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Social Psychology Final (Exam 4) Study Guide

by: AmberNicole

Social Psychology Final (Exam 4) Study Guide PSYCH 221

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Those notes are composed of both Dr. Thornton's lectures and everything in the book that I found to be useful in understanding the material. Hope this helps and feel free to contact me with any que...
Intro to Social Psychology
Study Guide
Psychology, social, Aggression, punishment, catharsis, displacement, Excitation, transfer, Media, violence, frustration-aggression, hypothesis, weapons, learning, Theory, stereotype, Prejudice, discrimination, categorization, ingroup, outgroup, bias, homogeneity, Comparison, sca
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by AmberNicole on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 221 at East Carolina University taught by Thornton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 175 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 04/20/16
Definitions Key Concepts Examples Important Stats Important People Exam 4 Social Psychology Study Guide Aggression  Aggression results from a decipherable pattern of interactions between the person and the situation o 1. Aggression is behavior  Not the same as anger  A person can feel angry and not act on those feelings, or act aggressively without being angry o 2. The behavior is intended, or purposeful  If the harm were truly unintended, this would not qualify as aggression o 3. The behavior is aimed at hurting another person  Assertiveness  Behavior intended to express dominance or confidence  Real aggression: Malicious intent  Playful aggression: Play fighting  Teacher/Learner Paradigm: “Buss aggression machine”: have individuals primed to be aggressive or not. Bring individuals into lab and had them play games and messed them up and insulted them during the game to piss them off and make them aggressive. Found that frustration leads to aggression. Insults and priming leads to aggression  Frustration Aggression o Somebody in your face will increase the amount of aggression  Any goal blocking that occurs will have aggression as an automatic response o Reformulated: find unpleasant feelings have to be there o Must have a correlation physiological response to a specific goal that causes aggression. o Reformulated theory states that it will be emotional aggression when we have negative emotions towards a blocking goal   Indirect aggression: Involves an attempt to hurt another person without obvious face-to-face conflict o Example: gossip  Direct Hostile aggression: Behavior aimed at hurting someone to his or her face o Physical: Striking, kicking or shoving (typically men) o Verbal: Insulting or threatening another person (typically women) o Direct emotional example: An angry driver starts a fistfight with another driver who was tailgating him  Emotional Aggression: Hurtful behavior that stems from angry feelings  Instrumental aggression: Hurting another person to accomplish some other goal o Direct Instrumental example: A bank robber shoots a guard who attempts to thwart the robbery o Indirect instrumental example: A woman interested in dating a man ask her sister to tell the man a vicious rumor about his current girlfriend’s infidelity  Women are more aggressive in some circumstances  Some researchers have noted that many sex-role stereotypes have changed since the 1960’s and speculate that traditional gender differences in aggression have started disappearing as a consequence  Men are more aggressive with physical assault or murder  Girls are more likely than boys to use indirect aggression such as hurting others through gossiping, spreading vicious rumors, and social rejection  Aggressive behavior may serve a wide range of motivations, including the desire to influence other people, to gain power and dominance over others, to create an impression of toughness, to gain money or social approval, or simply to discharge negative feelings  Sigmund Freud suggested that aggressive behavior may serve as a goal in itself  Life instincts: Selfish drives that contributed to the individual’s survival and reproduction  Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection o “Aggressive instinct” could have evolved through natural selection, to the extent that aggression pays off for survival or reproduction  Konrad Lorenz (1966) proposed that humans, like other animals, have an innate urge to attack o Like hunger or sexual desire, these aggressive urges will build up over time until they are discharged o Animals need to release aggressive energy in some way  Displacement: When the energy is expressed indirectly, as when a bird preens its feathers during a face-to-face conflict with another bird  Catharsis: Refers to the discharge of pent-up emotion – aggressive energy in this case o The idea that aggressive impulses build up inside the individual and need to be released is a key component of a social psychological theory o Contrary to the catharsis hypothesis, however, actually acting aggressively tends to increase rather than decrease later violent behavior  Watching violence in TV and movies increases the violence in viewers  Theory of the death instinct: Inherent tendency to be aggressive, it is different in presuming interaction between that drive and events in the environment  Animals (including humans) will not be inclined to act aggressively unless the drive is triggered by something outside (such as a threat, an attack, or a frustration)  Modern evolutionary analysis: Humans are not “programmed” to be blindly aggressive  Aggression always bears the risk of retaliation and could result in injury or death, pure hostility with no immediate, useful goal would probably hurt an animal’s chance to survive and reproduce  Frustration-aggression hypothesis o The theory that aggression is an automatic response to any block of goal-directed behavior o Whenever you see someone acting aggressively, you can assume the person was previously frustrated o Whenever someone is frustrated, some act of aggression will surely follow  Some aggressive acts, particularly those we would categorize as instrumental, don’t seem to follow any particular frustration  Frustration doesn’t always lead to aggression  Leonard Berkowitz: Reformulated frustration-aggression hypothesis o Frustration is linked only to emotional (or anger-driven) aggression, not to instrumental aggression o Frustration leads to aggression only when it generates negative feelings o Any event that leads to unpleasant feelings, including pain, heat, or psychological discomfort, can lead to aggression  General Arousal (Berkowitz, 1989): Modified frustration- aggression hypothesis assumed that aggression can be fueled by any form of unpleasant arousal, whether or not it results from frustration  Excitation-transfer theory: The emotional reaction of anger produces the same symptoms that one feels during any arousing emotional state, including increased heart rate, sweaty palms, and elevated blood pressure  Type A behavior pattern: Group of personality characteristics, including time urgency and competitiveness, that is associated with higher risk for coronary disease o Because of their competitiveness, type As tend to work harder and to raise higher in their professions. However, hostility can oftentimes get in the way of their careers  Unpleasant Situations o Pain: Shown with individuals administering shocks to another o Sweltering heat: Violent behaviors of all sorts are more likely during hot weather o Poverty (Carl Hovland and Robert Sears, 1940):Discovered negative correlation on the lower the price (meaning worse times for the agricultural economy), the higher the number of lynchings  Relative deprivation: Feeling that I have less than the other people to whom I compare myself  The odds of violence were fully six times higher among those who had lost their jobs during the intervening months, even among people who had no history of violent behavior  Cognitive-neoassociation theory o An unpleasant situation triggers a complex chain of internal events o Envisions our memories as stored in interconnected networks of associated ideas, images, and feelings o When one negative feeling or thought occurs, it activates a host of related negative memories, feelings, and behaviors o Whether a negative chain of associations leads to aggressive behavior or to flight depends again on factors in the person that interact with factors in the situation o Other research suggests that we are more likely to displace our hostility from one person onto another when the second person provides any kind of triggering excuse to unleash the hostility, or when the second person resembles the first one in some way  Weapons effect o Refers to the tendency for weapons, such as guns, to enhance aggressive thoughts and feelings o The presence of guns did not increase aggression if the person wasn’t annoyed to begin with. In fact, non-angered subjects in the presence of weapons delivered very few shocks, and the shock were very brief. But everything changed when the subjects were annoyed; now the presence of guns increased both the length and the number of shocks given. o In line with his cognitive neo-association theory, Berkowitz believes that the mere presence of guns increases aggressiveness by “priming” aggressive associations. When the person is already angry, these associations increase the likelihood of retaliation  People choose situations that match their personal characteristics o People who are prone to act aggressively may create life experiences that add to their own frustrations  Social learning theory model o Aggressive behavior is caused by rewards for aggression o Rewards for aggression can come directly o Rewards can also come indirectly  Observing others rewarded for aggression  Ex: watching movies and TV  Children learn that violence is an acceptable way of handling conflicts with others o Children come to imitate such depictions of violent behavior o Ex: Bobo- doll: Inflatable, life-size clown with a red nose that honks when a child punches it in the face  If the children observed the aggressive person receiving a reward, they were likely to spontaneously imitate the aggressive behavior later  They didn’t do so if they’d watched the model being punished o Person need not be particularly angry or upset to engage in reward-motivated aggressive behavior  Social learning theory is particularly applicable to instrumental aggression  Psychopathy o Psychopath: Individual characterized by a lack of empathy for other, grandiose self-worth, and an insensitivity to punishment o Psychopathy is also called antisocial personality disorder or sociopaths o Psychopaths’ indifference to the pain of others is accomplished by impulsiveness and a tendency to deny responsibility for their own misdeeds o Violence perpetrated by psychopaths is cool and calculated for personal reward o Psychopaths’ failure to learn from punishment may be linked to neurological deficits in the amygdala and orbital frontal cortex  Empathy o Seem to make aggressive behavior unrewarding o Highly empathic people put themselves “in the other person’s shoes” and tend to get consumed with guilt over hurting another o Lack of empathy will feel less compunction about hurting others in the course of committing other crimes, such as robbery  Alcohol Intoxication o Alcohol may temporarily turn off those normal empathic feelings o The purer the alcohol (moonshine) will give the most aggression out of all alcohol o Congeners: waste product of the purer alcohol (in darker alcohol) and this is what causes hangovers. (Same with red wine vs white wine) o Alcoholics tend to use light (clear) alcohol because less hangovers and less odor to it, however, this will lead to increased aggression. o Alcohol lowers inhibition to more base tendencies (we are aggressive animals who want power and control) o o One effect of alcohol is to remove the normal restraints against aggressive behavior- the concerns about the punishing negative consequences that will follow from hurting another o Alcohol leads them to rate a stranger as more hostile o Alcohol myopia: A narrow focus of attention of whatever seems most important to the person at that moment  Sexually aroused man may become narrowly focused on his own sexual gratification and ignore or misinterpret his date’s efforts to resist his advances  Meta-analysis: Statistical technique for discovering commonalities across a number of different studies o Meta-analyses suggest that the correlation between watching violent television and later aggression is about . 30 – as strong as the relationship between smoking and cancer o Conclusions from meta-analyses of media and aggression support Bandura’s social learning theory of aggression o If people are exposed to models who act aggressively and get rewarded, they will learn to imitate the aggressive behavior of those models  Aggressive films makes people more violent, but it is violence- prone people who whose to expose themselves to the aggression in the first place  Testosterone is linked to both aggressiveness and social dominance o Both males and females produce testosterone, and it may affect both sexes in similar ways but adult males produce about 7 times as much testosterone as do females o Married men, particularly those who are committed to their wives or have children, have lower testosterone levels than unmarried men  Culture of honor: Set of norms saying the central idea is that people (particularly men) should be ready to use violence to defend their honor  From the perspective of sexual selection theory, the male tendency to struggle for dominance is itself only a path to a more important goal – successful reproduction o This suggests that male status-linked aggressiveness will appear only in those circumstances when less dangerous paths to social status are blocked o Status-driven aggression should also be enhanced when females are hard to come by but reduced when a man has seceded in the goal of attracting a mate  Self-defender: React to other persons as sources of physical danger  Two features of the person might contribute to a tendency toward self-defensive aggression: attribution style and strength o 1. Tendency to be overly emotional o 2. A tendency to believe that others are threatening them  Defensive attribution style: A tendency to notice threats and to interpret other children’s behavior as intentionally meant to harm them  Because of their physical size, women are more likely to be on the receiving end of bullying in their relationships with males o More than 40% of women had been physically abused by a husband or boyfriend at some time in their lives, and almost half that number were currently in an abusive relationship  Effect/danger ration o The person’s assessment of the likely beneficial effect of aggressiveness, balanced against the likely dangers o Killing an abusive man may seem less dangerous than a milder counterattack, which might just provoke more violence on his part  Teenagers are 2.5 times more likely to be victims of violent crime than are people over 20 years of age  Among African American male adolescents, homicide is the most common cause of death  When women could act aggressively without being identifies, the gender difference disappeared  Children who view the world in hostile terms are likely to strike out first  Child’s preemptive strike is likely to elicit retaliation o In this case, a belief becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy  The child who views the world as more aggressive actually acts to create a world that is more aggressive  As arousal goes up, thought processes are more selective and self-concerned, and the behaviors are more unyielding and hostile  Cognition stages o Stage 1: Judgment is balanced o Stage 2: Judgment begins to tip toward increased self- concern and lower empathy for the other’s position o Stage 3: Judgment becomes highly biased – excessive self- concern and illusions of invulnerability  Affect (excitation) stages o Stage 1: Physiological arousal is low to moderate o Stage 2: Arousal is in the moderate range o Stage 3: Arousal is high  Behavior stages o Stage 1: Cautious o Stage 2: Unyielding and hostile o Stage 3: Impulsive, explosive, irresponsible, reckless, violent  Punishment may not always be effective in training people to be nonaggressive o Punishing children often increases their feelings of anger and frustration, and physical punishment may teach a child that it’s all right to be aggressive when in a position of power o One approach to prevention of aggression is simply to curfew young troublemakers, thereby keeping them off the streets at night – when violent altercations are most likely and increasing gun control Chapter 11: Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination  Prejudice and its implications are universal o Nearly all of us hold at least a few negative prejudices and stereotypes, and these feelings and beliefs often lead us to discriminate against others  Most types of group-based discrimination now illegal, but fewer people are likely to express the simple, old-fashioned views that women are genetically less intelligent than men  People’s more modern reactions toward other groups tend to be more complex than in previous decades  The movement away from old-fashioned views reflects an authentic shift toward tolerance. o It also, however, reflects contemporary societal norms that frown on expressions of bigotry. o As a result, people are less likely to present themselves as prejudiced, particularly to strangers  Old fashioned racism o Black people are generally not as smart as whites o It’s a bad idea for blacks and whites to marry one another  Modern Racism o Discrimination against blacks is no longer a problem in the US  Old fashioned sexism o Women are not as capable of thinking as logically as men o It is more important to encourage boys than to encourage girls to participate in athletics  Modern sexism o Society has reached the point where women and men have equal opportunities and achievement o On average, people in our society treat husbands and wives equally  Negative prejudices differ in their intensity and quality Stereotypes  Stereotype: refer to generalized beliefs we hold about groups that reflect what we think members of a particular group are like  Not only can stereotypes be positive or negative, but people can also hold positive stereotypes for groups against whom they negatively prejudiced o Ex: People who dislike Asians may nonetheless believe them to be intelligent and well mannered  Implicit prejudices and stereotypes can only be measured indirectly, often by assessing how long it takes to make certain judgments  Implicit Association Test (IAT): One technique researchers use to indirectly assess prejudice o Those who score higher on the race IAT have a stronger implicit preferences for whites than do those who receive lower scores  Discrimination: behaviors directed toward others because of their group membership  Sexual harassment is a common form of discrimination o 80% of high school students-girls and boys- report having been sexually harassed by their peers o 50% of American women have been sexually harassed during their academic or working lives  Hostile environment harassment: creating a professional setting that is sexually offensive, intimidating, or hostile  To qualify as illegal discrimination, sexual harassment must be directed at members of only one gender  Behaviors can be harassing without qualifying as illegal  Labeling a behavior as sexual harassment often depends on who’s exhibiting the behavior, who’s targeted by the behavior, and who’s doing the labeling  Situational factors also influence interpretations of sexual harassment  Institutionalized discrimination: discrimination that has been built into the legal, political, economic, and social institutions of a culture o May be direct and hostile, as when laws prohibit certain groups of people from living uncertain neighborhoods or working in certain occupations  Prejudices, stereotypes, and discrimination refer to how we feel toward, think about, and behave in relation to members of groups  Often, negative prejudices, stereotypes, and discriminatory tendencies cluster together, forming syndromes we know as racism, sexism, anti-Semitism, heterosexism, ageism, and the like  Stereotype threat: the fear of confirming others’ negative stereotypes about one’s group-also makes it more difficult for people to perform up to their potential, especially on difficult tasks o Individuals from many groups perform beneath their potential when they fear confirming the negative stereotypes held of their groups  Self-handicapping: putting obstacles in the way of a successful performance o May provide them with excuse for performing poorly-and thereby reduce anxiety about really confirming negative stereotypes because they have increased their chances of doing poorly on something that’s important to them  Ex: After all, I didn’t even try  Misidentify: people misidentify with those arenas where society expects them to fail-to decide that the arena is no longer relevant to their self-concept and self-esteem  Minimal intergroup paradigm: groups (of overestimators and underestimators) were randomly determined, artificial, short term, and involved no contact between the members  Own groups  in group  Other groups  out group  Ingroup bias: benefiting members of their own groups over members of other groups o Group living was necessary for our ancestors’ survival o Developed norms of reciprocity to further strengthen the group bonds  Realistic group conflict theory: proposes that intergroup conflict emerges when groups find themselves competing for the same material resources  Group members may act in ways that aid their group and harm other groups  Threat-based perspective: suggests that people’s prejudices toward a group should become more prominent when they feel particularly vulnerable to the threats typically associated with that group  Social dominance orientation: describes the extent to which a person wants his or her own group to dominate and be superior to other groups o Individuals with a strong social dominance orientation prefer social systems in which groups are ordered according to their worth o They believe that superior groups (very often their own) ought to be wealthier and more powerful o In all nations, individuals having a strong social dominance demonstrated greater levels of sexism, and, in most, social dominance orientation was associated with increased prejudices  Negative prejudices and stereotypes often target the competition: People direct their hostilities toward those groups they see themselves competing with at the moment  As people view others as competitors, they themselves begin to compete, inadvertently bringing about or amplifying the competition they initially feared  self-fulfilling prophecy  Extrinsic religiosity: see religious worship as an opportunity to make friends, gain status, or find support during difficult times.  Intrinsic religiosity: hoping to live religion and internalize its teachings  Fundamentalism: characterized by a certainty in the absolute truth of one’s religious beliefs  Quest religiosity: Religion is a never-ending personal journey toward truth  Injunctive norms: tell us what we ought to do and feel  Descriptive norms: tell us what people actually do and feel  Social approval process: approval-seekers conform to apparent group norms especially when these actions will be seen by potential approval-givers  Scapegoating: confronted by personal failure, we may attempt to preserve a favorable self-image by blaming others for our inadequacies o By blaming other groups for our own misfortunes and frustrations, we are better able to deal with our self-doubts and to feel good about ourselves o By linking ourselves to successful others and distancing ourselves from unsuccessful other-by basking in the reflected glory and by cutting off reflected failure- we can boost our self-images  Social identity: our opinions of, and feelings about, the social groups with which we identify  Downward social comparison: seeing your group as better than “them”- you can create a positive social identity, which in turn can increase your sense of self-worth o Ex: Well I’m better off than he is…  Authoritarianism: The tendency to submit to those having greater authority and to denigrate those having less authority  Authoritarian personality: such individuals readily submit to authorities but are aggressive against those perceived to be lower on the social ladder o They easily adopt and conform to society’s conventions and rules o Parents create the authoritarian personality by severely punishing and shaming their young children for even small transgression. As a result, the children feel hostile toward their parents and other authority figures o Do not express or acknowledge their hostility because  1. It may bring even more punishment  2. It may create a powerful internal conflict between hating their punitive parents and believing that they ought instead to love and respect them o Adolescents simply learn to be authoritarian by observing their authoritarian parents  Highly accurate stereotypes-those that fully reflect the complexity of real social groups-would be too complex to save us much time or effort. As a result, stereotypes tend to exaggerate the reality a bit by “sharpening” –exaggerating- the differences between groups and “softening” – reducing the differences within groups o This “softening” process leads people to see members of other groups as being overly homogenous, or similar to each other  “They all look the same to me” phenomenon is one form of this perceived outgroup homogeneity effect: the tendency to overestimate the extent to which members of other groups are similar to one another  Emotions that are arousing- like anger, fear, and euphoria – reduce the amount of cognitive resources available to us, limiting our ability to think about others thoroughly and thereby making stereotyping more likely  Moods and emotions also influence which social categories people use to understand others o Both positive and negative moods can be problematic if one wants to avoid stereotyping others or evaluating them negatively o In negative moods are more motivated to go beyond there stereotypes to understand others, they tend to think about others in less favorable ways. o Those in positive moods view others more favorably, but they are also more likely to be cognitively lazy and to use their stereotypes o When highly aroused, either positively or negatively, people may not have the cognitive resources to go far beyond their stereotypes  Certain situations limit the amount of attention we have available for forming impressions of others, thereby increasing our reliance on simple, efficient thought processes such as stereotyping  More likely to stereotype in situations that are complex and have many things going on  Virulent views: views inconsistent with their egalitarian self- images  Ignorance hypothesis: If people only learned what members of other groups are truly like, they wouldn’t stereotype, be prejudices, or discriminate against them. o This perspective suggests that after simply putting individuals from different groups together or simply teaching them what members of other groups are really like, they would discard their stereotypes and prejudices  By assuming, then, that prejudices and conflict emerge from a straightforward logical assessment of outgorup characteristics and that people actually want to rid themselves of erroneous stereotypes, the ignorance hypothesis fails to appreciate that stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination serve important needs  A goal-based strategy for reducing prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination, in contrast, may be more effective. This approach incorporates two established points: First, prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination serve important goals for people. Second, specific features of the person and situation bring these goals into prominence  The goal-based approach suggests four broad intervention strategies: change the person, change the situation, provide the person with an alternative way to satisfy his or her goal, or change the goal  When we cooperate with others, we are more likely to include them in our sense of “we” – to see them as part of us o People sometimes expand their sense of “we” to include many others, and they sometimes contract it to include just a few Chapter 12: Groups  People are “group beings” who are born into families, play with friends, learn with fellow students, cheer with strangers at sporting events, toil with coworkers to earn a living, and joining forces with their comrades against common enemies: we live in groups  Group: consists of two or more individuals who influence each other  Groupings: mere collections of individuals  Children performed faster in the presence of others than when working alone  Competitive instinct is aroused by other people  Performance can improve even when other people are not competitors and even when they just happen to be milling nearby  Being around other people is physiologically arousing; their presence increases our heart rate, quickens our breathing, etc  People who are aroused are more likely to exhibit dominant response-familiar well-learned behaviors  Putting these together, the mere presence of others, by simply arousing us, should lead us to exhibit dominant responses  Social facilitation: the presence of others indeed improves performance on well-mastered, simple tasks and hinders performance on un-mastered, complex tasks  Evaluation apprehension: when people believe that observers are explicitly assessing their performances, they become increasingly aroused, and this arousal further facilitates their dominant responses  The distracting nature of people, and our tendency to believe that others are often evaluating us, together increase our arousal and thus facilitate our dominant responses  Deindividuation: In groups, people may lose their senses of individual identity and, as a result, relax their inhibitions against behaving in ways inconsistent with their normal values  Behavior of the first group member had a large influence on the behaviors of those who followed: If the first child stole, the others were more likely to steal; if the first child took just the single allowed candy, the others followed this more positive example  Dynamical systems: systems that possess many interconnected elements and that change and evolve over time- but also have discovered something quite unexpected: Order often emerges out of apparent chaos  Real groups: likely to have members who are interdependent and share a common identity, and they are also likely to have a stable structure  Members of real groups tend to be interdependent: They need each other to reach their shared goals o Interdependent: They need to work with one another each day to increase the likelihood that their party’s policies become law  Group identity: whether you all perceive yourselves to be a group  Injunctive norms: shared expectations for how group members ought to behave if they wish to receive social approval and avoid disapproval  Status hierarchy: members are ranked in terms of their social power and the influence they have over other members  Communication network: through which information flows to its members  Highly centralized networks, information tends to flow from one member (usually the leader) to all other members simultaneously  Decentralized networks: information passes among members without having to go through one particular person  Cohesiveness: strength of the bonds among group members  Committed to the group’s task: task cohesiveness  Interpersonally cohesive teams sometimes have difficulty staying focused on their tasks and are more susceptible to certain decision-making errors  Stable groups are often structured by injunctive norms, roles, status hierarchies, stable communication networks, and cohesiveness  Structure, interdependence, and a common group identity distinguish real groups from groupings-collections of individuals who merely influence one another  Group performance is potentially more effective than individual performance for two reasons. o 1.many hands make light work: in groups, individuals can share common burdens. o 2. people in groups can divide their labor: with multiple people on the job, different people can perform different tasks.  Social loafing: They decrease their personal efforts as their groups grow larger o Make each group member’s contributions identifiable  When other group members can evaluate our contributions, we are less likely to loaf, because we generally don’t want to view ourselves-or to be viewed by others- as slackers  Transactive memory: knowledge located within the minds of its individual members and ways to spread it through communication o Because a Transactive memory provides such rich information, group decisions can be more accurate than individual decisions  Group polarization: After discussing an issue, the average judgment of group members tends to become more extreme than it was prior to the discussion  Minority influence: opinion minorities are generally less able to exert social pressures on others  Opinions expressed by larger numbers of people gain credibility and validity o Opinion minorities are most persuasive when  They hold steadily to their views  They once held the majority position  They’re willing to compromise a bit  They have at least some support from others  They present their views as compatible with the majority view but just a bit “ahead of the curve”  The audience wants to make an accurate decisions  This is when the audience will pay closest attention to the quality of arguments the two sides present  Leniency bias: a greater willingness to acquit defendants than to convict them  Groupthink: a style of making group decisions driven more by members; desires to get along than by their desires to evaluate potential solutions realistically  As groups grow in size, groups tend to become unwieldy and disorganized o To combat this, groups select individuals to lead-to coordinate the group’s multiple tasks, to channel relevant information appropriately, to inspire members to achieve the group’s goals, and so on o Leadership provides power and status, enables goal achievement, and is a sign of accomplishment o The need for power is the desire to attain prestige, status, and influence over others  Achievement motivation: desire to do something exceptionally well for its own sake


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