Exam 3 Comparative Psych study guide
Exam 3 Comparative Psych study guide psy 3100 Comparative Psychology
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Resi Ridner on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psy 3100 Comparative Psychology at a university taught by Foerder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.
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Date Created: 04/20/16
1 Exam 3 Comparative Psych Lecture Notes Aggression: Behavior that appears to be intended to inflict noxious stimulation or destruction on another organism. Game Theory = Study of behavioral interactions between individuals o What is the resource? o What is the state of the animal? o Example: Hawk and dove game: 2 players that do not want to share a resource Hawk = always be aggressive Dove = bluff but retreat if opponent escalates Don’t yield! But yield if the cost is greater than the payoff Need both types of players o Remember butterfly example: Conventional Rules/ Rule governed aggression (look this up in book as well!): 2 Reverse Bourgeois Strategy: 3 Sequential Assessment: o Intraspecific Aggression: Territor iality R e me mber Hummingbird video example. Animals will fight aggressively for their territory, each animal in a different form. Dominance Threat postures Alpha>Beta>Omega Ex. Wolves have an Alpha Another example would be the Kangaroo’s showing dominance by flexing muscles. Sexual Possibly, forcing opposite sex to mate with them in order to breed. Maybe the same as the social lying we learned about, were less attractive males might falsely alarm or show their worth in order to sneakily mate with the female under false pretenses. Parental 4 Aggression used to learn specific resources about living in the environment? Ex. Bears will fight mother as a possibly learning mechanism of practice for the future? Parent-offspring o Winner-Loser Effects: Winning begets winning Losing begets losing Dominance hierarchy = rank ordering in group A>B>C>D Example: Snake dominance. One snake will threaten another and win by a winner-loser method. o Bystander Effects: Bystander effects = Changed fighting assessment when watching another animal fight. Audience effect = Changed fighting assessment when being watched. Ex. Animals will fight harder if they are being watched. Internal factors: Hormones o Hormones = chemicals that travel through blood that effect behavior o Organizational effects = changes created during development o Give female T before birth - more aggressive o Activational effects = immediate changes o Castrate a male - becomes less aggressive o Stress Hormones o Corticoids - stress o Testosterone – aggression & dominance o Loser effects & Hormones Losing increases corticosterone – may cause further losing Inhibit learning and memory functions Neural Mechanisms o Areas of the brain responsible for behaviors o Electrical stimulation in midbrain causes cats to attack rats. o Electrical stimulation produces increased aggression in monkeys o Neurotransmitters = chemicals released between neurons that affect behavior Serotonin Oxytocin Different effects across species 5 May cause aggression in one species but not another. Genetics o Artificial selection can lead to significant changes in levels of aggression within just a few generations Play o “Motor activity…appears to be purposeless, in which motor patterns from other contexts may often be used in modified forms and altered temporal sequencing.” o From video on play: Play remains one of nature’s mysteries. Play isn’t about winning, it is joining in that counts. Truth is, no one really knows what, if anything, play is for. Play rules: Don’t hurt, or be gentle Let go when it hurts Have fun o Types of play: Object Play Use of inanimate objects o Practice o Learning o Ex. Dolphins playing with bubble rings. Cats playing with string Dogs playing with a ball Locomotor Play Movement oriented o General exercise o Specific motor skills o Ex. Deer running around one another (you’ve seen this if you have watched a group of deer with babies). o Ex. Lions pounce on one another when playing. this has 6 benefits, such as using the same mechanisms of play for hunting. o Possibly used to develop motor skills like learning how to use your trunk, or just using techniques you will use later such as hunting, fighting, or grabbing food. Social Play Play with other inter or intra species o Between species or within species Role reversal or self-handicapping o Submissive animal adopting dominant role Sometimes the submissive animal will switch roles with the dominant animal to play. I.e. submissive= dominant for play, and dominant=submissive for play. Ex. Polar bear and dog video shown in class Social Morality: Play in many cases are very similar to fighting, except you don’t bite down or try to hurt. There has to be signs for when one is ready to play, or fight. Playing has rules: o Don’t bite too hard, o Don’t try to hurt the person o Let go when signs of pain Picture A below Is of dogs fighting (signs may be baring teeth, body language rigid), Picture B is of dogs playing (signs may be body relaxed, butt in air or on ground rolling, tongue out?) 7 o Benefits of Play: Possibility of learning how to fight by play fighting. Possibility of learning surrounding environment Social cooperation Hiding and finding objects (food) for heightened senses of location understanding? o Proximate Causes of Play Hormones Testosterone Neurobiology Neurotransmitters - dopamine Synaptogenesis Neurobiology of play: o Increased neurogenesis in young animals o Dopamine plays a role in play fighting in rats Creativity and play Play face in Gorillas Relaxed open mouth facial display Mouth is open, but teeth is covered Animal Personality: o Personality is: Enduring inner characteristics of individuals that organize their behavior Stable coherent individual differences o Temperament The characteristic emotional tone of ‘tempo’ of the individual, assumed to be biologically based and emerge in infancy and early childhood 8 o There are different kinds of personality: Boldness and Shyness Bold individuals are more willing to take risks in novel situations, while shy individuals are more likely to react to novel situations with avoidance or fear o Ex. Color boldness and attractiveness matters. Coping styles A set of behavioral and physiological stress responses which is consistent over time and which is characteristic to a certain group of animals. 9 Active response o Proactive – territorial control and aggression o Reactive –immobility and low aggression Examples of coping skills: o Defensive burying o Animals are more apt to follow a preferred routine in proactive and reactive responses. Behavioral Syndromes Behavioral Syndromes: suites of correlated behaviors (Sih et al, 2005) EX: Extraversion o Sensation seeking, active, assertive, lively, etc… Why study behavioral syndromes? o To understand the nature, origin and consequences of individual differences in behavior. 10 o To discover if animals have consistent individual differences in behavior that can be likened to human personalities? Types of Syndromes: o Activity o Boldness---Propensity to take risks in novel situations o Fearfulness---Reaction to potentially threatening situations o Proactive/Reactive----Patterns of response to stressful situations Practical uses of animal personality research: Predators and domestic prey Reintroduction of animals Guide Dog Personalities Therapy Animals Domesticated Animals: o Dogs: Wide range of sizes and appearance from selective breeding Evolution: Dogs descended from wolves. Domesticated about 14,000 BP. Puppy found buried with human in Israel, 12,000 BP. Evidence indicates dogs came to America with earliest settlers, 8 - 9,000 BP. People domesticated wolves.-- NOT!! Wolves domesticated themselves. Another form of dog domestication is that work with foxes. Why dogs? Dogs allow us into their social group Dogs look at our faces o Cats: Breeds far more similar than dogs. 40 breeds listed by Cat Fanciers Association. Egyptians kept tame wildcats 9500 BP. Domesticated from the African wildcat (Felis sylvestris lybica). Most likely because of their use in keeping rodents from grain. Pets Not much else. Cats talk to us. Cats only meow at people. Cats have different purrs. Social Behavior o Social Systems- The practice of individuals working toward a common goal to benefit group members Sometimes despite potential costs to the individual. 11 o Costs and Benefits: o Why live in groups? Anti-Predator Vigilance Protection against predators Group defense—ex. Mobbing Foraging Success Increased information about food sources More adapt to finding more food by watching or following others. Territoriality Increased capacity to deal with physical environment o Dominance o Delusion effect—selfish herd Individual risk of being attacked decreases o Alarm calls o Altruism Altruism- A donor permanently loses opportunities to produce offspring of its own as a result of helping another individual. Only seems to exist when an animal is helping kin. 12 o Hamilton’s rule Hamilton's rule, kin selection causes genes to increase in frequency when the genetic relatedness of a recipient to an actor multiplied by the benefit to the recipient is greater than the reproductive cost to the actor. o Eusociality 3 Characteristics Reproductive division of labor. Cooperation in the care of young. At least 2 generations capable of sharing in the colony’s labor. colony living animals with a sterile worker castes, overlapping generations of family members and cooperative care of young - all but one species are insects, extremely successful - formation of “superorganism”, group of organisms that behave as one organism – for good of colony - arises through the superiority of organized groups **group selection** - self interest/nepotism are damaging to group and therefore damaging to self as dependent group member - Gene remains the unit of selection while target of selection can be individual, nepotistic groups or colonies - High degree of relatedness is not necessary for eusociality to develop but is correlated with eusociality -both group selection and kin selection shape the group dynamics - group selection must become powerful enough to out- weigh the benefits of individual goals o Social Queuing Cognition: o The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. o Epistemology - a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. o Intelligence - The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations. o Consciousness – the perception of one’s own mental states. o Morgan’s Cannon: “In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale.” Shuttleworth’s explanation=Simplest explanation Associative learning 13 given a mirror, most animal’s first reactions is to attack it, thinking it is another animal. Eventually, chimps begin to understand that looking into a mirror is their own selves. They tend to have a concept of their own bodily selves. In humans—by the age of two, more than half of two year olds can recognize themselves in the mirror. Encephalization Quotient= Brain to body ratio of an animal Griffin: o The question of animal awareness o Cognitive ethology. Memory in animals: o is hard to study because they are not verbal. o The act of remembering is a matter of stimulus control. o At one time the animal is shown a certain stimulus and is then required to identify that stimulus at a later time in order to receive a reinforcer. o This is called delayed matching-to-sample. o Delayed Matching-to- sample for Pigeons: To earn food, the pigeon must select the correct alternative by remembering which stimulus it was shown before the delay. o Directed Forgeting: occurs when you have been told to forget something Example: Your math professor makes a mistake in a calculation and tells you to forget what he just wrote on the board. 14 As a result, you do indeed have poorer memory for that material than you would have had without the instruction to forget. o Why study memory in animals? Animals have evolved a staggering capacity for remembering events. Their memory can only be demonstrated in an environment that closely resembles their natural environment. Discrimination: Pigeons have learned to discriminate: Pictures of trees Pictures of people Artistic styles And memorize thousands of pictures. Asking animals to count Ex. Chimps demonstration video in class. o Language: Whether written, spoken, or symbolic, we use it to communicate everything—meaning, motives, feelings, and beliefs. Many animal species have evolved complex communication systems of their own. Example: Alarm calling of the vervet monkeys. Explaining language development through operant conditioning: Operant Learning: Skinner (1957, 1985) believed that language development may be explained on the basis of learning principles such as association, imitation, and reinforcement. Explaining language development through Language acquisition device (LAD): Inborn Universal Grammar: Chomsky (1959, 1987) opposed Skinner’s ideas and suggested that the rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most of it is inborn. Can animals really talk? Research has focused on teaching great apes to talk to us. The first researchers tried to train chimps to speak by raising infant chimps in a home environment (cross- fostering). Even though the chimpanzees thrived in the home environment, they never learned to talk. “Speaking” is not something that chimps do naturally. Viki had to tortuously manipulate her mouth with her hand. Example: 15 o Chimpanzees/ other monkeys learning sign language (chantex from UTC campus) o Chimps lacked the vocal apparatus to produce comprehensible speech. o The next approach was to teach chimpanzees gestures. o Experimenters conducted cross-fostering studies on chimps’ ability to learn ASL. o Food rewards seemed to focus the chimps on producing the signs rather than on communicating with the researchers spontaneously. o They were capable of reference, but it is unclear if they exhibited grammar, productivity, and situational freedom. Truth on whether monkeys can really talk: o Apes acquire their limited vocabularies with a great deal of difficulty, unlike children who develop vocabularies at amazing rates. o Chimpanzees can make signs to receive a reward, just as a pigeon who pecks at the key receives a reward. However, pigeons have not learned a language. o Chimpanzees use signs meaningfully but lack human syntax. o Presented with ambiguous information, people tend to see what they want to see (perceptual set). o Artificial Language Experiments: The next series of experiments were conducted in laboratory situations, using visual symbols. The chimps that learned Yerkish could respond to questions and ask for objects. The chimps mastered reference but is it unclear if they could use grammar. The chimps did not have much to talk about except obtaining food. o Language training for other animals: Parrots, gorillas and dolphins have relatively complex brains and are social animals. Researchers have been training dolphins to use a symbolic language. They have learned a vocabulary of symbols—ball, pipe, surfboard, spit, fetch, bottom, and so on—that refer to objects and actions. California sea lions have also learned symbolic gestures and can respond accurately to three-word sentences.
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