Exam 1 notes/study guide
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This 50 page Study Guide was uploaded by none Notetaker on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 333 at Kansas taught by Christopher Cushing in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Psych 333 01202015 Developmental lssue in Everyday Media 0 Jenny McCarthy video 0 Some parents feel the needpressure to have their child potty trained early Although 3 is the typical age for this to happen 0 When can a child consent to this What age are they ready How can we telldetermine this age 0 In the state of Kansas 16 is the legal age of consent 0 However a lot of people think 16 is too young 0 Developmental skills needed for this decision educated on the consequences of sexual activity being able to talk about consent with their partner emotionally ready for the sexual activity All of these things don t just happen because you turned 16 These things happen developmentally at different times for everyone 0 Use of smart phones laptops etc Takes away socialization skills facetoface contact 0 Used a way to make things more convientnt but reduces your ability to actually remember things like note taking 0 However this technology could offer a way of communication that might not other wise be available More willing to say what you wouldn t want to say facetface Speaking up for children 0 13 of children are overweight 0 Biggest campaign Let s Move campaign from the White House Michelle Obama 0 Provide healthier food and smaller portions 0 Education on being healthy 0 TIME Magazine article sparked a debate on how long we should breastfeed children 0 Positives antibodies helps with child s teeth cancer reduction for mother higher child IQ o Negatives western mothers don t have enough DHA in breast milk 0 Social consequence ridicule overattachment confused on sexual appropriateness Sometimes the way they are portrayed on TV is not how most children actually are 0 Honey Boo Boo 0 Super Nanny Example of someone who got child development literature on several occasions Good example of behavior management What is Child Development 0 systematic continuities and changes in the individual over the course of life o Continuities ways in which we remain stable over time and continue to re ect our past 0 Discontinuities changes or stages qualitative stagelike shifts in development Children aged 45 perform as was shown in that video Children aged 68 typically perform as you or I would How did they acquire his ability What are the implications 0000 o What ages are children ready for certain movie ratings 0 Hays Code where movie ratings derived from Moral prohibitions Things that won t be shown in movies This has shifted and evolved all the time and now has shifted the burden onto the families to decide what they show their children 0 School house in Downs Kansas Everyone was educated in one building Have moved to a system where we divide children up by grades because they all develop differently by age 0 Fisher Godwin Seltman 2014 Kindergarten study of two classrooms one bare and one with lots of decoration Studied to see which class had less distractions I Found that the way the room was decorated was the primary cause of distraction from the lessons going on 0 Male infant circumcision Let s clear up one common myth they just cut off a ap of skin a The male foreskin is half of the skin on the penis Only about 45 of physicians use anesthesia on the child D If performed by obstetrician only 25 use it Physicians state that they don t believe the procedure warrants it and it takes too long Many believe that lack of autobiographical memory in childhood means that there are no longterm effects Taddio Katz llerish Koren 1997 n Prospective cohort study of 87 infants a 3 groups uncircumcised randomly received placebo or emla cream prior to circumcision n Videotaped during vaccination at primary care pediatrics office a Study was trying to see if getting circumcised made them more susceptible to pain later on in life 0 Results showed that it did if unmedicated F 0 Control Condition Protagonist white tiger replaced with an inanimate white pincer covered with duct tape Experiment was designed to see if babies preferred the good puppet giver or the bad puppet taker n Babies as young as 3months old preferred the giver Nature AND Nurture refers to our biological endowments especially the genes we receive from our parents 0 Payton Manning coming from a family with 3 other professional athletes o refers t the wide range of environments both physical and social that in uence our development 0 Payton Manning s dad was a pro quarterback so he had them practicing all the time since they were little kids 0 Physical has access to places to play football and practice 0 Social household that tells him football is important The Active Child 0 Children contribute to their own development from early in life and their contributions increase as they grow older 0 Three of the most important contributions during children s rst years are their Continuous Develonment 0 As boys get older they throw faster and faster fastballs Have to determine children at lots of different ages to see if development is continuous or stagelike Discontinuous Development 0 Why 02 yearolds make terrible quarterbacks 0 We know an object is still there even when you can t see it anymore Mechanisms of Developmental Change 0 o Neural pruning Areas of the brain that are used and stimulated are preserves Areas that are not used and stimulated are thrown out n This is why it s harder to learn a foreign language as an adult than it is as a child a More people who live in a house with children over the age of 5 the better the language development for younger children 0 Impact is negative if the child is under the age of 5 That child will demand attention and take it away from younger children and their language is not good yet 0 Neural plasticity Parts of the brain perform certain functions If there is an injury or damage to a certain part of the brain other parts of the brain can take over that function 0 Pathology If a person develops a traumatic brain injury that s a pathological process that could affect development 0 Developing brain is a work in progress Environment acts as the catalyst to trigger the brain to make changes Environmental experiences are critical to the differentiation and development of brain tissue Sociocultural Context Refers to the physical social cultural economic and historical circumstances that make up any child s environment 0 Contexts differ within and between cultures 0 Cosleeping Sleeping in the same bed with your baby 0 In the US we believe that this is something we should not do It s dangerous could end up killing the baby Individual Differences Individual differences among children arise very quickly in development 0 Children are affected by genes treatment by other people their subjective reactions to other people s treatment of them and their choice of environments Research and Children39s Welfare 0 Child development research yields practical bene ts in diagnosing children s problems and helping children overcome them Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule2 o A way to identify if a child has symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder The Scienti c Method o everyone examining same data will reach the same conclusion 0 every time method is used result is the same data and conclusion 0 Measures must be o Consistent information over time and across observations 0 Must also be 0 Measures what it is supposed to measure Ways of Gathering Data lnterviewsquestionnaires o Structured same question in the same order 0 Allows comparison of responses 0 Ability to conduct diary studies Interview examples DISC SCID Questionnaires CDI CBCL 0 Limitations Ability to readcomprehend speech issues of honesty and accuracy Interpretation of questions 0 Strengths Gathering large amounts of data Con dentiality improves accuracy 0 Diary Studies 0 Children complete selfrepot measures at frequent intervals to allow for modeling both nomothetic and idiographic relationships Nomothetic typical child Ideographic a particular or given child 0 TimeInvariant factors Selfefficiency social support Autonomous motivation o Timevarying Factors Feeling more energetic Feeling tired No effect observed for positive and negative affect Naturalistic Observation 0 observing in common natural settings Strengths n easily applied to infants no verbal skills needed a shows behavior in everyday life Limitations a Rare or socially undesirable behaviors may not occur a Difficult to isolate cause of action or developmental trend n Observer may change behavior videotapetime may reduce this Structured Observations o Conducted in the laboratory or controlled setting 0 Behavior can be observed surreptitiously Strengths a All participants exposed to same environment Limitations a Results may not represent real life 0 A detailed description of a single individual or group 0 Useful if a person has a condition that s extremely rare or unique to them 0 Strengths Depth of information 0 Limitations Difficult to compare subjects Lack of generalizability a May not apply to others 0 Collect data by living within the cultural community for an extended period of time o Strengths Understanding cultural con icts and potential impact on development 0 Limitations Subjective May not be generalizable 0 Examine relationship between physiological responses and behavior 0 Heart rate compared to baseline decreases may indicate interest 0 EEGERP s brain wave activity showing arousal states stimulus detection ERP s derived from averaging scores from the EEGt o Strengths Perception that have captured something quotrealquot 0 Limitations What aspect of stimulus caught attention Change in physiology may be hunger fatigue or reaction to equipment not the simuli Correlation Design Are two or more variables meaningfully related 0 Value 100 100 indicates strength 0 Sign indicates direction Positive both variables increase Negative one variable increases other decreases 0 Absolute distance from zero tells you the strength 0 Correlation studies DO NOT show causation 0 Casual direction of relationship is unknown 0 Relationship could be due to a third unmeasured variable Assesses causeandeffect relationships between two variables 0 Independent variable IV modi ed or manipulated by experimenter to assess its impact on behavior Dependent variable DV aspect of behavior measure in a study under control of the IV 0 Bobo Doll experiment Confounding variable a factor other than the IV that could explain the differences in the DV 0 Experimental Control control confounding variables random assignment equal probability of exposure to each treatment 0 An experiment taking place in a naturalistic setting 0 Measuring the impact of a naturally occurring event 0 IV cannot be manipulated 0 Participants are not randomly assigned 0 People of different ages are studied at the same point in time Cohort groups of the same age 0 Strengths Used most often by developmentalists Quick and easy Conclusions are likely to be valid of cohorts 0 Limitations Cohort effects any differences observed may be due to cultural or historical facrots that distinguish Same participants are observed repeatedy over a period od time o Strengths Can assees stability of attributes Can identify normative developmental trend Can help understand individual differences in development 0 Limitations Costly and time consuming Practice effects improvements due to familiarity with test or interview Selective attribution remaining participants may not be representative sample Crossgenerational problem conclusions may be limited to those at that age during the study Combines cohort comparisons crosssectional and longitudinal Select participants Repeatedly exposing children ready for a developmental change to experiences thought to produce that change quotillumiatequot processes that promote developmental change 0 Monitor behavior before conservation task 0 Conceonn Zygote 120th the size of the head of a pin How you start out life 2 cell organism Governed by genetics and environment Formed from genetic material contained in sperm and egg cells Chromosomes Zygote nucleus contains 46 threadlike bodies chromosome Each chromosome has thousands of chemical segments called genes Come in matching pairs fro the other and father Each contributes half Genes on each chromosome also come in pairs and are matched with the location on the corresponding chromosome pair Growth through mitosis cell division Process of cell division through which cells duplicate themselves Continues during the life course Each division is a replication of the 46 chromosomes inherited at conceonn Meiosis germ cells only Germ cells Sperm and ova replicate through meiosis Meiosis explains why siblings from the same parent are not genetically identical quotCrossing overquot process Problems with meiosis Can help understand downs syndrome 3 copies of the 21st chromosome Nondisjunction all three pairs of 21st chromosome in one gamete What factors contribute to genetic expression phenotypes Observed trait in individual Patterns of inheritance Simple dominantrecessive inheritance 14 of the population is nearsighted making nearsightedness a recessive train Incomplete dominance Sicklecell trait Symptomatic under oxygen deprivation Sicklecell anemia Major blood disorder Polygenetic inheritance Most human traits we really care about mental abilities height etc are determined by multiple genes What factors contribute to genetic expression Environmentbiology interaction Epigenetics above the genome Study of the way methyl groups change gene expression quotturn them on and offquot Environment remakes your biology sometimes in permanent ways Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis Hypothalamus communicates to pituitary gland using CRH Sends CRH to anterior pituitary Pituitary sends own chemical messenger to adrenal glands down by kidneys Adrenal glands send ACTH into bloodstream and cortisol Picked up by hippocampus Important because its bad if you have too much stress all the time Chromic stress and the HPA axis Under the conditions of chronic stress the brain sensitivity to glucocorticoids has a number of consequences Shrink the hippocampus Decrease neurogenesis Grow fewer brain cells under stress Atrophy hippocampal dendrites Distrupt long term potentiation Long term memories lmpairs memory performance Act on the amygdala to signal the hypothalamus to release more CRH Glucocorticoid receptor Present in almost all cells in the body Plays an important role in central nervous system cells for regulating stress responses soda Epigenetic in uences in genetically identical rats Maternal licking Arched back nursing Mother rats who do more licking and arched back nursing Over rst week of life Differences in DNA methylation Differences persist into adulthood Altered glucocorticoid receptor expression Congenital defects Disorders present from birth although not always detected at birth Could be either an inherited defect or an environmental defect Major recessive heritable conditions Cystic brosis Diabetes PKU Recessive heritable condition Cannot break down phenoalony Can have neurocognitive consequences if they drink too much diet Detecting genetic disorders Amniocentesis Week 1114 of pregnancy Needle inserted through the abdomen into uterus and fetal cells are extracted from amniotic uid Chance of miscarriage 1150 Only recommended if really concerned for genetic condition or there is a high risk for genetic condition Chorionic villus sampling Performed by week 89 of pregnancy Needle inserted through abdomen into the chorionic membrane Results in 24 hours Chance of miscarriage 150 Use in high risk cases Key de nitions Mutations Changes in the chemical structure of one or more genes that produce a new phenotype Multiple births Monozygotic twins Single zygote divides are genetically identical Dizygotic fraternal twins Two ova released and fertilized by different sperm are as genetically similar Heritability The amount of variability in a trait or class of behavior within a speci c population that is attributable to genetic factors Remember heritability is different than inherited Heritability refers to traits in populations not traits in a given individual Heritability coefficient H r identical r fraternal twins x 2 Intelligence ldenUcal86 Fraternal 60 H 86 60 x2 52 52 of population tells about intelligence Reaction range Reaction range The range of possible phenotypes for a given genotype Ex The majority of cases of mild intellectual disability IQ lt70 can be attributed to environmental causes Vast cases of children with intellectual disability grew up in impoverished intellectually environments and could have been prevented 80 are mild focus focus Ethology and evolutionary views Ethology Study of the bioevolutionary basis of behavior and development with a on the survival of the individual Modern evolution theory Study of the bioevolutionary basis of behavior and development with a on the survival of genes Critical vs sensitive period CdUcalpedod Embryonic period embryo o Endoderm inner layer digestive and respiratory o Exoderm Mesoderm Embryo support system placenta umbilical cord amnion Primitive streak development rst sign of human structure Head facial features extremities develop Fetal Period Sex differences Digestive and excretory systems show activity organs complete development Brain growth Nails beginning of teeth hair Movements amp signi cant weight gain between 69 months Monitor the fetus behavioral tests can be done at this point Utero Placenta is attached directly to the uterine wall Allows nutrients to be delivered from mother to baby Amnion uid inside of it suspends the baby and provides protection for baby Umbilical cord allows blood to ow to the baby and away from the baby Critical Periods in Prenatal Development Teratogens environmental sources of birth defects 0 substances and conditions that increase risk of prenatal abnormalities 0 Any agent that can harm an embryo or fetus o weighing the changes that a particular teratogen will affect the fetus 0 Timing of exposure Prepare well before pregnancy 0 Amount of Exposure Threshold effect 0 Genetic vulnerability Most serious when a structure is forming Susceptibility to harm is in uences by genetic makeup Same defects can be caused by different teratogens One teratogen can cause different defects Longer exposurehigher dose more harm Father s exposure prior to conception may affect embryo Longterm effects depend on postnatal environment 0000000 0 1 The susceptibility of the organisms depends on its developmental stage 000 O 2 A teratogens effects are likely to be speci c to a particular organ 3 Individuals vary in their susceptibility to teratogens 4 The mother s physiological state in uences susceptibility 5 The greater concentration of a teratogen agent the greater the risk 6 Teratogens that have little or no effect on the mother can seriously affect the developing organism Teratogen Alcohol Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS Fetal alcohol syndrome 0 O 0 Social drinking 13 per day Greatest risk binge drinking 5 Slow physical growth poor motor skills attention difficulties verbal learning difficulties 0 Subnormal intellectual performance 0 Father s drinking may also be harmful FAS amp FAE OOOOO Characterized by Abnormal facial characteristics Abnormalities to limbs and heart Slow physical growth Retarded mental developmental Distinct facial features 0 0 Skin folds at the corner of the eyes Low nasal bridge Short nose Indistinctive philtrium between nose and upper lip Small head circumference Small eye opening Small midface Thin upper lip 000000 More Eratogens Blindness deafness cardiac abnormalities mental retardation 0 Most dangerous during rst trimester 0 Best not to conceive unless woman has had rubella or been immunized o Caused by eating undercooked meat amp handling cat feces 0 Causes eye and brain damage during rst trimester o lnduces miscarriage later in pregnancy 0 Early treatment prevents harm o 95 transmission in untreated mothers 0 Damages eyes ears bones heart brain 0 Can result in miscarriages Can cross placenta Most infections occur during birth Kills 33 of infected newborns Causes blindness brain damage and other neurological problems in 2530 C section delivery prevents infecting newborns 0000 O Caused by HIV 0 Passes through placenta while giving birth or while breat feeding 0 Only 50 of infected infants live past the age of 6 0 Only 25 of those at risk are infected o Thalidomide Used to prevent nausea and vomiting Tested on animals and was quotsafequot Caused birth defects for some if taken during rst two months of pregnancy a Eyes ears nose hearts I Parts of limbs missing feet or hands connected to torso o Aspirin growth retardation infant death 0 Ibuprofen 3rCI trimester pulmonary hypertension prolonged delivery o Caffeine miscarriage low birth weight 0 Lithium 1st trimesterheart defects Cleft lip Abnormal lung functioning Miscarriage Low birth weight MOST COMMON Ectopic pregnancy SIDS Higher concentration of nicotine in fetus O O O O O O O o Emotional regulation in males 0 Poorer readingspelling at 10 years old 0 More depressionanxiety 0 6080 of newborns are born addicted o Breathingswallowing coordination 0 Normal development progress by age 2 although boys remain venerable o Miscarriage premature birth Sleep disturbances very irritable Lower IQ Poor language developmental skills Negative effects also due to Materanal vocabulary Home environment Exposure to additional teratogens 0 Radiation death mental retardation n Xrays 3 Mile Island 0000 o Chemicalspollutants Leadmercury deformities mental retardation Polychlorinated Biphenyl less neurologically mature n Prenatal and postnatal effects Environmental Conditions and Prenatal Development 0 Mother s attitude towards her pregnancy or stress during the pregnancy 0 Mother s nutrition Maternal Attitudes and Stress A mother s stress 0 0 Immediate effects of elevated levels of the hormone Cotrisol stress hormone impede oxygen and nutrients to fetus Long term effects Weakened immune system Linked to poor eating smoking drug and alcohol use all hard fetus Counseling to managereduce stress Moderate levels of stress may aid development In uences of Mother39s Nutrition 0 Recommended food intake 0 O O Consume enough calories in a wellbalanced diet Increase intake of folic acid calcium magnesium zinc and iron Folic acid reduces Down Syndrome spina bi da anencephaly Medial supervision is necessary as excessive vitaminmineral supplements can be harmful Long change polyunsaturated fatty acids Prenatal Care 0 Information about nutrition and teratogens Education 0 Early detection of problems 0 Methods of prenatal testing 0 Chorionic villi sampling 0 Amniocentesis o Sonogram Variations of Childbirth Medicated childbirth o Analgesia anesthesia oxytocics 0 Natural childbirth Cesarean section 31 of women in US 0 Prepared child birth taking a class or something like that Cultural Difference US 1 at home World most at home Obstetricians midwives doulas Birthing centers The Newborn39s First Minutes 0 First breaths 0 Cut umbilical cord 000000000 00000 15 10 minutes after birth Color Heart rate Respiratory effort Muscle tone Color Re ex irritability 7normal 4unheakhy 2436 hours after birth Neurological development Re exes Reactions to people Ratings of worrisome normal or superior Testing for diseases Birth complications amp 0 Low less tha 5 12 pounds 0 Very low less than 3 lbs 502 O O O O O 0000 Extremely low less than 2bs 3oz Baby getting airway cut off Breech umbilical cord tangled around neck ect Can cause neurological damage permanent disabilities Increased risk of adult heart disease Support system eg placenta problems Malnutrition Drug use tobacco Multiple births 4050 weighing less than 22le die Brain development and neural pattern formation in preterm infants differs Breathing difficulty due to lack of surfaction or respiratory distress syndrome Spend tme in isolettes Can be frustrating The Newborns Condition 0 Prematurity 0 Birth before the 37th week 0 Immature lungs digestive or immune systems 0 Low birth weight 0 Below 5bs o Intrauterine growth restrictions Interventions for Preterm Infants 0 Early acquaintance programs touching rocking talking are developmentally bene cial Parents can be taught how to be sensitive and responsive to preterm infants 0 Combined with stimulating day care programs help improves cognitive growth and reduces behavioral disturbances Longterm Consequences for LBW Depends on postnatal environment 0 Stimulating home can lead to very good outcomes 0 Less stable home or being economically disadvantaged Labor and Delivery Medication Some medication is used by 95 of mothers in US 0 Reduce pain induce contractions relax the mother 0 Can reduce the ability to push effectively 0 Can make babies lethargic and inattentive 0 Drugs in appropriate doses can increase comfort without disrupting delivery causes the cervix to open O Psychosocial Environment of Childbirth 0 First 612 hours sensitive period for emotional bonding may not be essential o Maternity blues 4060 of mothers Motherjust feels a little down not like themselves 0 Postpartum depression 10 of mothers Should seek professional help Depression affects outcomes of birth mother and infant o Engrossment intense fascination desire to touch hold and caress 0 Early contact with newborn can make father feel closer to partner positive support for mother o the detection of sensory stimulation the interpretation of sensory input The Newborn39s Readiness for Life 0 involuntary automatic response to a stimuli 0 Survival adaptive value satisfy needs Breathing sucking swallowing Rooting re ex is the only survival re ex that disappears over time turn their head and open mouth for feeding o Primitive not as useful disappear rst year Babinski swimming grasping Babinski toes spread out when bottom of their foot is touched 0 Table 51 in Chapter 4 0 State communicating distress 0 Developmental change in crying Tends to diminish after rst three months maturation of brain increased responsiveness from parents Shrill and nonrhymthmic may indicate brain damage The Infant39s SensationPerception Methods for Studying SensoryPerception Experiences 0 Discriminate between stimuli looking chamber I0 o Familiarity leads to a lack of response Process by which we stop responding to a repeated stimulus o Dishabituated response to a new stimuli Process by which we attend a new stimulus 0 Present a stimulus and record brain waves Discrimination of stimuli produces different brain wave patterns 0 Rate of sucking on a paci er controls the presentation of a stimuli shows preference and discrimination 0 Infant Sensory Capabilities o Discrimination sound based on loudness duration direction and frequency Prefer mother s voice to other women appears to be present in utero At 36 months sensitive to phonemes even better than adults if sounds are not part of the adult s spoken language Hearing loss can adversely affect development often due to ear infections 0 O O O O O Prefer sweet over sour bitter or salty Recognize mother by smell if breast fed Prefer to avoid noxious odors things that smell bad Touch enhances development allows exploration of environment Sensitive to temperature Sensitive to pain even at 1 day old Limited acuity 20600 vision Explains why infants prefer high contrast patterns Gets a little better if you get really close Least mature sense Detect changes in brightness Can see patterns See colors although discrimination is good by 23 months Newborns are very nearsighted Poor acuity see as well as adults by 12 months Show a preference for faces Distinguish their mother s face Scan their surroundings Perceive patterns and distinguish among forms O O O O O O O O O O 0 Early Pattern Perception 012 months Prefer 0 Later Form Perception 2months1year Begin to perceive objects as whole forms More sensitive to movement Use subjective contours Results from interaction between visual sense biological maturation and learning 0 Perception of ThreeDimensional Space Size Constancy n Presents at birth not fully developed until 1011 YEARS old a Movement cues important 13 months a Binocular cues important 35 months Pictoral cues monocular a Development by age 67 months 0 Use of visual cliff Most infants 90 at 6 12 months crawling perceived depth 2 montholds showed decrease in heart rate a sign of interest but not fear Experience through motor development is important 0 Are the senses integrated at birth Yes reaching for objects that are seen Yes looking in the direction of sounds Yes expecting to see source of sound or to feel objects that were reached for Cultural In uences on Infant Perceptions F 0 English versus Chinese quotrquot and quotlquot Chinese makes no distinction between these phonemes 0 Helping children learn these phonemes helps them to spell better 0 Music familiar with owns culture s music 0 Growth of perceptual skills includes adding new skills and losing unnecessary ones 0 Culture determines which sensory inputs are distinctive and how to interpret those inputs Infant Memory 0 2month old infants learn to kick their leg to make a mobile move 2month old infants remember the muscle movements for 3 days 0 3month old infants remember or 1 week 0 Results highly contextdependent need the same cues to retrieve memory 0 Tying a string on their leg to a mobile to make it move Basic Learning Processes in Infancy a change in behavior that produces a new way to think about perceive or react to the environment 0 Is the result of experience o Is relatively permanent o Unconditioned stimulus UCS elicits an unconditioned response UCR Taking pots and pans behind a child and banging them together UCS and the child freaks out UCR 0 Neutral conditioned stimulus CS paired with UCS O O Eventually CS elicits a conditioned response CR Presenting a bunny when you bang the pots and pans Eventually they d be scared of the bunny too Possible for newborns but must have survival value Little Albert experiment 0 O OO O Learner emits a response operates on environment Associates this action with the consequence it produces Repeat favorable limit unfavorable Punishers and reinforces Newborns learn very slowly rate increases with age At 2months memory is contextdependent Newborns can be operantly conditioned but it taes a very large number of trials up to 200 Linked to something biological needs such as nursing 3month olds require 40 trials 5month olds require 30 trials 0 Attend to a model and form a symbolic representation of model s behavior Newborns imitation possible at 7 days old if part of behavioral repertoire Imitation of novel responses reliable between 812 months Immediate imitation at rst deferred imitation later 0 0 Albert Bandura Bobo clown studies Independent variable Sleep and Arousal States 0 baby is still with their eyes closed unmoving breathing is slow and regular 89 hours 0 baby s eyes are closed but can be observed to move under the closed eyelids REM Baby may jerk or grimice in response to stimulus Breathing may be irregular 89 hours 0 baby is falling asleep or waking up 0 Sleep is majorly controlled by Hypothalmus o C process makes you feel alter and drowsy at the same time every day 0 S process positive sleep pressure onger you ve been awake greater your need for sleep becomes These two processes are something that develops in infants Not born with them No regular sleep schedule Behavioral Insomnia of Childhood lCDS ll de nition 0 Falling asleep is an extended process that requires special conditions parental touch 0 Sleeponset associations are highly problematic or demanding 0 IN the absence of the associated conditions sleep onset is signi cantly delayed or sleep is otherwise disrupted o Nighttime awakenings require care giving intervention for the child to return to sleep An Overview of Maturation and Development 0 Rapid increase in height and weight over the rst two years Birth weight can be expected to double by 46 months Appears to happen in spurts of up to 1CM per day 0 Growth is more gradual during middle childhood Toddlers are at half their adult height by 2 years old From 2puberty children gain approximately 23 inches and 67 pounds a year 0 Puberty early adolescence there is another rapid growth spurt Girls hit their growth spurt earlier than boys 0 Cephalocaudal head downward growth At birth head and legs each represent 25 of body length At adulthood head is 12 legs 50 o Proximodistal center outward growth Internal organs followed by limbs Trends reverse in puberty hands and feet followed by limbs then trunk o Cephalocaudal Head grows rapidly during fetal period Torso grows rapidly in rst year From 1st birthday to adolescence legs compromise 60 of the increases in height During adolescence trunk grows fastest again 0 Proximostal During fetal period chest and internal organs develpp rst and are followed by 0 Bones lengthen thicken and harden with age completing most growth by 18 0 Skull has fontanelles soft spots for childbirth and sutures seams for expansion for brain growth 0 Ankles feet wrist hands develop more bones 0 Born with all muscle bers 0 Increase in density and size particularly in adolescence growth spurts 0 Individuals develop at different rates 0 Cultural variations also exist Asian amp African American children mature faster than EuropeanAmerican children Brain Develonment o Neurons basic unit of brainnervous system most present at birth Form synapses connective spaces with other neurons Function of the neuron depends on place in the brain Sends an electrical signal down the axon Myelin speeds up the electrical impulses o Glia nourish neurons and encase them in myelin form throughout life 0 Neurons can serve any neural function 0 Synaptogenesis formation of synapses o More formed than needed Roughly half die some stand in reserve injury or new skills a What live and what die depends on what s being used Plasticity cells are responsive to experience allows change in brain 0 At birth brain associated with biological functioning is most developed 0 Cerebrum and cerebral cortex higher brain centers are least developed Area of the brain that is for leaning and memory Primary motor areas primary sensory areas mature rst 0 O 0 At birth pathways between sense organs and brain are myelinated Pathways between muscles and brain are next Reticular formation and frontal cortex Needed for long term concentration Not fully myelinated at puberty Enhances efficiency between emotive and regulatory areas of brain Cerebrum consists of two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum Each covered by a cerebral cortex Left right side of the body speech hearing verbal memry decision making positive emotions Right left side of body visualspatial information music touch negative emotions o Lateralization increases with age 0 Image of a 7year old girl treated with a hemispherectomy at 3yearsOold Surgery was on her dominant hemisphere right Total loss of right motor and sensory cortex Total loss of right hemispheric language centers commonly ambiguous words and prosody o Developed almost completely normally except for some spasms on her left side 0 Uncommon form of chronic pain typically affecting an arm or a leg Most commonly occurs following an injury but pain is out of propotion to severity of the initial injury 0 Symptoms Burning or throbbing pain Sensitivity to temerature Swemng Changes in skin temperature Discoloration red blue blotchy Changes in skin texture tender thin or shiny Changes in skin and nail growth Stiff joints Muscle spasmsatrophy Decreased mobility 0 Relative to controls CRPS Children Show more Amygdala connectivity with Cognitiveemotional areas prefrontal cingulated cortex basalgangHa Sensorimotor thalamus somatosensory cortex Integrative processing cerebellum parietal lobe thalamus 0 Intensive treatment consisting of 34 hours daily of physical therapy and 23 hours daily of cognitive behavioral therapy Decreased connectivity between amygdala and motor cortex cingulated insula and frontal areas associated with less painrelated fear Motor Development 0 Sequence of motor skills is the same for all infants 0 Large individual variation of ability to perform motor skills within children 0 Rate of motor development not strongly related to future development outcomes 0 Cephalocaudal head downward Exception is coordination of hip movement before shoulder movement a Due to structure of joints O O Proximodistal center outward Motor development is a genetically programmed sequence of events 0 O O O O Maturation and practice are important Wayne Dennis discovers that none of the Iranian infants who spent 2years lying on their backs could not walk and only 15 could sit unaided New skills are constructed as infants actively reorganize existing capabilities Desire to achieve a goal is motivation 78 month olds only crawl after they learn to turn their heads to see objects develop handarm preference when reaching and learn to kick the opposite leg of outstretched arm quotEvery act in every moment is the emergent products of context and history and no component has casual priorityquot Development of Voluntary Reaching Prereaching is replaced by voluntary reaching 3 months of age Development of Manipulatory Skills Clawlike ulnar grasp is replaced by pincer grasp near end of rst year 0 Motor skills allow for fun social interaction 0 Provide evidence of normal development 0 Fosters perceptual cognitive and social development Optic ow distance spatial memory 0 Each year skills improve Large muscles eyehand coordination o Genders equal in physical ability until puberty Males continue to improve Females level off or decline a Biology less muscle mass m Genderrole socialization fewer athletic activities 0 Participation associated with increases physical competencies 0 Development of more favorable body image 0 Acquisition of desirable masculine traits Assertiveness This can be helpful for women to learn 0 All correlated with college selfesteem o The Adolescent Growth Spurt o Begins at abut 10 12 for females 0 Begins at about 13 for males 0 Increases in height and weight 0 Bodies and faces appear more adultlike Puberty point at which sexual maturity is reached Precocious puberty experiencing puberty earlier and earlier 0 1 Change in hormones causing maturity to happen sooner 0 young girls who hit puberty earlier are at greater risks for delinquent behaviors and sexual activity 0 Timed with growth spurt predictable pattern 0 Girls 0 Boys Onset of breasts and pubic hair development Development of testes and scrotum Emergence of pubic hair Growth of penis sperm production Appearance of facial hair Lowering of voice Can be a problem if boys mature later than their peers 0 Large individual timing of maturation for both genders o Reaching sexual maturity earlier in industrialized socities than in the past 0 Also growing taller and heavier Due to n Improved nutrition n Improved health care 0 Effects of Individual Genetics Set limits for height and rate of maturation 0 Hormonal In uences The Endocrinology of Growth Pituitary gland releases growth hormone stimulates production of estrogen testosterone and androgen 0 Problems with Under nutrition Catchup growth if mild and shortterm Marasmus not enough calories or protein small impaired social and intellectual development Kwashiorkor not enough protein uid collects in face legs and abdomen Vitamin and mineral de ciencies n Zinc very slow growth a Iron de ciency anemia social and intellectual impacts 0 Problems of Over nutrition Obesity 0 IHness If adequately nourished most do not affect growth long term 0 Emotional Stress and Lack of Affection Nonorganic failure to thrive before 18 months of age a Impatient hostile caregivers cause infants to withdraw Deprivation dwar sm 215 years of age lack of positive involvement with caregiver
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