Fabian PSYC 1000: Exam 3 Study Guide UPDATED
Fabian PSYC 1000: Exam 3 Study Guide UPDATED PSYC 1010
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayden McKenzie on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
CH 12: Emotions, Stress, and Health Emotion Expressive behavior, bodily arousal, conscious experience James-Lange Theory Bodily arousal happens first Then conscious awareness and label for the feeling Emotion is awareness of arousal Cannon-Bard Theory We have a conscious/cognitive experience of an emotion at the same time as our body is responding Triggers both thoughts and feelings and arousal Schachter-Singer “Two Factor” Theory Emotions do not exist until we add a label to whatever body sensations we are feeling Spillover effect – arousal was caused by injections of adrenaline, subjects interpreted their agitation to whatever emotion the others in the room appeared to be feeling, the emotional label “spilled over” from others Robert Zajonc, Joseph LeDoux, Richard Lazarus Some emotional reactions develop in a “low road” through the brain skipping conscious thought (bypassing the cortex) In one study, people showed an amygdala response to certain images without being aware of the image or their reaction Embodied Emotion Physiological arousal felt during various emotions is orchestrated by the sympathetic nervous system (arousal) which triggers activity and changes in various organs It is difficult to see differences in emotions from tracking heart rate, breathing, and perspiration There are some small differences in brain activity: hemispheric differences (positive emotions correlate with LEFT frontal activity, negative emotions correlate with RIGHT frontal activity) Emotional Expression People read a great deal of emotional content in the eyes and the faces We are primed to quickly detect negative emotions Those who have been abused are biased toward seeing fearful faces as angry (better at detecting anger) Women are more skilled at detecting emotions and reading nonverbal behavior Women are more likely to describe themselves as empathetic and more likely to express empathy Male and female did not feel much different after watching a movie but the women’s faces showed emotion Universally understood facial expressions People blind from birth show the same facial expressions as sighted people Cultures do differ in how much emotion in expressed Linking Emotions and Expressive Behaviors Facial feedback effect – facial position and muscle changes can alter which emotion we feel (forcing yourself to smile makes you happier) Behavior feedback effect – behavior can influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions Anger A flash of anger gives us energy and initiative to take action Persistent anger can be harmful to our bodies Controlled expressions of anger promote reconciliation rather than retaliation Catharsis myth – we can reduce anger by “releasing it” (hostile outbursts) In most cases, anger breeds more anger Coping with anger – wait, distract yourself (exercise, verbal expression, hobby), forgiveness calms the body Can Money Buy Happiness? If money gets someone out of poverty, it relates to happiness Once you have enough money for comfort and security, gaining more and more money matters less and less Happiness is relative to our own experience – the adaptation-level phenomenon, we adjust our neutral levels Happiness is relative to others’ wealth, success, etc. During least half century, average U.S. citizen’s buying power has tripled but reported happiness has not changed Influenced by genes, culture, personal experiences, and outlook, we each seem to develop a “happiness set point” Stress Stressor – an event/condition that we view as threatening, challenging, or overwhelming Appraisal – refers to deciding whether to view something as a stressor Stress reaction – emotion and physical response to stressor Stress – process of appraising and responding to a stressor Body’s Stress Response System Our body’s way of resisting threat and harm “fight or flight”, sympathetic nervous system, epinephrine and norepinephrine, cortisol and other stress hormones General adaptation syndrome – alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion The immune system Psychoneuroimmunology – finding out how stress increases risk of disease It takes energy to fight off intruders Stress creates a competing energy need and leaves us less able to resist infection Stress and heart disease Stress is closely related to coronary heart disease Type A personality – impatient, reactive, verbally aggressive, competitive, easily angered (more likely to have a heart attack, most toxic component of this personality is anger) Type B – calm, easygoing Health Consequences of Chronic Stress Cortisol – stress hormone helps our bodies respond to brief stress Chronically high cortisol levels damager the body Coping with Stress Problem-focused coping – changing the stressor or the way we interact with stressors Emotion-focused coping – reducing the emotional impact of stress by getting support and comfort from others Perceived level of Control and Optimism Experiment – executive rats were able to turn off shocks, subordinate was not Subordinate had worse stress and more health problems Losing control provokes an outpouring of stress hormones Blood pressure increases, immune response drops Optimistic people expect to have more control and to cope better with stressful events External vs. Internal locus of control Locus of control – do you see yourself as controlling or controlled by your environment? Internal – I control my circumstances (achieve more in school and work, better at helping with stress, less risk of depression) External – chance or outside forces determine my fate (less motivation to achieve, anxiety might occur Self-Control The ability to control impulses and delay gratification (improved with practice) Marshmallow study: kids who resisted the temptation to eat marshmallows later had more success in school and socially CH 14: Social Psychology Attribution Attribution – a conclusion about the cause of an observed behavior/event Attribution theory – we explain others behavior with two types of attributions: situational and dispositional Fundamental attribution error – when we go too far in assuming that a person’s behavior is caused by their personality, we think a behavior demonstrates a trait, we tend to overemphasize dispositional and underemphasize situational Foot-in-the-door phenomenon Start behaving in a way to support something Attitudes become more supportive Role Playing Even if we know it’s just pretending, we usually tend to adopt the attitudes of the role we are playing and become the role In arranged marriages, people often come to love the person they marry Actors say they lose themselves in their roles Participants in the Stanford prison study ended up breaking down after three days Cognitive Dissonance When our actions and our attitude clash Cognitive dissonance theory – we resolve dissonance by changing our attitudes to fit our actions Conformity: Mimicry Adjusting our behavior or thinking to go along with a group standard Some mimicry is automatic – yawning, arm folding, adopting regional accents and grammar, empathetic shifts in mood, adopting coping style of parents and peers e.g. copycat school shootings, copycat suicides Conformity: Responding to Social Norms When we are with other people, our behavior may follow a social norm rather than following our own judgement Asch Conformity Studies – about one third of people will agree with obvious mistruths to go along with a group Two types of social influence Normative social influence – going along with others in pursuit of social approval and avoiding rejection, clothing choices Informational social influence – going along with others because groups provide information, deciding which side of road to drive on Milgram’s Obedience Study How would people respond to direct commands? “Teacher” (real participant) shocking the “Learner” (fake participant) The majority of participants continued to obey until the end Increasing Obedience When orders are given by someone with authority, someone associated with a prestigious institution, someone standing close by When the “learner”/victim is in another room No role models for defiance Bad news – in war some people choose not to fight and kill but then obedience escalates and they even kill innocent people Good news – obedience can strengthen heroism, soldiers can risk or even sacrifice themselves (more so when under orders) Lessons from Conformity and Obedience Studies When under pressure to conform or obey, ordinary people will say and do things that they never would have believed to do The real evil may be in the situation To look at a person committing harmful acts and assume that the person is cruel/evil would be to make the fundamental attribution error Social Loafing Hating group projects because others free-ride on your efforts The tendency of people in a group to show less effort Deindividuation Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint Group participation makes people both aroused and anonymous Group Polarization The beliefs and attitudes you bring to a group grow stronger and more polarized as you discuss them with like-minded others Groupthink In pursuit of social harmony and avoidance of open disagreement, groups will make decisions without an open exchange of ideas Prejudice Prejudice – an unjustified, usually negative attitude toward a group Beliefs (stereotypes) Emotions (hostility, envy, fear) Predisposition to act (to discriminate) Social Roots of Prejudice Social inequality – when some groups have fewer resources and opportunities than others The just-world phenomenon – those doing well must have done something right so those suffering must have done something wrong Us vs. Them: Ingroups and Outgroups Even if people are randomly assigned to groups, our natural drive to belong leads to ingroup bias Cognitive Roots of Prejudice: The Other-Race Effect One way we simplify our world is to categorize When we categorize, we tend to stereotype “They” look and act alike but “we” are more diverse We have a greater recognition for our own race faces Cognitive Roots of Prejudice: Judging Based on Vivid Cases We don’t always rely on statistics Vivid cases easily come to mind such as Islam and terrorism Thinking Habits Reinforce Prejudice Availability heuristic – stereotypes are built on vivid cases rather than statistics Confirmation bias – we are not likely to look for counterexamples to our stereotypes Hindsight bias – “they should have known better” blames victims for misfortunes Cognitive dissonance – “my culture and family treats minorities this way, can we be wrong?” Social Relations: Psychosocial Factors and Aggression Frustration-aggression principle Aversive stimuli can evoke hostility Reinforcement (sometimes aggression works) Modeling (when parents scream and hit, they are modeling violence) Aggression in Media: Social Scripts Aggression portrayed in video, music, TV, and other media follows and teaches us social scripts When we are in new situations, uncertain how to behave, we rely on social scripts Studies: Exposure to violence and sexual aggression on TV Sexual aggression seems less serious Believing the rape myth Increased acceptance of the use of coercion in sexual relations Increased punitive behavior toward women Social Relations: Understanding Attraction Proximity – mere exposure effect Physical Attractiveness – different cultural standards, some universal aspects of attractiveness Similarity – shared attitudes, beliefs, interests (even age, race, religion, education, economic status, etc.) Altruism Unselfish regard for the welfare of other people Helping and protecting others without need for personal gain Bystander Intervention Attention – notice incident? Appraisal – is it an emergency? Social Role – assumes responsibility? Taking Action – attempts to help Bystander effect – fewer people help when others are available Strongest predictor of helping behavior – we are happy/in a good mood Peacemaking Contact – exposure, interaction, familiarity Cooperation – shared goals Communication – sometimes with mediators Conciliation CH. 13: Personality Freud: Psychoanalysis Belief that physical symptoms could be caused by purely psychological factors He “discovered” the unconscious Free association – speaking freely, supposed to bring up the unconscious Psychoanalysis – name for his theory and treatment techniques Freud: personality/mind iceberg The mind is mostly hidden Unacceptable passions and thoughts are repressed Personality arises from a conflict between impulse and restraint Id (pleasure), Ego (reality), Superego (moral compass) The ego is the mediator Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Stages Id is focused on the needs of erogenous zones (sensitive areas of the body) People can get fixated at one stage Male Development Issues “Oedipus complex” – boys in the phallic stage develop unconscious sexual desires and view their father as a rival Resolution of the conflict – boys identify with their fathers rather than seeing them as a rival Assessing the Unconscious: Psychodynamic Personality Assessment Projective tests – ambiguous prompts should reveal the inner workings of your mind (Thematic Apperception Test) Rorschach Test – what do you see in the inkblots? Results do not link well to traits (low validity) and different raters get different results (low reliability) Evidence has updated Freud’s Ideas Development is lifelong Peers have more influence on personality Dreams, as well as Freudian slips, do not reveal deep unconscious conflicts and wishes Traumatic memories are usually intensely remembered NOT repressed Gender and sexual identity seem to be more of a function of genetics Few objective observations, few testable hypotheses Maslow: the Self-Actualizing Person People are motivated to keep moving up a hierarchy of needs Self-transcendence and Self-actualization Rogers’ Person-centered Perspective 3 conditions that facilitate growth and fulfillment – genuineness, acceptance, empathy If our self-concept is positive, we tend to act and perceive the world positively Critiquing the Human Perspective Encouraging self-indulgence, self-centeredness The human capacity for evil Rogers saw “evil” as a social phenomenon, not an individual trait Humanist response – self-acceptance is not the end, it then allows us to move on from defending our own needs to loving and caring for others Trait theory of personality Trait – a characteristic pattern of behavior or a predisposition to feel and act a certain way We are made up of a collection of traits that can be identified and measured, traits that differ from person to person More concerned with describing traits than with explaining them Traits: Rooted in Biology? Brain - extroverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low Body – the trait of shyness appears to be related to high autonomic system reactivity (an easily triggered alarm system) Genes – selective breeding of animals, can select for traits, suggesting genetic roots for these traits The “Big Five” Personality Dimensions Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness Extraversion Questions About Traits Stability – change over the lifespan? Not much. With age, traits become more stable However, everyone in adulthood becomes more conscientious and agreeable, less extroverted and neurotic, less open Heritability – in general, genes account for 50% of variation for most traits Predictive value – do traits predict behavior? Conscientiousness – grades, healthy lifestyle behaviors Extraversion – social activities Happiness – low neuroticism The Person-Situation Controversy Are your behaviors due to situations or stable traits? Specific behaviors can vary in different situations We change interests, careers, relationships But averaging your behavior across many occasions does reveal distinct traits Personality traits can even predict mortality and divorce The Person-Situation Controversy Specific behaviors can vary in different situations We change interests, careers, relationships But averaging your behavior across many occasions does reveal distinct traits Personality traits can even predict mortality and divorce Social-Cognitive Perspective Albert Bandura Personality – result of an interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context (conditioning or observing others) Reciprocal Determinism Reciprocal – back and forth influence, no primary cause Personality shaped by – traits, behaviors, environment 3 ways in which individuals and environments act - different people choose different environments, our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events, our personalities help create situations to which we react CH. 15: Psychological Disorders Psychological disorder A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior Syndrome – a collection of symptoms that show up together, not just a single symptom Disturbed (dysfunctional) thoughts, emotions, or behaviors are maladaptive – they interfere with normal day-to-day life Functional impairment Distress Pinel’s New Approach Proposed that madness is not demonic possession but a sickness of the mind Emphasized “moral treatment” His human environmental interventions improved lives but did not effectively treat mental illness The Medical Model The discovery that syphilis causes mental symptoms suggested a medical model for mental illness The medical world began searching for physical causes and treatments of mental disorders Biopsychosocial approach Mental disorders can arise in the interaction between nature and nurture caused by biology, thoughts, and sociocultural environment Classifying Psychological Disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual – book that classifies disorders and describes symptoms, used to justify payment for treatment, consistent with diagnoses used by medical doctors worldwide GAD: Generalized Anxiety Disorder Emotional-cognitive symptoms – excessive and uncontrollable worry Physical symptoms – autonomic arousal (trembling, sweating, fidgeting, agitation, sleep disruption) Functional Impairment Panic Disorder Recurrent, unexpected panic attacks (episodes of intense fear including feelings of terror, chest pains, trembling, feeling faint) A feeling of a need to escape Agoraphobia – a fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult when panic strikes Specific Phobia Persistent and unreasonable fear of an object or situation and an intense desire to avoid it Functional impairment Social anxiety disorder – fear of being watched and judged by others Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistence of unwanted, repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and actions (compulsions) that interfere with everyday living and cause distress Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Intrusive, distressing recollections of the event Nightmares Social withdrawal Jumpy anxiety Classical Conditioning and Anxiety Learned associations – associate a certain object/place with a feeling of fear Sometimes, such a conditioned response becomes overgeneralized Operant Conditioning and Anxiety Feel anxious in a situation? – leave AVOIDANCE reduces anxiety and reinforces it Cognition and Anxiety Worried thoughts Interpretations, appraisals, beliefs, predictions Hypervigilance Perceived loss of control, sense of helplessness Examples of Cognitions that can worsen anxiety Cognitive errors Irrational beliefs Mistaken appraisals Misinterpretations A Evolutionary Perspective Human phobic – snakes, heights, closed spaces, darkness Similar but non-phobic – fish, low places, open spaces, bright light Dangerous yet non-phobic – guns, electric wiring, cars Biology and Anxiety: Genes and the Brain Genes - twin studies, fearfulness runs in families, inborn sensitive, high-strung temperament, genes regulate levels of neurotransmitters Brain – overarousal of brain areas involved in impulse control and habitual behaviors, traumatic experiences can burn fear circuits into the amygdala and these circuits are later triggered and activated Bipolar Disorder Two polar opposite moods are depression and mania Depression The #1 reason why people seek mental health services Depression appears worldwide Women’s risk of depression is nearly double that of men’s Biology of Depression: Genetics Twin/adoption heritability studies DNA linkage analysis reveals depressed gene regions Biology of Depression: Brain Depressive states – diminished brain activity, left frontal lobe less active, reduced norepinephrine and serotonin Mania – overabundant norepinephrine Depressive explanatory style How we analyze bad news predicts mood Belief that the problem is stable, global, and internal which leads to depression Suicide and Self Injury Typically when depression begins to lift Often an impulsive act, so environmental barriers can save lives Non-suicidal self-injury has other functions such as sending a message, distraction from pain, or self-punishment Schizophrenia Psychosis – mental split from reality and rationality Symptoms – disturbed perceptions (hallucinations), disorganized thinking (delusions), disorganized speech, inappropriate emotions Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Positive (presence of problematic behaviors) – hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thought and speech, problems with selective attention, inappropriate emotions, bizarre behaviors Negative (absence of healthy behaviors) – flat affect, reduced social interaction, anhedonia (no feeling of enjoyment), mute (no speech), catatonia (no movement) Course of Schizophrenia Acute – positive symptoms appear after a major stressor (recovery is likely) Chronic – develops slowly, with more negative symptoms (much more difficult to treat, poverty and/or social problems) Understanding Schizophrenia Abnormal brain structure and activity – too many dopamine/D4 receptors Poor coordination of neural firing in the frontal lobes Thalamus – fires during hallucinations as if real sensations were being received There is a general shrinking of many brain areas Biological risk factors – low birth weight, maternal diabetes, older paternal age, famine, oxygen deprivation during delivery, maternal virus during mid-pregnancy, impairing brain development Genetic factors – if an identical twin has schizophrenia, the co-twin’s chance of having it are 6/10 if they shared a placenta (1/10 if separate placentas), adoption studies also confirm genetic link Research shows many genes linked to schizophrenia, but it may take environmental factors to turn on these genes Socio-psychological factors – social or psychological factors (such as parenting) alone do not cause schizophrenia But acute factors such as stress may influence the onset of schizophrenia Dissociative Disorders Dissociative identity disorder (DID) – a person’s conscious awareness separates from painful memories, thoughts, and feelings Development of distinct and alternating personalities DID: real or not? Real – different personalities have different brain wave patterns, a way to cope with anxiety or abuse Not real – an extreme form of playing role, a recent cultural construction, created or worsened by therapists encouraging people to think of different parts of themselves Eating Disorders: Associated Factors Family factors – having a mother focused on her weight and on the child’s appearance and weight, negative self-evaluation in the family, for bulimia if childhood obesity runs in the family, for anorexia if families are competitive high- achieving and protective Cultural factors – unrealistic ideals of body appearance Personality Disorders Inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning 3 categories – anxious (fear of social rejection), eccentric/odd (flat effect, no social attachments), dramatic (attention-seeking, self-centered, amoral) Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) A lack of conscience for wrongdoing even toward family and friends Risk factors – biological relatives, decreased physiological arousal, lower levels of stress hormones, beginning in childhood (impulsive, uninhibited, unconcerned with social rewards), abused or neglected in childhood combined with genetic vulnerability Biosocial Roots of Crime: The Brain In people with antisocial criminal tendencies, the emotion-controlling amygdala is smaller Frontal lobes are also less active (impulse control) CH. 16: Therapy Current Forms of Therapy Psychotherapy – therapy using psychological techniques to help overcome difficulties or achieve growth Biomedical therapy – therapy using biological treatments to reduce symptoms Combining therapies – an eclectic approach Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud A set of techniques for releasing the tension of repression and resolving unconscious inner conflicts Techniques – free association, interpretation Very time-consuming and expensive Psychodynamic Therapy Discover themes across important relationships Focus is on improved self-awareness and insight into unconscious thoughts and feelings which may be rooted in past relationships Interpersonal Therapy Further extension of psychoanalysis Less focused on insight and past experiences Improve relationship skills Reduce symptoms Humanistic Therapies Humanistic psychology – Maslow and Rogers, emphasizes the human potential for growth Humanistic therapy – attempts to boost self-fulfillment by helping people gain self- awareness and self-acceptance “Client centered therapy” The therapist should exhibit empathy and unconditional positive regard and should listen without judging or interpreting The present and future are more important than the past Behavior Therapy Sometimes insight and self-awareness do not reduce symptoms Behavior therapy uses the principles of learning especially classical and operant conditioning Maladaptive symptoms – learned behaviors that can be replaced by adaptive behaviors Classical Conditioning Techniques Counterconditioning – refers to linking new positive responses to previously aversive stimuli If you have been conditioned to fear stores because you have had panic attacks there, you could be led to a store and helped with relaxation exercises in order to associate stores with relaxation Exposure Therapy AVOIDANCE of the feared situation worsens a conditioned fear Avoidance is reinforced because it quickly reduces anxiety Guided exposure to the feared situation eliminates avoidance Versions of Exposure Therapy Systematic desensitization – construct a hierarchy of anxiety-triggering situations, gradually increase the exposure intensity while using relaxation techniques Virtual reality therapy Aversive Conditioning When a person has been conditioned to have a positive association with a drug, aversive conditioning can associate the drug with a negative response Condition an aversion to something the person should avoid Ex: alcohol and nausea Operant Conditioning Therapy Behaviors are influenced by consequences Behavior modification – reward desired behaviors, withhold reinforcement for undesired behaviors Select appropriate reward Token economy Cognitive Therapies Our thinking influences our feelings If thinking patterns can be learned, they can be replaced In the cognitive perspective, the cause of depression is not bad events, but our thoughts about those events Cognitive Therapy Aaron Beck’s therapy for depression Many problems arise from irrational thinking or errors in thinking (catastrophizing) Change negative self-talk Stress inoculation training – restructure your thinking in stressful situations Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Works to change both cognitions and behaviors that are part of a mental health disorder Family therapy – family as a social system, communication, conflict, parenting strategies Group therapy – one therapist for several clients, less cost per person, clients realize that others share their problems, can develop social skills Self-help groups – led by group members instead of a therapist, the focus is more on support Using Outcome Research in Therapy Evidence-based practice – the use of therapeutic techniques proven to be effective Randomized clinical trials – use of an experimental design to determine if a therapy worked (control group does not get treatment) Drug (Medication Therapies) Psychopharmacology – study of drug effects on mind and behavior To evaluate effectiveness, experimental design (control group gets placebo) Types of medication – antipsychotic (blocks dopamine receptors), antianxiety (depresses central nervous system activity), antidepressant (increases serotonin or norepinephrine by inhibiting reuptake) The antidepressant benefit compared to the placebo is minimal or nonexistent on average in patients with mild or moderate symptoms Types of medication – mood stabilizers (treats bipolar disorders, Lithium, still looking into it), ADHD “stimulants” (blocking reuptake of dopamine from synapses) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Causes shock-induced seizures For patients who have not responded to drug therapy, ECT works well to relieve severe depression This might allow neural rewiring and might boost neurogenesis
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