Exam 2 (Final) Study Guide
Exam 2 (Final) Study Guide AMH2097
Popular in Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
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Popular in History
This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by JennaEliteNotetaker on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AMH2097 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Amundson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 194 views. For similar materials see Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
2/29/16& 2/29/16 -! Civil War was expensive for North o! Caused significant changes in US in the way the federal gov operated -! Introduction of income tax o! 3% tax levy o! Fed government direct taxes on states !! Every possible item or service !! Borrowed money o! Northern government borrowed 2.2 billion for war expenses o! Yellow back money vs. green back money -! Manufacturers, railroads, and farming benefited from the war -! Some democrats remained in congress during this time and criticized Abraham Lincoln -! Radical Republicans began to gain more power o! Divided among themselves on issues outside of war o! 1861 Charles Sumner was the most radical republican !! Full of scorn for south and slave holders o! Thaddeus Stevens o! Wanted to see full equality among the races in law and society in the north and south o! Radical Democrats disagreed -! The Copperheads (democrats) o! Supported peace with the confederate states of America !! Wanted a peace treaty to end the war o! Did not want to continue to fight the war o! Many of them voted repeatedly to not support the Civil War -! Lincoln applied marshal law freely -! Clemet Vanlandingham o! Sent to prison during the war for his anti war political beliefs o! Believed there were two rebellions !! Secession rebellion !! Abolition rebellion o! Lincoln ordered him released from prison and to be banished to the confederate states of America !! He chose to go to Canada instead •! Attempted to run for governor here but failed !! Campaigned against Lincoln after his return -! 1862 British ship yard finished building two ships for US -! Radical Republicans got slavery outright banned in Columbia then in every western territory -! Conscription Act (1863) o! Set up war draft o! Applied to all white men between 20 – 45 o! Could purchase your way out of draft or find substitutes o! Represented increase in federal authority during the civil war o! Caused Irish led demonstration against union war draft -! NYC Draft Riot o! Orphanage looted and burned to the ground o! Centers of black business activity/social activities were attacked 2/29/16& o! Lasted for 4 days o! More than 100 people had died (mostly rioters but some blacks) o! Black residents of NYC fled to Brooklyn, New Jersey, and other nearby locations o! Sometimes interracial neighborhoods fought off rioters together -! Emancipation Proclamation -! By end of war in 1865 2.5% of the population died during the civil war o! 20% of white men of military age died in the south, 1 of every 5 black man that fought in the war died -! The South insisted on immediate entry back into the Union while the North said they should have to be readmitted over time o! Radical republicans said the southern states committed suicide and they should have to be treated as new territory o! Once 10% of southern white men in each state pledged their loyalty to the Union then the state could be readmitted o! Wade-Davis Bill !! Half of southern men would have to pledge their loyalty to the Union for the state to be readmitted -! Andrew Johnson became president o! Was only member of southern seceding state that remained at his post o! Railed against aristocrats o! Supported public education and social equality o! Instituted a new policy of southern states to reenter the Union -! Ratified 13 amendment which banned slavery everywhere in the US and it’s territories -! Black Codes o! All white legislators began to pass in southern states o! Gave newly freed black people the right to freely marry, own property, and have limited access to the court o! Said it was illegal for African Americans to testify against whites in courts, serve in juries, and vote o! In North Carolina black men who raped a white woman were to be put to death o! Many southern states used black codes to ban interracial marriage o! Mississippi denied African Americans the right to own fire arms or knives and drink alcohol -! Radical Republicans said it was the federal governments job to make sure that everyone was treated equally o! Passage of new civil rights acts -! Fourteenth Amendment o! Amendment states that everyone born in the US is a citizen of the US o! Meant to guarantee that formerly enslaved people were citizens of the US o! Reconstruction Acts in South !! Lasted from 1867-1877 -! Fifteenth Amendment o! Said the right to vote could not be limited based on race -! 13 -15 amendment was interpreted to give the federal government authority/power -! KKK emerged during this time o! Created to terrorize reconstruction government and their supporters 2/29/16& 3/2/16& '! Radical&Reconstruction &(1867'1877)& th o! Came&about&from&people&refusing&to&ratifying&the&14 &amendment& o! To&get&rid&of&military&rule&states&adopted&constitution&to&allow&black&voting&rights & !! If&this&was&done&along&with&the&ratification&o&the&14 &amendment&military&presence&in&the& states&would&end& !! South&didn’t&care&they&chose&to&live&under&military&district&rule&rather&than&a&legislature&and& judicial&system& o! White&southerners&refused&to&participate&in&ratification&of&the&constitution & o! June&1868,&Arkansas&became&the&first&state&to&satisfy&the&requirements&and&be&readmitted&into& the&Union& o! 1870&Georgia&was&the&final&state&to&be&readmitted&into&the&federal&union & o! Congress&continues&to&pass&legislation&that&gave&them&more&power&and&less&power&to&state& governments&and&the&president& !! They&increased&their&power&over&supreme&court&and&cabinet& & !! Attempted&to&remove&Andrew&Johnson&from&presidency & !! 10&Year&of&Office&Act&–&said&Johnson&couldn’t&let&go&of&his&cabinet&members&and&if&he&wanted& to&it&had&to&be&approved&by&the&senate& '! Andrew&Johnson:&Impeachment&Trial & o! Stood&trial&in&front&of&the&senate & o! Radical&republicans&pushed&the&impeachment&proceeding & o! He&vetoed&the&reconstruction&act&because&he&didn’t&believe&in&black&people&being&involved&in&the& process&of&states&being& readmitted&to&the&union& '! 1868&election& o! Ulysses&S.&Grant&vs.&Seymour & o! Grant&won& o! Southern&freedmen&voted&for&the&first&time&in&this&election & o! Only&7&northern&states&allowed&black&people&to&vote & th o! 15 &Amendment&prohibited&limiting&certain&citizens&from&voting & !! Heated&debates&over&this&in&the&North & !! March&of&1870&this&amendment&became&part&of&the&constitution & !! Some&people&said&the&double&standard&of&African&Americans&being&allowed&to&vote&in&the& south&but¬&in&the&north&was&unfair & '! Black&office&holders&were&consci entious&and&able&and&wanted&to&prove&the&ability&of&African& American’s&to&govern& '! Black&politicians&were&generally¬&vindictive&and&they&didn’t&want&to&restrict&anyone’s&rights & '! The&Freedmen’s&Bureau& o! Agency&created&by&congress&to&oversee&the&process&of&rec onstruction&in&the&south & o! Established&schools,&settled&disputes&between&the&races&and&made&sure&they&were&treated& equally&under&the&law& o! Helped&northern&groups&that&were&interested&in&educating&freed&peope & o! Help&in&hospitals&and&medical&care & o! Wanted&to&improve &wages&and&working&conditions&that&they&thought&would&help&African& Americans& o! Had&the&power&to&redistribute&land&to&former&slaves&in&the&early&years & !! Black&community&in&the&south&wanted&political&and&social&equality¬&just&better&working& conditions& 2/29/16& o! Johnson&scaled&back&the&power&of&the&Freedman’s&Bureau & !! This&removed&black&people&from&land&that&had&already&been&granted&to&them&from&the& government& !! Resulted&in&sharecropping& •! Began&as&a&compromise&of&desire&of&planters&to&have&workers&and&blacks&to&have&their& own&land& •! Saw&this&as&a&solution&to&jumpstart&a & •! System&would&rent&a&portion&of&land&from&an&owner&to&renter&and&grow&crops&on&it & •! Became&an&oppressive&system & •! Land&owners&took&advantage&of&tenants&charging&them&ridiculous&prices&and&putting& them&in&debt& •! Whites&in&the&south&became&share&croppers & o! Grew&cotton&in&hopes&of&rebuilding & o! Would&borrow&money&to&pay&for&equipment&and&seeds & o! Eventually&had&to&give&up&farms&from&debt&and&become&share&croppers & o! Freedmen&and&woman&attended&schools&established&by&the&freedman’s& bureau& !! Property&taxes&funded&these&educations & '! The&Union&League&of&America & o! Encouraged&political&participation&among&newly&freed&people & o! Supported&black&voting& o! Brought&freedmen&together & '! White&southerners&responded&to&this&by&establishing&their&own&secret&soci eties& o! KKK&–&terrorized&reconstruction&government&and&their&supporters & o! Klan’s&men&turned&to&bruit&force&killing&hundreds&of&people & o! 3/4ths&act&places&elections&in&south&under&political&control & o! Federal&troops&sent&to&handle&the&Klan & o! Intimidation&tactics&spread&all&among&the&south& '! White&people&lost&their&interest&in&civil&rights&and&equality & '! 1874&federal&government&said&they&weren’t&going&to&become&involved&in&intimidation&of&black&voters& in&the&south& '! Grants&administration&was&corrupt & '! 1872&Elections& o! Republicans&nominated&Grant& o! Democrats&nominated&Greeley & o! Grant&was&reelected& '! Election&1876& o! Hayes&vs.&Tilden& o! Neutral&15&person&commission&to&decide&outcome&of&election & o! Republicans&had&tried&to&manipulate&the&results&by&throwing&out&ballets&of&three&states & o! Democrats&suppressed&black&voters& o! Hayes&won& o! Both&sides&were&ready&for&another&civil&war & '! Compromise&of&1876& o! Ended&reconstruction& 3/4/16 -! Years after civil war laws were passed to limit Chinese immigrants -! Tens of thousands of Chinese men lived and worked in the US at this point 2/29/16& -! Continued to work in mines in California -! Some Chinese immigrants were business owners o! Bought property and built country estates -! Most men could not afford to go home often o! Very few could go home permanently -! Those that returned to China became elites and had money to build huge estates and send their kids to school and ultimately University -! These Chinese immigrants adopted some ways of American life such as drinking coffee, speaking some English words, and wearing American clothes o! Their families judged them for being so different and changed o! Did not believe in shaking hands or kissing -! In the 1870s the transcontinental railroad was completed putting a lot of Chinese immigrants out of work -! Chinese workers began to farm o! They had to provide their own foods and tents o! In 1886 90% of California farm workers were Chinese o! Produce shipments out of California sored -! In 1870s California was growing more wheat -! San Joaquin River Delta o! These two rivers flooded a delta depositing rich soil o! Chinese workers worked in ankle deep mud to clear land for farming o! Many Chinese workers died during this process o! Tule shoe was invented by Chinese !! Allowed them to bring horses into the delta for use in clearing delta o! Chinese workers were paid 10 cents per cubic yard of soil that they cleared -! Chinese immigrants began to move toward Alaska o! Hired by Chinese immigrants o! Worked in salmon canning factories o! 3,000 Chinese immigrants in the 1880s worked in the salmon caning industry o! This was dangerous and people would die o! As new machines were created less Chinese workers were needing in the caning industry -! Chinese workers began to work at laundry mats -! San Francisco’s China Town o! Epicenter of Chinese population o! Was completely transformed by the gold rush o! Became a manufacturing center after transcontinental rain road was completed o! Chinese immigrants made up most of the work force here o! In traditional Chinese society business owners were not held in high regard !! In the US after the civil war financial success was worshiped o! Workers often worked multiple jobs o! Chinese workers often lived in tenement environments !! They could not afford furniture •! Would use crates they found on the streets and would nail bunks to the walls to sleep in -! “The Heathen Chinese” o! Chinese became the focus of anger of white workers 2/29/16& o! After mining and railroad work dried up, Chinese had to turn other places to find work and money o! Irish men called the Chinese scabs and they did not like them because they worked for cheaper pay o! September 1870 a magazine published a humorous poem by Bret Harte !! Was about the growing animosity between the Irish and Chinese workers !! Explained the anxiety people felt about Irish and Chinese workers !! Tells a story of a card game •! The Chinese player is called Ah Sin o! Portrayed as crafty cheaters •! The Irish player has cards up his sleep cheating and kills the Chinese character o! Portrayed as inept cheater •! This poem was made into a play called Ah Sin o! Whites began to believe Chinese workers were part of a conspiracy to undermine white American workers !! Complained that Chinese immigrants imported things from China and sent their money back home out of America draining its wealth -! San Francisco continued to pass ordinances to drive the Chinese out o! Limited how much space a Chinese could dwell in o! Banned Chinese from walking in public with pole and baskets on the ends !! Required to use a horse and buggy o! Naturalization Act of 1870 !! Federal ordinance !! Created a process for people to become naturalized citizens of the US !! Extended this to people of African extent !! Excluded Chinese from the ability to become citizens •! Left them with no way to vote !! Anti Chinese clubs began to form •! Led to violence toward Chinese -! The Chinese Massacre -! By end of 1870s Chinese people began to arm themselves and began to regret their immigration but could not afford to return to China -! The stock market crashed -! Denis Kearney o! Unemployed workers began to gather at the sand lots o! Corporations, railroads, and Chinese workers were blamed for this o! Wanted to exterminate Chinese population by dropping balloons filled with dynamite on China towns o! Wanted to burn the current law and write a new one for the working man o! A rage broke out and Chinese were killed !! Military militia was sent but could not control them o! Attacked firemen who tried to fight the fires that rioters started o! US navy had to intervene to help end the riot -! Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) o! Federal exclusion act that banned Chinese people fro immigrating to the US lasting from 1882 until after the second world war 2/29/16& -! The Page Law o! Required Chinese woman who were migrating to the US to prove they were not immigrating to participate in prostitution 3/14/16& -! After 1870 the US experienced a dramatic rate of growth o! Continued to develop industrial economy after Civil War o! Market flooded with consumer items causing decrease in price which led to economic downturn !! Severe and long lasting !! Ongoing cycle of boom and bust 1870-1890s •! Was originally called the great depression •! Called The Gilded Age (1870-1900) o! Suggested this time was surrounded by social unrest surrounding American society after civil was gilded (glossed over) !! Issues under the surface -! American Families o! Decline in birth rate which accelerated after civil war !! Caused by the US becoming more urban !! Farmers usually had more children because they needed help on their land !! People with less kids educated each kid and tried to develop them to be successful in life giving them individual attention o! Americans married at older ages after civil war o! By late 19 century couples were using contraception !! Were deeply stigmatized !! 1873 Anthony Comstock passed the Comstock Act (1873) •! Prohibited the distribution of any information involving sex and birth control in the US o! People who violated this act could go to jail o! Particularly concerned with this information in the mail o! By 1900 over 70% of American children were attending school o! American states began to pass laws that mandated kids go to school o! Daughters attended high school at a higher rate than their brothers at this time o! Rural and urban reformers pushed for education reformation -! Sports and Leisure o! Physical fitness became important o! Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) !! 1851 adopted from England !! Took off in years after Civil War !! Combined physical activity with Christianity !! Told young men they could become clean, strong, better people through physical activity !! Basketball and Volleyball invented by YMCA workers o! Country clubs began to pop up in neighborhoods o! Elite men began to take up more aggressive sports o! Baseball !! Began to play some form of baseball in late 1700s 2/29/16& !! In 1840s and 50s more formal rules began to be developed •! Spread in military camps during the civil war !! Businesses frowned on baseball at first viewing it as a waste of time especially for working class men !! Company teams began to be a widespread institution !! Set a pattern for the way sports would develop in the US •! Started with working/middle class men, then the elites, then Americans decided was good work the lower class as well o! Football was the most controversial sport of this time !! 1908 six college football players died on the field !! Football developed new rules protecting the QB and requiring coaches to remove injured players from the field !! Began to attractive business sponsorship -! 19 Century Politics o! High rate of political participation among eligible voters !! Mostly white men !! Few northern states allowed black men to vote o! Politics at this time was considered to be corrupt !! There was no secret ballot so everyone new who you were voting for o! By 1900s there were no African Americans in the south voting o! The Spoils System !! Allowed the winning party in election to give out jobs to the people who are members of your party !! Presidents would get request from their supporters for jobs they had in mind !! Irish immigrants supported the democratic party and would receive jobs in return o! Republican and democratic parties existed in a different state than they do now o! Republicans viewed themselves as patriotic defenders of the Union o! Waving the Bloody Shirt !! Evoking the memory of the civil war by republicans !! Tactic republicans used throughout the 19 century !! Reminded people that Republicans were associated with the Union !! Portrayed democrats as disloyal o! Republicans supported taxes on incoming goods while democrats saw tariff as government intervention o! Democrats tended to be Catholics, southern whites, Irish and German immigrants in cities o! Republicans tended to be native born northern whites, African Americans who could vote, immigrants from Scandinavia -! Corporations and “Robber Barons” o! Industries began to purchase their failing competitors !! Led to the creation of a few huge, wealthy companies !! US steal was the first billion-dollar company in US history !! John D. Rockefeller •! Business leader •! Earned his wealth through cutthroat competition 2/29/16& •! Made secret deals with railroads to force them to ship his products at a lower rate than his competitors •! Engaged in price fixing •! 1880s his company Standard Oil owned 90% of the oil industry in the US •! Gave away a lot of his wealth for medical research •! Men like him became controversial •! Referred to as captains of industry by some •! Referred by robber barons as others o! Believed these people were politically corrupt and manipulated others to get their ways !! People were concerned that this political and economic system were a threat to political and economic freedom o! In early 1880s Jim Crow laws !! Limited the legal rights of African Americans that began to be backed up by courts !! A significant change from tradition in the south •! During slavery blacks and whites mixed constantly o! Slept in the same house, went to some of the same social events !! In the south there were laws that banned African Americans from participating in certain events !! Separate but equal !! Civil rights groups began to disband because they thought the fight for equal rights was hopeless !! States passed laws that kept African Americans from voting •! Some laws said that you could only vote if your grandfather could vote •! Intelligence tests were put in place for people before voting that were unfair preventing African Americans from voting o! The Pendleton Act (1883) !! Wanted to end the spoils system of giving out federal jobs !! Put into place civil service examination and jobs were given out based on how well individuals did on the test •! There was no racial or sex discrimination on this exam o! People in upper and middle class of black community participated in business opportunities o! Migration of African Americans from south to north began to occur !! Found new patterns of work that allowed leisure time o! Booker T. Washington !! Emerged as a leader in the 1880s !! Found Tuskegee Institute in 1881 •! Sought the help and financial support of southern whites in establishing this school •! Promised them this school would teach African Americans to be good workers •! Taught agriculture, craft, and industrial skills to African Americans to help people how to lift themselves and their families out of poverty o! Ida B. Wells 2/29/16& !! Believed education was the most important thing that would improve African American’s lives !! Wanted black students to receive more than vocational education !! Wanted students to be trained in liberal arts so they could learn critical thinking to know how to fight the Jim Crow laws 3/16/16& Jewish&Immigrants& o! Came&from&eastern&Europe & o! First&came&to&Rhode&Island&in&1700s & o! During&revolution&2500&Jewish&people&lived&in&US & o! Brought&the&Yiddish&language&to&the&US & o! Came&to&escapethiscriminationthnd&segregation & o! Came&late&19 &and&early&20 ¢ury& o! Jewish&immigrants&were&driven&to&US&by&anti 'Sematic& o! In&1880&pogroms&swept&through&Jewish&communities & !! Anti'sematic&mobs& !! First&wave&came&through&in&1881 & •! Led&to&immigrations&from&East&Europe &to&US& o! 1919&USSR&killed&lots&of&Jews&blaming&them&for&the&uprising & o! Animosity&between&Christians&and&Jews&in&Eastern&Europe & o! Mobs&began&to&riot,&entering&Jewish&communities&and&destroying&them & !! Would&beat,&rape,&and&murder&Jewish&people & !! Destroyed/took&their&p roperty& o! The&Pale&of&Settlement& !! Section&of&Russia&where&Jewish&people&were&segregated & !! Had&to&live&here&& !! 6&million&Jewish&people&lived&here&and&2&million&ended&up&migrating & o! Men&would&migrate&first&and&would&then&send&for&their&family&members&later & !! Kept&families&segregated&for&years& o! Tenements& !! Jewish&immigrants&were&concentrated&in&Ney&York&City&on&the&lower&east&side&of&Manhattan & !! 700&people&per&acre&in&tenement&neighborhoods&in&US&city & !! Urban&apartments&designed&to&house&tons&of&people&in&small&spaces & !! Tenement&museum& !! Housed&families&of&5 '7&people&each&and&would&take&in&boarders&who&would&pay&for&food&and& a&place&to&sleep& !! Consisted&of&three&rooms:&a&front&room,&a&kitchen,&and&a&bed&room & •! No&bathroom&or&sanitary&service&(ex.&Garbage&collection) & •! Would&put&their &garbage&out&on&the&streets&every&day & !! Laws&were&passed&to®ulate&housing&but&houses&that&were&already&constructed&were& exempt&from&the&laws& !! Had&social&problems& !! Disease&related&to&close&courters&such&as&tuberculosis & !! High&rent& !! High&crime&rate& !! Pool&halls,&dance&halls,&places&to&gamble & o! 1/3 &of&inmates&in&correctional&institution&were&Jews & 2/29/16& o! Jewish&people&faced&violence&and&discrimination&in&US & o! Police&treated&them&unfairly & o! Irish&didn’t&want&Jewish&moving&into&their&neighborhoods & o! 1915&lynching&of&Leo&Frank&in&Atlanta&Georgia& !! Managed&pencil&factory & !! 13&year&old&girl&worker&found&dead & •! He&was&the&last&to&see&her&alive & •! Was&put&on&trial&for&her&murder&in&1915 & !! Cast&as&wealthy&Jewish&Yankee&who&was&taking&advantage&of&southern&girls & !! Found&guilty&and&was&sentenced&to&be& hanged& !! The&Knights&of&Mary&Fagen & •! Kidnapped&Leo&Frank&from&prison&and&hung&Frank & !! Included&attorneys,&judged,&police&officers& !! After&this&incident&half&of&the&Jews&that&lived&in&Georgia&migrated & !! Other&converted&to&avoid&violent&attacks & o! Were&barred&from&joinin g&membership&organizations& o! Country&clubs&did¬&allow&Jewish&members & o! Universities&would&limit&amount&of&Jewish&people&they&would&take & o! Were&denied&graduate&school&and&law&school & o! People&openly&expressed&anti 'Semitic&beliefs&including&Henry&Ford & o! Stereotyped&economically&as&job&stealers,&opportunity&stealers&(college) & o! Jewish&people&planned&to&live&in&the&US&permanently & o! Jewish&associations&began&to&arise& !! Gave&immigrants&the&chance&to&socialize&with&each&other&and&receive&social&services& & !! Any&Jewish&person&could &participate®ardless&of&religion & o! Became&active&in&organizing&labor&unions&as&result&of&their&experiences&in&factory&settings & o! Stereotyped&as&radical&and&destabilizing&the&US & o! Different&from&other&German&Jews & o! Yiddish&culture&in&US&developed& & '! Italian&Immigrants& o! Largest&group&of&immigrants&during&this&time&to&come&to&US & o! 1920&10%&of&non'native&born&Americans&were&Italian & o! Most&immigrants&were&peasants&that&were&dislocated&farm&workers&that&immigrated&to&the&US& for&economic&reasons& o! There&people&were&tied&to& their&land&in&Italy& !! Had&contracts&that&kept&them&tied&to&certain&land&lords & !! Tenants&worked&smaller&and&smaller&plots&of&land & !! Share&croppers&that&would&be&constantly&in&debt&to&their&land&lords & •! Grew&fruit,&grapes,&olives & !! Had&to&combine&share&cropping&with&d ay&labor& o! Women&usually&ran&the&home&and&did¬&work&for&pay&making&their&work&a&social&task & !! Sewing,&cooking,&weaving,&washing&clothes & o! Women&controlled&money&in&the&family&in&Italian&communities&even&though&the&man&earned&it & o! The&mother&was&the&head&of&the& household&and&was&well&respected & o! Immigration&began&after&the&unification&of&Italy&in&1871 & !! Caused&wave&of&immigration&out&of&southern&Italy & !! People&owed&more&in&taxes&after&the&creation&of&this&new&government & o! 30&to&50%&of&immigrants&returned&to&Italy & 2/29/16& o! Pick&and&Shovel&Work& !! Italian&immigrants&worked&in&unskilled&trades&such&as&construction&and&mining&work & !! Physical&labor&in&mines,&factories,&construction & !! Conditions&for&Italian&workers&improved&quickly&usually&gaining&economic&advances&within&10& years& o! Woman&worked&around&the&house&and&took&in&tenants&to&earn&extra&money & o! Italian&women&would&do&outwork&at&home&(such&as&making&artificial&flowers) & o! Italians&did¬&intend&to&stay&in&the&US&for&the&most&part & o! Italians&were&the&groups&with&the&lowest&rate&of&citizenship&an d&the&least&knowledge&of&the& English&language& o! The&Sons&of&Italy& !! Group&arouse&uniting&immigrants&in&a&war & o! Festas& !! Celebrations&that&came&from&villages&in&cities&which&was&a&feast&day&bringing&the&people& together&t&spend&time&with&their&families&and&pray & !! Italians&lived&all&over&the&country&(new&England,&mid&west,&west&coast) & !! Religious&feast&day&in&honor&of&a&community’s&patron&saint & !! Italian&communities&were&isolated&and&based&on&loyalty&and&commitment&to&family & !! Low&key&often×& !! Some&were&huge&open&gathe rings& o! The&mezzogiorno& '! These&two&groups&were&the&largest&groups&of&immigrants&to&come&to&the&US&during&the&Gilded&&ge 3/18/16& -! Populism (Populist movement) o! Response o rural Americans to large corporations and business interests of Gilded age o! Short lived but large American political movement o! Prominent in south and Midwest o! Wanted to challenge corporate interest o! Americans became convinced that robber barons had too much control over their lives o! Americans wanted to protect their traditional way of life o! Interracial o! In response to business practices of robber barons -! Farmers in a world market o! Dramatic decrease in prices farmers got for their crops o! Began selling staple crops such as corn o! Prices of crops went down and farmers had to grow more and more o! Example – In 1881 farmers would receive 12 cents per pound of cotton. By 1884 farmers only received 4 cents per pound of cotton o! Farmers got further and further into debt and came to realize they would probably never get out of it in their lifetime -! The Grange o! Farmers came together to socialized sharing common experiences and realized they had the same problems !! Railroad companies being too expensive 2/29/16& !! Bankers were charging them excessive interest rates on the money they had to borrow every year !! Merchants charged them too much for what they had to borrow !! Federal government’s monetary laws o! The Farmers Alliance was formed out of members of The Grange !! Largest political movement in US at the end of the 19 century !! Began in 1870 in Texas !! Farmers formed cooperatives •! Farmers would go to cooperatives rather than banks to borrow money •! They offered fairer terms to farmers •! Involved black and white farmers •! Didn’t work out because none of them had any money •! Banks were unwilling to help them -! 1892 Election o! Farmers supported politicians of any party who agreed with their goals o! Populists wanted federal government to be over all of their issues o! The Subtreasury Plan !! Farmers wanting to use silver to cause inflation raising the price of their crops •! A lot of farmers were in debt and they wanted to pay it off with more valuable money !! Wanted government houses to grow grain in •! Wanted federal government to store nations supply of staple crops •! Wanted government to oversee crop selling !! Wanted low interest loans from the government to be provided to farmers !! Wanted corporations to be removed from farming !! Joined with the Knights of Labor •! Represented men that were often skilled (black smiths, carpenters, miners) •! Skilled native born white male workers !! Populist party was very successful on the local level o! Formed a nation party (The People’s Party) o! Nominated a former Union member named Weaver for president o! Supported an 8 hour work day, a ban on using pingerton guards (private security) in strikes, and restrictions on immigration -! Mary Elizabeth Lease o! Married mother of four from Kansas o! Became a nationally known speaker for populous party o! Moved to Kansas in 1870 to teach at a catholic girl’s school o! Met her husband who was a pharmacist but became a farmer o! Her and her husband found that it was basically impossible to farm o! She joined many political groups !! Fought for independence or Ireland !! Joined the farmer’s alliance o! Told farmers that wall street and big businesses turned Americans into wage slaves 2/29/16& o! Became a wide known political speaker for the populous group o! Divorced her husband and mover to New York -! The Panic of 1893 o! Affected the fortunes of populous party o! Stock market crashed o! European investors began to sell of their stocks causing money to flow out of the country o! Caused 12% unemployment -! Coxey’s Army o! James Coxey led a march on Washington that year of thousands of unemployed workers o! Demanded federal government start a program to assist the unemployed !! Said federal government should create jobs o! Cleveland dismissed the group o! Coxey was arrested for trespassing 3/21/16& -! Lynching o! African Americans were attacked, hanged, and murdered by white men of the south o! Often, they faced raped o! Ida B. Wells suggested voluntary relationships between white men and black woman !! White men were infuriated by this o! National anti-lynching group was formed !! Wells produced a pamphlet about it -! Thomas Moss o! -! Memphis Free Speech o! -! A Red Record o! 197 people were put to death by mobs without being given a chance to speak o! Written by Ida B. Wells o! Collected oral and written testimonies o! Press, courts, political establishments, and churches were unmoved by this research -! World’s Columbian Exposition o! 1893 o! Tried to focus international attention on inequality in America o! Black America was not represented at the fair o! Wells published a pamphlet about blacks weren’t represented in the exposition !! This was distributed to thousands of foreigners -! Alpha Suffrage Club 3/23/16& -! Progressive Era o! Attempt to reform government during end of Gilded age o! Came about after the populist movement 2/29/16& o! Came to prominence after the turn of the 20 century o! Progressives wanted to see changes in politics and society !! Concerned about concentration of businesses in US !! Concerned with mistreatment of industrial workers !! Believed government needed to regulate working conditions o! Focused on Urban America o! Included different groups of people such as business men who wanted to help workers, woman from middle class reform organizations, academics (social scientists) who were doing studies on working conditions and conditions in American cities, and middle class men both black and white concerned about business in society o! Mass movement for woman’s suffrage began during this era and they supported it o! Supported worker rights and wanted to clean up political systems !! Wanted local politicians to have less power o! Supported movements that limited powers of immigrants (southern and eastern European immigrants) o! International movement -! W.E.B. DuBois o! Professor o! Critique of Booker T. Washington o! One of the first African Americans to graduate from Harvard o! Called for a meeting of critiques of Booker T. Washington (Washington focused on black education and not equality) !! The Niagara Movement •! Represented intellectual elite of African American community at this time •! Wanted to end segregation, give blacks the right to vote, and wanted black people to have full equality rights as the white man •! Established 30 branches in the US •! Led to creation of NAACP in 1909 and disbanded o! Larger organization that drew in more people o! DuBois and Ida B. Wells were some of the founders of NAACP -! America During World War 1 o! People who participated took part in trench warfare, o! Airplanes, tanks, and poison gases were introduced for the first time o! England and France and their allies (US) were fighting Germany and their allies o! US became involved in world affairs at a new level than ever seen before o! Progressives thought the war was an opportunity to create national unity and could push their ideas on an international level o! Government power expanded in US !! In 1917 the government required more than 17 million men to register for draft !! Took over railroad systems !! Taught farmers better ways to grow crops so they could be more productive for war production !! Ensured hire wages in war industries !! Progressivism on a larger scale which is why most progressivism supported the first world war o! Opposition to the war existed in certain parts of the country 2/29/16& o! Wilson asked for a declaration of war against Germany and there were few members of congress voted against it o! Jeanette Rankin !! Elected to congress in 1916 as first woman in congressional seat !! Said she couldn’t bring herself to vote in favor of war !! Said she could not send other people’s brothers and husbands off to war !! Critique of war who received a lot of attention for it o! Committee on Public Information !! Influence public opinion in favor of WW1 !! Flooded US with pro war propaganda !! Sent men traveling the country making pro-war speeches !! Said the war was a movement to end tyranny among the world -! Prohibition and Suffrage o! Woman picketed the white house every day demanding that president Wilson take action to create a movement o! Woman suffragists used Wilson’s own words against him o! Prohibition !! Progressives and other groups wanted to ban the consumption and sales of alcohol !! Hoped it would cut down on crime !! End the creation and operation of political parties out of solons !! In 1917 the legislation to ban alcohol consumption was proposed and was passed in 1920 -! Espionage and Sedition Acts o! Espionage Act (1917) prohibited spying, interfering with draft, and making statements that might impede military success !! Immigrant news papers and socialist press were banned as a result o! Sedition Act (1918) made it a crime to make statements that were critical of America !! Leader of American socialist party made a speech against the draft and was arrested for violating this act •! Defended himself in court and pointed out that there had been opposition to every war but was sentenced to 10 years in jail but only served 3 of the years before he was pardoned •! Patriotism meant support for the war and government and anything else was considered un-American •! In 1919 4 million workers walked out and demanded freedom in the work place o! National Guard was called out to end strikes and 5,000 radicals were arrested and over 1,000 were deported •! People who didn’t speak English were viewed suspiciously •! Ethnic groups were required to participate in loyalty parades •! 1917 immigrants were required to be literate in English or another language •! Mexican Americans living in SW US experienced discrimination -! Anti-German propaganda o! German Americans were largest ethnic group in US o! 1,000 German language newspapers existed prior to the war o! By 1919 every American state outlawed the teaching and speaking of foreign languages !! Caused repression and government involvement in citizen’s lives 2/29/16& •! Phone calls were monitored, churches were closed o! German Americans protested the war and refused to participate in draft o! Largest anti-draft demonstration was in New Ulm, Minnesota !! 10,00 Germans thought war was unjust and unchristian and demanded Germans be excluded from draft !! Speeches about US constitution and their right to protest !! Government sent spies to this meeting and said it was un-American and demanded city attorney, governor, and a president of a local university be striped of their jobs for this 3/25/16& -! WW1 – 1920s o! Fear of radicals continued -! Sacco and Vanzetti o! 1923 arrested in Boston accused of partaking in robbery of a bank where a security guard was killed o! Italians o! Both were anarchists, political radicals that believed government, private property, and religion should be abolished o! Believed violence was acceptable o! No evidence that connected them to the crime o! Believed they were being persecuted for their beliefs and ethnicity o! Were sentenced to death penalty and were executed in August 1927 -! Immigration Restriction o! Legal restrictions on immigration began to form o! Page Law required women of Chinese decent to prove they were not immigrating for the purposes of prostitution o! Naturalization Act (1790) o! Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) o! 1898 court ruled children of Chinese decent that were born in the US were citizens even if their parents were not o! Immigration Restriction League !! Wanted to pass a piece of legislation to bar illiterate immigrants from entering the US o! Laws were passed that required you to be an American citizen before you could vote o! Johnson-Reed Act (1924) !! Established a quota system that assigned quotes to each country in Europe rather than a general quota to all of Europe !! The number of immigrants that were allowed to come from each country each year was a formula that put people from Northern and Western Europe at an advantage and Southern and Eastern Europe at a disadvantage !! Only allowed 2% of people that were born in their home country that were living in the US in 1890 !! Numerical limitations !! Quota did not apple to people from Canada and Mexico because land owners in California and Texas and other states depended on these immigrants for work !! Quota from Asia was zero meaning they couldn’t immigrate at all -! Ku Klux Klan 2/29/16& o! Appeared after reconstruction to terrorize black office holders o! In 1920s target African Americans, Jews, Catholics, and Immigrants -! Woman and Work (1920s) o! Acceptable for woman to shop in the city alone and travel without men o! Immigrant woman were clustered in factory and industrial work o! By 1920s there were large number of woman working in offices and as telephone operators -! America in the 1920s o! Progressives created public health offices in cities through out the US and gave citizens advice about health o! Began to track disease to learn how it spread and track pandemics o! Advances in war technology such as machine guns, bomb droppings, poisonous gas America produced 40% of the worlds coal and 70% of the worlds petroleum 3/28/16 -! Louis Adamic and cultural pluralism o! 1920s automobile was key part of economic growth !! Helped stimulate the economy by stimulating development of petroleum, steel, and oil industries and creating jobs o! Assembly lines began to be created o! Americans spent more and more of their money on leisure activities !! 1929 double the number of Americans attending movies than in 1920 o! Immigrants felt like they weren’t part of this American development and sense of unity all of these new changes brought o! Louis Adamic introduced the idea of cultural pluralism !! Cultural pluralism is the idea that ethnic differences should be celebrated and accepted not just tolerated or repressed !! 100% Americanism was the wrong goal and immigrants could retain parts of their native cultures while becoming fully American !! Wrote the book The Native’s Return !! Advocated for multiculturalism, racial acceptance rather than tolerance, and believed Americans should openly and joyfully accept cultural differences of immigrants !! Advocated for more acceptance of immigrants •! Wanted to see them represented in plays, books, and magazines -! The New Deal o! Programs Roosevelt tried to create to deal with depression o! Economic prosperities in the 1920s o! Stock market crashed in 1929 o! An attempt by the federal government to respond to the crash in the economy o! Changed ideas in the US about freedom !! Conservatives said New Deal programs would make Americans less free o! Caused Americans to rethink the role that the federal government should play in their lives o! Franklin Delano Roosevelt !! Born in 19882 into a life of extreme privilege !! Went to Harvard 2/29/16& !! Ran for VP in 1920 as democrat but was unsuccessful !! Got polio when he was 39 and lost the use of his legs permanently !! Promised a New Deal for the American people o! Roosevelt won in a land slide in 1932 !! Him and his old advisors were progressives •! Turned to England, France, Russia, and Germany to see how they should help this economic crash o! Frances Perkins !! Secretary of labor under Roosevelt !! First woman to ever serve in a president’s cabinet o! Roosevelt called a bank holiday closing down all of the banks in the US !! Banks that had invested in the stock market o! Emergency Banking Act provided with banks in danger of crashing help from the government o! Glass Steagle Act stopped banks from investing in the stock market o! FDIC o! Removed the US from the gold system allowing the US to print more money which they hoped to cause inflation to help the economy o! National Recovery Administration (NRA) !! Government industry that worked with businesses within the same industry to set standards for things like production output, price, working conditions, etc !! Hoped this would end the cut throat competition that caused workers to be laid off !! Federal government became actively involved in the production industry !! Director of NRA started publicity campaign to get support for this administration o! Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) !! An example of federal government becoming involved in market !! Got involved to manipulate prices in farming and livestock !! Authorized federal government to control farming !! Farm prices were low and farmers responded by trying to produce as many crops as they could !! AAA wanted to regulate the amount of staple crops in the market !! Would pay farmers not to plant crops or raise cattle !! Sharecropping was still in place •! Share croppers did not benefit from the AAA only land owners did •! Land owners began to throw share croppers off of their land o! The Dust Bowl !! Middle of the country experienced drought !! This area was semi-arid !! It was being over farmed !! Native grasses and top soil was gone 3/30/nd -! 2 half of the New Deal o! Got rid of Agricultural Adjustment Act 2/29/16& o! Public support for New Deal in voting o! Focused on economic security o! Roosevelt wanted to guarantee that the poor, elderly, orphans, etc had economic safety in the US o! Wanted to redistribute income o! Rural Electrification Authority worked to bring electricity to rural parts of America so these citizens could purchase appliances o! Social Security Act 1935 !! Created old age pension for elderly people !! Created unemployment insurance and old age pension !! Americans form of Welfare reform in Europe !! Personal contribution every worker made into the fund •! Made it different than other welfare policies around the world !! Excluded a number of categories of workers including domestic servants and agricultural workers because they had high employment of African Americans o! Republicans thought the New Deal was a threat to their freedoms and wanted it to be replaced by private charity o! In 1936 election Roosevelt won popular vote and every state except Maine and Vermont o! 1936 the economy improved some and Roosevelt cut back on government spending !! Roosevelt reduced spending creating a mini depression in 1937 and re- increased the funds o! Francis Perkins was secretary of labor and first woman cabinet member !! Roosevelt also appointed other woman to important roles !! Mary McLeod Bethune •! Long time activist for black civil rights and black advocate •! Appointed special advisor to Roosevelt about civil rights and issues affecting black Americans •! First black woman to be appointed to this kind of role in the federal government o! Eleanor Roosevelt !! Gave speeches and wrote newspaper columns !! She tried to push Roosevelt to make him think about civil rights and wanted to develop more protection for workers o! Organized feminism stopped existing o! The Economy Act !! If husband and wife in family couple were employed in a state or local government than one of the two had to resign •! Often times the wives •! Tons of women had to resign from their jobs !! Earn more benefits later on in life by contributing to social security consistently •! This led to woman not having appropriate social security benefits later on in life o! Most African American workers were excluded from social security 2/29/16& 4/1/16 '! The&Great&Depression& o! Herbert&Hoover&vs.&Al&Smith& !! Election&of&1928& !! Herbert&Hoover& •! Republican&nominee& •! Born&in&Iowa& •! Son&of&black&smith&and&school&teacher & •! Became&wealth&in&1910’s&and&20s&as&a&miner & •! Directed&food&relief&for&Europeans&after&WW1 & •! Had&clear&ideas&about&American&capitalism&and&the&role&the&government&should&play&in& regulating&American&society& •! Wrote&a&book&and&said&the&ordin ary&people&should&be&able&to&live&their&lives&without&too& much&intervention&from&the&government & !! Al&Smith& •! First&Catholic&to&ever&be&nominated&for&president & •! Was&born&in&poverty&in&New&York&city & •! Was&native&born&but&both&of&his&parents&were&immigrants&from& Ireland& •! After&the&triangle&fire&of&1911&he&became&a&supporter&of&progressive&legislation&to& protect&workers& •! As&governors&he&signed&laws&that&limited&the&number&of&hours&woman&and&children& could&work,&to&end&prohibition,&to&end&the&red&scare,&and&to&create& widow&pensions&for& men&who&died&on&the&job & •! Had&strong&showing&among&voters&in&urban&America&and&won&the&12&largest&cities&in&the& US& !! Hoover&won&and&became&thesident & '! Black&Thursday&(October&24 ,&1929)& o! First&stock&crash&which&mainly&hurt&those&whole&held&lit tle&stock& o! Stock&holders&began&to&panic&and&sell&their&stocks & o! Another&decline&the&following&Tuesday&which&started&to&harm&bigger&stock&holders & o! Most&rich&people&remained&rich&during&the&great&depression&but¬&after&the&stock&market&crash & o! Unemployment&rate&was&at&25%& o! Which&such&a&high&unemployment&rate&and&number&of&applications,&companies&did¬&higher& people&for&unnecessary&and&ridiculous&reasons & '! Depression&and&American&Culture & o! Many&people&took&to&the&roads&to&search&for&jobs & o! At&the&height&of&the&depressi on&more&than&4,000&children&a&day&were&receiving&food&from&red& wine&in&a&single&city&a&day & o! Caroline&Wear&called&this& The&Invisible&Scar& !! People&who&lived&throughout&the&depression&were&affected&by&it&for&the&rest&of&their&lives & !! Argued&that&the&depression&im pacted&Americans&more&than&either&of&the&World&Wars & !! People&who&lived&through&this&experience&were&impacted&by&it&for&the&rest&of&their&lives & !! Notion&that&living&through&the&depression&was&something&that&affected&you&for&the&rest&of& your&lives& o! Depression&changed&Americans&ideas&about&themselves&and&how&they&lived & !! Americans&generally&believed&that&things&would&improve&slightly & !! Americans&believed&that&they&were&making&progress&generally&up&until&the&depression & 2/29/16& !! Markedly&lower&marriage,&divorce,&and&birth&rates&d uring&this&time& !! People&could¬&afford&to&contribute&to&clubs,&groups,&and&churches&so&they&left&them & !! Fewer&phone&calls&made&and&fewer&mail&sent & !! Colleges&had&to&increase&their&food&budgets&because&their&students&would&be&much&less& likely&to&receive&money&from&home& !! People&read&more&newspapers&and&magazines,&listened&to&the&radio,&and&saw&movies&more& often& '! Dance&Marathons& !! &Couples&would&dance&45&minutes&per&hour&until&no&one&was&left&dancing & !! People&would&give&them&money&or&food & !! People&would&take&pictures&wit h&them& !! The&food&and&promise&of&cash&prizes&drew&couples&in & '! 100&neediest&cases& o! Landlord&who&could¬&collect&rent&from&his&tenants & o! Factory&worker&who&was&laid&off&from&a&job&and&killed&himself.&His&wife&in&turn&got&laid&off&three& days&later&and&tried&to&ki ll&herself&but&was&stopped&by&friends& o! People&believed&that&people&in&these&situations&were¬&at&fault&for&them & !! They&believed&it&was&the&fault&of&banks,&big&businesses,&and&the&government & '! Hoovervilles& o! Full&of&people&living&in&tents&and&shanties & o! Called&hoovervilles&due&to&failed&economic&policies&of&Hoover & '! School&teachers&had&to&ask&children&what&they&had&to&eat&before&they&were&punished&because&kids& were&more&irritable&and&moody&if&they&had¬&eaten & '! No&social&security&or&no&food&stamps&existed&at&this&tim e& '! Communism,&Socialism,&and&the&Fight&for&Civil&Rights & o! Communist&and&Socialist&organizations&saw&an&upswing&in&interest&during&the&depression & o! Member&of&American&Youth&League&(communist&youth&group)&were&invited&to&stay&at&the&white& house&by&Eleanor&Rooseve lt& o! Communists&and&Socialists&played&a&key&role&in&labor&unrest&and&civil&rights & o! Workers&demanded&the&right&to&organize & !! They&got&the&sense&that&Roosevelt&was&more&in&favor&of&Unions& & o! Worker&sit&in&strikes&and&general&strikes&began&to&happen&nationwide & o! Ella&May&Wiggins& !! Killed&by&being&shot&by&hired&guards/thugs & !! Shot&in&broad&daylight&with&over&50&witnesses & !! Worked&for&$6&weeks & !! Worked&6&days&a&week,&12&hours&a&day & !! Was&deserted&by&her&husband & !! Had&no&choice&but&to&live&in&the&black§ion&of&Gastonia & !! Would&leave&her&kids&with&woman&in&the&neighborhood&while&she&worked & !! Native&born&white&southern&woman & !! Became&secretary&of&her&Union & !! Was&a&singer& !! Traveled&throughout&the®ion&singing&songs&about¤t&political&issues & !! Four&of&her&nine&children&died&with&the&whoopi ng&cough&and&they&died & o! Scottsboro&Boys& !! Young&jobless&African&Americans & !! Were&falsely&accused&of&raping&woman&after&they&rode&the&rails&together & 2/29/16& !! There&was&a&dispute&between&a&group&of&white&and&black&men&based&on&where&they&were& sitting&and&the&black&men&beat&them&up& !! In&the&next&town&the&train&stopped&and&police&found&them&and&lied&and&said&the&black&men& raped&them& !! They&were&convicted&twice&using&questionable&testimony&and&their&testimony&was& overturned&twice& !! They&were&convicted&a&third&time&and&the&communist s&made&deals&to&help&them& •! Spent&between&7&and&13&years&in&jail & o! Farm&radicalism& !! Farmers&had&to&borrow&against&the&value&of&their&land&to&buy&farming&equipment & !! Banks&began&to&foreclose&on&them&and&take&away&their&farms,&land,&and&possessions&to&pay& for&relatively&small&debts& 4/4/16 -! US entered World War 2 in 1941 to defend the four freedoms o! Introduced in January 1941 by Roosevelt o! Freedom of speech, worship, want, and fear o! Government spending during WW2 got the US out of depression o! Woman began to enter the job force o! Rural Americans began moving to cities for work o! Military spending was focused on parts of the country that had not yet been completely developed such as Florida o! December 1971 Pearl Harbor in Hawaii was attacked and the US entered the WW o! Isolationism !! The US should not involve itself in foreign policy and disputes especially in Europe o! Germany declared war on the US o! Some called WW2 a gross national product war o! Fighting in 1944 in Italy o! Paris was liberated in 1944 -! War and the Economy o! California received 10% of the nations military spending by the end of WW2 o! 2 million Americans moved to California during the war to take jobs o! People moved from rural areas into cities for employment in cities and shipyards -! Woman and War o! Government became involved as a concern for ongoing labor issues o! Inequalities existed based on race and sex o! Black woman faced significant resistant against white woman o! Black men and woman were displaying a new militancy o! NAACP had over 4,000 members after the war !! Increased it’s membership by 9 times during the war o! The “Double V” Camp !! African Americans and others hoped the second WW would be a push for equality and that their active participation in the war would help make the argument that equality was needed and fair !! Headed by NAACP and other civil rights organizations !! V stood for Victory in Japan in the war and in the US in the work force -! Activists who were angry about their experience during WW2 began to speak out 2/29/16& o! Pauli Murray !! During WW2 she was a law student at Howard University !! Was arrested in Virginia for refusing to give up their seats on a bus !! Participated in sit downs in restaurants that refused to serve African Americans !! Began to develop a theory of attacking segregation that lawyers adopted in the 1950s -! Chinese people were seen as good Asians and China was an ally of the US but had been taken over by the US -! Executive Order of 9066 o! Sent Japanese people on the west coast to internment centers o! Woman sought to recreate family life !! Did the cleaning and washing without running water !! Had to supplement meals with produce they grew themselves o! Young woman worked n the camps as clerks or teachers o! Young people left the internment camps to go to college, join the military, or to work 4/6/16 '! African&Americans&at&War & o! Red&cross&separated&black&and&white &blood&during&WW2& o! Nazi’s&claimed&Americans&were&hypocrites&and&that&they&couldn’t&condemn&them&for&their&racial& policies&when&they&had&their&own&against&blacks & o! Blacks&took&part&in&the&great&migration&moving&to&cities & o! Marines&and&air&force&completely&segreg ated&at&the&beginning&of&the&WW2 & o! African&Americans&faced&segregation&during&the&war & o! Northern&African&Americans&would&have&to&go&south&for&military&training & o! 1943&polling&showed&that&whites&had&any&idea&that&they&were&angry&and&engaged&in&an&active& campaign&for&their&rights& !! Worked&within&labor&unions&to&make&sure&black&workers&could&be&trained&for&highly&skilled& and&paying&jobs& o! 1944&navy&began&to&desegregate&their&ships & o! By&the&end&of&WW2&the&military&was&completely
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