail immigration Largest groups are Chinese Filipinos Asian Indians Median age of Asian Americans is 26 years younger higher fertility rates of newer immigrants lower proportions of elderly 80 of Asian Americans Families are maintained by marries couples 10 female headed households higher median incomes than white families over 12 in large cities but rate of poverty is higher than whites primarily in Southeast Asian refugees Parentchild relationships high emphasis on academic acheivment selfcontrol close relatioships Immigration alters parentchild relationships High rates of crossethnic marriage especially female to male Biracial and multiracial Asian Americans have increased Kinship networks provide practical support and assistance Asian Americans women are often in the labor force sometimes in family businesses Still tends to be a gendered division of labor in the household although this is changing generationally Older adults are often involved in families and accorded status Underuse of mental health services and stigmatization of mental health services association with shame and loss of face to bring private issues outside of the family Demographics 6 largest are Chinese 23 Filipino 19 Japanese 12 Asian Indian 11 Korean 11 Vietnamese 9 less than 2 are Thai and Hmong Diverse group of people originating in East Asia China Japan Korea Southeast Asia Indonesian Vietnam Cambodia Laos and the Pacific Islands Samoa the Philippines Guam India Asian Americans differ in terms of migration history language religion education level occupation income degree of acculturation preferred residence political involvement etc Asian Americans have a higher educational staus than other groups in the US financial norms exceed national norms as well Most Asian Americans reside on the West Coast and in the Northeast and in cities There are large Hmong population pockets in the Midwest such as Minnesota and Wisconsin Crime and delinquency has been statistically low but is on the rise as youthful community grows East Asians emigrated by choice many Southeast Asians by necessity as refugees Refugees are not as prepared to face adjustment and survival problems in a new country placing these groups more are risk especially in terms of children Of the Southeast Asians Indians and Vietnamese immigrants tend to come more often from educationally and financially advantaged urban backgrounds Laotian and Cambodian from rural and disadvantaged backgrounds Religion 0 Varies widely from Buddhism ancestor worship and Christianity Most Korean are Protestant Filipinos are Catholic Japanese are Shinto Buddhist or Christian Vietnamese can be Buddhist or Catholic Cambodians and Laotians are Brahman Hindu or Buddhist Hmong and Miens are animalistic and believe strongly in supernatural causes 0 Asian Americans as a group have the highest average family income in the US Southeast Asians are among the poorest Laotians Cambodians and Vietnamese Treatment Issues The family unit is privileged over the dyadic Marriages can be chosen or arranged There is a higher tendency of traditional roles for men and women Divorce is not common Parentchild attachment is often the strongest emotional bond for a woman especially with sons 0 Common beliefs about problem origins include imbalance of yin and yang disharmony in the ow of chi supernatural intervention genetic or heredity defects strain and exhaustion organic disorders character weakness Chinese 0 Japanese are more likely to experience depression through somatic or metaphoric language The importance of gift giving in the Japanese Culture encourages therapists to offer the family a concrete example of therapeutic problem solving in the first session as a gift to the family 0 Korean families have a very strong legacy of hierarchical relationships in age stratification and social intercourse O Ancestors are important in the Vietnamese culture Chinese American Families Revisioning the Chinese American family women have been invisible Chinese women cont d Although showing that indeed Chinese women have been oppressed studies have revealed that Chinese women have struggled against and sometimes resisted victimization fighting together Chinese women have cooperated across households and sometimes gain considerable power and in uence In the US Chinese American women have played active roles in maintaining culture by transmitting folk legends and family histories to children Ties between Chinese women especially mothers and daughters are the bonds that hold the family together Chinese American women often remain in routine contact with distant family members abroad in order to observe traditional celebrations and to keep track of family news Chinese women were are the kin ship Chinese American women have begun to move into and become active members of their communities Seeing this role in their community as an extensions of their responsibilities as mothers Today Chinese women are active Extended kin and Chinese Americans In an earlier period we saw a form of split household in Chinese American culture where income sharing and even reproduction may have occurred between individuals separated by an ocean Today among new immigrant Chinese families in the US domestic sharing may exist along several related household Even thou extended kin do not typically reside together they may cooperate in running a common family business Understanding the Chinese American family To understand the Chinese American family we must recognize the impacts of racism and economic structure on family formation and interfamily relations Assaults have been perpetrated on Chinese families by racist immigration policy a race segregated labor system and legal and political restrictions on mobility In 1882 congress passed the Chinese exclusion act Current trends in Chinese American families We must see the Chinese and Chinese Americans as dynamic not static the Chinese culture that recent immigrants bring is not the same as the Chinese culture the 19th century immigrants brought The new legal and social condition of life in the US has created a rich Chinese American culture Japanese immigration in the US Immigration for the J apanese s was very similar in the early period of immigration to that oftenearly Chinese immigrants with racist immigration policies in place Family experiences fall into two period of time the time of early immigrationexclusionand internment 19001945 and then the postwar period 1945present Japanese Americans World War II and interment of Japanese s American destroyed the prewar economy of the Japanese community and radically altered the organization of Japanese American families In the 1960s a research team was assembled to look at the Us Experience of sansei 3rd generation J apanese s Americans cohorts this organization was known as jarps In Japanese culture the household or ie is the basic social unit Some Japanese households are marked by the use of shame and guilt to enforce norms and the consolidation of family ties through feeling of obligation and responsibility Asian Indian family structure Cultural stability and continuity indicated by low rates of marriage outside the caste divorce illegitimacy and adultery Close ties between generations grandparents heavy involvement in grand child rearing adult children caring for elderly parents etc Cultural maintenance as evident from almost no delinquency Economic selfsufficiency willingness to work at any job and little reliance on welfare programs Female subordination as seen by the close control over women and wives responsibility for childcare and domestic work Americanization of Asian Indian Americans Asian Indian Americans are characterized by their faculty for endurance and survival They have been able to adapt to the American way of life without relinquishing their traditional values which helps in assimilation First documentation in 1790 Later part of the 19th century significant migrationprimarily rural agricultural workers Characteristics of Indians Most uent English speakers High levels of education A lot go to Medical field Professional skills Tend to live among other Indian families very few ghetto residences Many are citizens and established members of US Median income 99783 Vietnamese war seriously challenged these traditions From 1965 to 1975 roughly 17 million Vietnamese were killed or wounded Most of the young men were drafted or joined in the war More than 1027000 refugees Demographics Approx 122 million undercounted due to not reporting themselves and some counted as Chinese American Made up of Vietnamese as well as Chinese ancestry Mostly found in in the south and west coast where it is warm Here in MI in grand rapids 6000 Immigration to US 1975 1St wave of approximately 100000 escaped South Vietnam 1978 boat people 0 1987 American 0 First wave of refuges mostly Vietnamese 0 Were urban educated and relatively well to do 0 The second wave were morel likely rural less educated and less proficient in English 0 O O O 0 Children of Vietnamese refugees Americas singles largest group of refugee children Many unaccompanied minors Had little control over final destination Were forced to leave without preparation Approximate size 614500 Native American Women in the Circle of Life Identity is primarily defined by her tribal identity her destiny necessarily that of her people The role of women was as diverse as tribal cultures in some she holds considerable power and in others she was is devalued Women have never been portrayed as mindless helpless vain plastic simple or oppressed High value on femininity Regard sky wind and mountains as having both feminine and masculine elements Children Rearing practices emphasizes early respect for individual differences When you go to our children tro to become a friendly tree that they will want to sir near Enjoy them forget yourself if we all could only forget ourselves a bit more ten our children would feel free to be a bit more themselves Sometimes we get to close to our children we care them they can t become themselves Indian Child Rearing Child allowed great freedom Elders play an important role Aunts and uncles also act as parents Child is allowed to develop at own pave Pushing Children are not raised by the clock Praise is nor verbalized often Children are taught to share freely With others Are taught to respect elders and adults Sometimes raised to address all elders as grandparents amp relate to them as close family members Each contribute to the family including the child by working together Native American Indian Elders Elders age 65 or over represent less than 10 of total NAI Familial obligations and interdependence places that care of elders primarily on the family American Indian elders have the highest proportion of health impairments among the aged population 73 experience pain and are hindered in their ability to do daily tasks Elders in extended families assume mutual responsibility through interdependent responsibilities Increasing age means increasing family obligations Elders provide lifespan Wisdom Helps maintain sense of order and performance Native American Indian Health A rich history of medicinal pharmacopoeia and treatment Over 200 drugs that have become part of modern medicine Today Indian Health Services are responsible for care 0 Twice as likely to die of accidents to commit suicide and three times likely to die of heart disease Infant Care 0 Lowest rate of low weight babies for adolescents 0 Neonatal mortality rates birth to 28 days are lowest for the 20 years 0 Reason NAI Mental Health 0 Individual and social contextual beliefs values must be understood 0 Tradiation interventions are sometimes used such as sweat lodge ceremonies of fasting praying and offerings 0 Talking circles esp with youth rap sessions 0 Native traditions are incorporated with conventional medical practices Circle of Life Phase I 0 Being cared for Naming ceremony Timing varies some perform ceremony shortly after birth others when child is several years old 0 Names given provide a cultural mappath 0 Spirit Phase II Phase III A Brief historical look 0 At the time of Columbus there were approx 300400 Indian languages spoken in North America 0 Indian population est 30 million 0 Columbus Cabot LaSalle O Gentle loving cheerful sweet Native culture dynamic and highly adaptive 0 Advanced governmental system 0 Agriculture techniques in use today 0 Accurate astronomical observations 0 Categorization of over 2000 species of plans and animals Agriculture Contributions 0 Corn tomatoes squash peanuts wild rice pumpkins 0 Turkey jerky clam bakes 0 Chocolate maple syrup cranberries avocado 0 Potatoes white and sweet 0 14 varieties of beans Native American Indian Names 0 Thousands of NAI names dot our maps in states cities counties lakes mountains and rivers 0 Hundreds of NAI names are used as trade names for modern manufactured products Indian Heritage 0 IowaIowa to put one to sleep Kentucky Iroquois Meadowland Michigan Chippewa Large clearing occupied by regional tribe Ohio Iroquios beautiful 0 WisconsinChippewa Many contributions 0 Over half of the present worlds food supply comes from the American Indian s agriculture 0 Modern youth groups such as Boy Scouts Girl Scouts include programs based on Indian lore arts character building and outdoor living Greed and power takes over 0 1882 Establishe Federal Institutions training youths from nomadic tribes 0 1824 Establishments of the Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA 0 1887 Dawes 18501880 establishment of many reservations 0 1924 Indian Reorganization Act allowed to become a US Citizen Dawes Act Repealed 0 1950 s BIA attempts to return to assimilation rather than pluralism 0 1968 Indian Civil Rights Act 0 1973 Indian Child Welfare Act 0 1990 debates about Indian sovereignty rage on O 53 million acres of 22 Western Tribes contain the nation s richest reserves of natural gas oil coal and uranium Understanding NAI 0 NAI are not vanishing Americans As a result of better medical care education and health practices they are increasing in numbers 0 Most consider themselves as members of the tribe rather than as individuals in the community 0 Indians pay taxes and are not wards of the government Cultural Patterns may differ for many urban NAI children attending schools 0 Cooperative rather than competitive 0 Favor exibility over rigidity 0 Learning styles differ long periods of observation before trying something new 0 Public practice at the problem solving can be embarrassing and threatening


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