New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Exam 3 Comparative Psych study guide

by: Resi Ridner

Exam 3 Comparative Psych study guide psy 3100 Comparative Psychology

Marketplace > Psychlogy > psy 3100 Comparative Psychology > Exam 3 Comparative Psych study guide
Resi Ridner

GPA 3.5

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes from lecture and book reading, a complete guide to everything we need to know for exam 3.
Comparative Psychology
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Comparative Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Resi Ridner on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psy 3100 Comparative Psychology at a university taught by Foerder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views.

Similar to psy 3100 Comparative Psychology at University


Reviews for Exam 3 Comparative Psych study guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/20/16
1 Exam 3 Comparative Psych Lecture Notes  Aggression: Behavior that appears to be intended to inflict noxious stimulation or destruction on another organism.  Game Theory = Study of behavioral interactions between individuals o What is the resource? o What is the state of the animal? o Example: Hawk and dove game:  2 players that do not want to share a resource  Hawk = always be aggressive  Dove = bluff but retreat if opponent escalates  Don’t yield!  But yield if the cost is greater than the payoff  Need both types of players o Remember butterfly example:  Conventional Rules/ Rule governed aggression (look this up in book as well!): 2  Reverse Bourgeois Strategy: 3  Sequential Assessment: o Intraspecific Aggression:  Territor iality  R e me mber Hummingbird video example.  Animals will fight aggressively for their territory, each animal in a different form.  Dominance  Threat postures  Alpha>Beta>Omega  Ex. Wolves have an Alpha  Another example would be the Kangaroo’s showing dominance by flexing muscles.  Sexual  Possibly, forcing opposite sex to mate with them in order to breed.  Maybe the same as the social lying we learned about, were less attractive males might falsely alarm or show their worth in order to sneakily mate with the female under false pretenses.  Parental 4  Aggression used to learn specific resources about living in the environment?  Ex. Bears will fight mother as a possibly learning mechanism of practice for the future?  Parent-offspring o Winner-Loser Effects:  Winning begets winning  Losing begets losing  Dominance hierarchy = rank ordering in group  A>B>C>D  Example: Snake dominance. One snake will threaten another and win by a winner-loser method. o Bystander Effects:  Bystander effects = Changed fighting assessment when watching another animal fight.  Audience effect = Changed fighting assessment when being watched.  Ex. Animals will fight harder if they are being watched.  Internal factors:  Hormones o Hormones = chemicals that travel through blood that effect behavior o Organizational effects = changes created during development o Give female T before birth - more aggressive o Activational effects = immediate changes o Castrate a male - becomes less aggressive o Stress Hormones o Corticoids - stress o Testosterone – aggression & dominance o Loser effects & Hormones  Losing increases corticosterone – may cause further losing  Inhibit learning and memory functions  Neural Mechanisms o Areas of the brain responsible for behaviors o Electrical stimulation in midbrain causes cats to attack rats. o Electrical stimulation produces increased aggression in monkeys o Neurotransmitters = chemicals released between neurons that affect behavior  Serotonin  Oxytocin  Different effects across species 5  May cause aggression in one species but not another.  Genetics o Artificial selection can lead to significant changes in levels of aggression within just a few generations  Play o “Motor activity…appears to be purposeless, in which motor patterns from other contexts may often be used in modified forms and altered temporal sequencing.” o From video on play:  Play remains one of nature’s mysteries.  Play isn’t about winning, it is joining in that counts.  Truth is, no one really knows what, if anything, play is for.  Play rules:  Don’t hurt, or be gentle  Let go when it hurts  Have fun o Types of play:  Object Play  Use of inanimate objects o Practice o Learning o Ex. Dolphins playing with bubble rings.  Cats playing with string  Dogs playing with a ball  Locomotor Play  Movement oriented o General exercise o Specific motor skills o Ex. Deer running around one another (you’ve seen this if you have watched a group of deer with babies). o Ex. Lions pounce on one another when playing.  this has 6 benefits, such as using the same mechanisms of play for hunting. o Possibly used to develop motor skills like learning how to use your trunk, or just using techniques you will use later such as hunting, fighting, or grabbing food.  Social Play  Play with other inter or intra species o Between species or within species  Role reversal or self-handicapping o Submissive animal adopting dominant role  Sometimes the submissive animal will switch roles with the dominant animal to play. I.e. submissive= dominant for play, and dominant=submissive for play.  Ex. Polar bear and dog video shown in class  Social Morality:  Play in many cases are very similar to fighting, except you don’t bite down or try to hurt. There has to be signs for when one is ready to play, or fight.  Playing has rules: o Don’t bite too hard, o Don’t try to hurt the person o Let go when signs of pain  Picture A below Is of dogs fighting (signs may be baring teeth, body language rigid), Picture B is of dogs playing (signs may be body relaxed, butt in air or on ground rolling, tongue out?) 7 o Benefits of Play:  Possibility of learning how to fight by play fighting.  Possibility of learning surrounding environment  Social cooperation  Hiding and finding objects (food) for heightened senses of location understanding? o Proximate Causes of Play  Hormones  Testosterone  Neurobiology  Neurotransmitters - dopamine  Synaptogenesis  Neurobiology of play: o Increased neurogenesis in young animals o Dopamine plays a role in play fighting in rats  Creativity and play  Play face in Gorillas  Relaxed open mouth facial display  Mouth is open, but teeth is covered  Animal Personality: o Personality is:  Enduring inner characteristics of individuals that organize their behavior  Stable coherent individual differences o Temperament  The characteristic emotional tone of ‘tempo’ of the individual, assumed to be biologically based and emerge in infancy and early childhood 8 o There are different kinds of personality:  Boldness and Shyness  Bold individuals are more willing to take risks in novel situations, while shy individuals are more likely to react to novel situations with avoidance or fear o Ex. Color boldness and attractiveness matters.  Coping styles  A set of behavioral and physiological stress responses which is consistent over time and which is characteristic to a certain group of animals. 9  Active response o Proactive – territorial control and aggression o Reactive –immobility and low aggression  Examples of coping skills: o Defensive burying o Animals are more apt to follow a preferred routine in proactive and reactive responses.  Behavioral Syndromes  Behavioral Syndromes: suites of correlated behaviors (Sih et al, 2005)  EX: Extraversion o Sensation seeking, active, assertive, lively, etc…  Why study behavioral syndromes? o To understand the nature, origin and consequences of individual differences in behavior. 10 o To discover if animals have consistent individual differences in behavior that can be likened to human personalities?  Types of Syndromes: o Activity o Boldness---Propensity to take risks in novel situations o Fearfulness---Reaction to potentially threatening situations o Proactive/Reactive----Patterns of response to stressful situations  Practical uses of animal personality research:  Predators and domestic prey  Reintroduction of animals  Guide Dog Personalities  Therapy Animals  Domesticated Animals: o Dogs:  Wide range of sizes and appearance from selective breeding  Evolution:  Dogs descended from wolves.  Domesticated about 14,000 BP.  Puppy found buried with human in Israel, 12,000 BP.  Evidence indicates dogs came to America with earliest settlers, 8 - 9,000 BP.  People domesticated wolves.-- NOT!!  Wolves domesticated themselves.  Another form of dog domestication is that work with foxes.  Why dogs?  Dogs allow us into their social group  Dogs look at our faces o Cats:  Breeds far more similar than dogs.  40 breeds listed by Cat Fanciers Association.  Egyptians kept tame wildcats 9500 BP.  Domesticated from the African wildcat (Felis sylvestris lybica).  Most likely because of their use in keeping rodents from grain.  Pets  Not much else.  Cats talk to us.  Cats only meow at people.  Cats have different purrs.  Social Behavior o Social Systems- The practice of individuals working toward a common goal to benefit group members  Sometimes despite potential costs to the individual. 11 o Costs and Benefits: o Why live in groups?  Anti-Predator  Vigilance  Protection against predators  Group defense—ex. Mobbing  Foraging Success  Increased information about food sources  More adapt to finding more food by watching or following others.  Territoriality  Increased capacity to deal with physical environment o Dominance o Delusion effect—selfish herd  Individual risk of being attacked decreases o Alarm calls o Altruism  Altruism- A donor permanently loses opportunities to produce offspring of its own as a result of helping another individual.  Only seems to exist when an animal is helping kin. 12 o Hamilton’s rule  Hamilton's rule, kin selection causes genes to increase in frequency when the genetic relatedness of a recipient to an actor multiplied by the benefit to the recipient is greater than the reproductive cost to the actor. o Eusociality  3 Characteristics  Reproductive division of labor.  Cooperation in the care of young.  At least 2 generations capable of sharing in the colony’s labor.  colony living animals with a sterile worker castes,  overlapping generations of family members and  cooperative care of young  - all but one species are insects, extremely successful  - formation of “superorganism”, group of organisms that behave as one organism – for good of colony  - arises through the superiority of organized groups  **group selection**  - self interest/nepotism are damaging to group and  therefore damaging to self as dependent group member  - Gene remains the unit of selection while target of  selection can be individual, nepotistic groups or colonies  - High degree of relatedness is not necessary for  eusociality to develop but is correlated with eusociality  -both group selection and kin selection shape the group  dynamics  - group selection must become powerful enough to out-  weigh the benefits of individual goals o Social Queuing  Cognition: o The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. o Epistemology - a branch of philosophy that investigates the origin, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge. o Intelligence - The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge to adapt to new situations. o Consciousness – the perception of one’s own mental states. o Morgan’s Cannon:  “In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher psychical faculty, if it can be interpreted as the outcome of the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale.”  Shuttleworth’s explanation=Simplest explanation  Associative learning 13  given a mirror, most animal’s first reactions is to attack it, thinking it is another animal.  Eventually, chimps begin to understand that looking into a mirror is their own selves. They tend to have a concept of their own bodily selves.  In humans—by the age of two, more than half of two year olds can recognize themselves in the mirror.  Encephalization Quotient= Brain to body ratio of an animal  Griffin: o The question of animal awareness o Cognitive ethology.  Memory in animals: o is hard to study because they are not verbal. o The act of remembering is a matter of stimulus control. o At one time the animal is shown a certain stimulus and is then required to identify that stimulus at a later time in order to receive a reinforcer. o This is called delayed matching-to-sample. o Delayed Matching-to- sample for Pigeons:  To earn food, the pigeon must select the correct alternative by remembering which stimulus it was shown before the delay. o Directed Forgeting:  occurs when you have been told to forget something  Example:  Your math professor makes a mistake in a calculation and tells you to forget what he just wrote on the board. 14  As a result, you do indeed have poorer memory for that material than you would have had without the instruction to forget. o Why study memory in animals?  Animals have evolved a staggering capacity for remembering events.  Their memory can only be demonstrated in an environment that closely resembles their natural environment.  Discrimination:  Pigeons have learned to discriminate:  Pictures of trees  Pictures of people  Artistic styles  And memorize thousands of pictures.  Asking animals to count  Ex. Chimps demonstration video in class. o Language:  Whether written, spoken, or symbolic, we use it to communicate everything—meaning, motives, feelings, and beliefs.  Many animal species have evolved complex communication systems of their own.  Example:  Alarm calling of the vervet monkeys.  Explaining language development through operant conditioning:  Operant Learning: Skinner (1957, 1985) believed that language development may be explained on the basis of learning principles such as association, imitation, and reinforcement.  Explaining language development through Language acquisition device (LAD):  Inborn Universal Grammar: Chomsky (1959, 1987) opposed Skinner’s ideas and suggested that the rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most of it is inborn.  Can animals really talk?  Research has focused on teaching great apes to talk to us.  The first researchers tried to train chimps to speak by raising infant chimps in a home environment (cross- fostering).  Even though the chimpanzees thrived in the home environment, they never learned to talk.  “Speaking” is not something that chimps do naturally.  Viki had to tortuously manipulate her mouth with her hand.  Example: 15 o Chimpanzees/ other monkeys learning sign language (chantex from UTC campus) o Chimps lacked the vocal apparatus to produce comprehensible speech. o The next approach was to teach chimpanzees gestures. o Experimenters conducted cross-fostering studies on chimps’ ability to learn ASL. o Food rewards seemed to focus the chimps on producing the signs rather than on communicating with the researchers spontaneously. o They were capable of reference, but it is unclear if they exhibited grammar, productivity, and situational freedom.  Truth on whether monkeys can really talk: o Apes acquire their limited vocabularies with a great deal of difficulty, unlike children who develop vocabularies at amazing rates. o Chimpanzees can make signs to receive a reward, just as a pigeon who pecks at the key receives a reward. However, pigeons have not learned a language. o Chimpanzees use signs meaningfully but lack human syntax. o Presented with ambiguous information, people tend to see what they want to see (perceptual set). o Artificial Language Experiments:  The next series of experiments were conducted in laboratory situations, using visual symbols.  The chimps that learned Yerkish could respond to questions and ask for objects.  The chimps mastered reference but is it unclear if they could use grammar.  The chimps did not have much to talk about except obtaining food. o Language training for other animals:  Parrots, gorillas and dolphins have relatively complex brains and are social animals.  Researchers have been training dolphins to use a symbolic language.  They have learned a vocabulary of symbols—ball, pipe, surfboard, spit, fetch, bottom, and so on—that refer to objects and actions.  California sea lions have also learned symbolic gestures and can respond accurately to three-word sentences.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.