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Exam 2 Study Guide

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Exam 2 Study Guide psych 250

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This is the study guide for the second exam.
Developmental Psychology
Andre Khen
Study Guide
developmental, Psychology
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by kpatt29 on Wednesday April 20, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to psych 250 at University of North Dakota taught by Andre Khen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Dakota.


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Date Created: 04/20/16
Psychology Study Guide | Exam 2 1 I. Chapter 1 — The Life-Span Perspective A. nature — traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception B. nurture — environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived C. development is… 1. multidirectional — several directions (stable or erratic), physical, social, and/or intellectual growth 2. multi contextual — historical, socioeconomic values, customs, and assumptions a) developing person: age, sex, health, abilities, temperament b) microsystem: immediate, direct influences Bronfenbrenner c) mesosystem: interaction of the systems Ecological Model d) ecosystem: educational system, community structures, medical institutions, transportation systems, shopping centers, mass media, religious values e) macrosystem: cultural patterns, political philosophies, economic policies, social conditions f) chronosystem: dimension of time, changing conditions, personal and societal, over the life span 3. multidisciplinary — influence from different disciplines a) examples: history, education, religion, biology D. scientific method 1. steps: a) curiosity and pose a question b) develop a hypothesis — proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence c) test the hypothesis d) draw conclusions e) report the results E. correlation — exists between two variable if one variable is more or less likely to occur when the other does 1. issues with correlational designs: some may believe that correlation = causation, but that is false; just because something has a correlation, does NOT mean that one variable caused the other II. Chapter 2 — Theories of Development A. Piaget’s Theory 1. children are seen as “active scientists” because they learn many important lessons on their own and are motivated to learn 2. assimilation — experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas 3. accommodation — old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences 4. cognitive equilibrium — state of mental balance, no confusion, new ideas through past ideas interpreted, needed for intellectual advancement 5. Piaget’s stages: a) sensorimotor — birth to 2 years; use senses and motor abilities to understand the world b) pre operational — 2 to 6 years; children are egocentric c) concrete operational — 6 to 11 years; children understand and apply logic, thinking limited by direct experience d) formal operational — 12 years through adulthood; use abstract and hypothetical concepts, use analysis and emotion B. information-processing theory — perspective that compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output; child viewed as a computer system C. sociocultural theory — thoughts and human development results from the dynamic interaction between developing persons and their surrounding society, focuses on culture as integral to a person’s development D. zone of proximal development — skills, knowledge, and concepts that learner is close to acquiring, but cannot master without help E. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: top 1. self-actualization: becoming your unique and wonderful self 2. esteem: being respected, successful, and admired 3. love and belonging: being loved and appreciated as a partner, family member, and part of a group 4. safe and secure: being protected and defended bottom 5. physiological: basic survival need for food, drink, and shelter F. evolutionary theory — integrates explanations for many issues in human development, suggests humans have two long-standing, biologically based drives: survival and reproduction, proposes concept of selective adaptations, suggests genetic variations are beneficial when environment changes and benefits humanity as a whole Psychology Study Guide | Exam 2 2 G. most developmentalists take the eclectic perspective — occurs when aspects of each of the various theories of development are selectively applied, rather than adhering exclusively to one theory, no bias, open-mindedness III. Chapter 3 — Heredity and the Environment A. genotype / phenotype model: 1genotype parent genotype child 2. a 3. a 4. a phenotype parent phenotype child 5. a environment child B. sex of a child is determined by the male C. additive genes — add something to some aspect of the phenotype; effects of additive genes add up to make phenotype D. alleles — variation of a gene or any of the possible forms in which a gene for a particular trait can occur E. Mendelian inheritance pattern example: if both parents are brown haired, brown eyed, but carry the recessive trait of blonde hair, blue eyes, they have the ability to produce a blonde haired, blue eyed child F. polygenic — trait that is influenced by many genes; height, skin color, etc. G. phenylketonuria (PKU) — recessive condition, children are unable to metabolize phenylalanine; buildup of this amino acid causes brain damage, progressive mental retardation (need a phenylalanine free diet) H. epigenetic — arising from non genetic influences on gene expression; cancer, schizophrenia, and autism I. twins: 1. monozygotic — one zygote that splits apart very early in development; same genotype, but slight variations in phenotype (due to environment); IDENTICAL 2. dizygotic — fertilization of two separate ova by two separate sperm; 50% of genetic material; twice as likely as monozygotic; FRATERNAL J. limitations of heritability: does not show the extent to which a trait is genetic, does not indicate the proportion of an individual’s phenotype that is genetic, is not a fixed characteristic of a species, and is only relevant to a particular population or environment K. down syndrome — trisomy-21; person has 3 copies of chromosome 21; involves around 300 distinct characteristics from third chromosome IV. Chapter 4 — Prenatal Development A. phases of pregnancy: 1. germinal — first two weeks of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation 2. embryonic — stage of prenatal development from approximately the third through the eighth week after conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs, develop 3. fetal — stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conception until birth, during which the fetus gains about 7 pounds and organ become more mature, gradually able to function on their own B. measures of fetal behavior: 1. spontaneous movement (9 weeks to birth) 2. fetal heart rate (FHR): 110—180 bpm, variability, natural acceleration and deceleration, correlation to movement 3. breathing begins around 10 weeks 4. habituation: being bored after seeing same stimulus over and over again, can differentiate new and old stimulus C. cognitive tests: 1. reduction in FHR implies attention to new stimulus; using habituation paradigms can test sound discrimination 2. memory for sounds heard prenatally has been assessed postnatally using nonnutritive sucking paradigms (prefer similar stimuli) D. teratogens: 1. prenatal — any agent or condition, including viruses and drugs, resulting in birth defects or complications 2. behavioral — agents or conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child’s intellectual and emotional functioning 3. negative consequences: a) cigarettes causes retarded growth, low birth weight, SIDS Psychology Study Guide | Exam 2 3 b) alcohol causes FASD, mental retardation, facial deformity c) marijuana affects memory, learning, and visual skills after birth d) cocaine affects cognitive and social skills E. dose-response relation — how much you take in and the affects of the dosage F. birth weights: 1. low birthweight (LBW): less than 5.5 pounds (2,500 grams) 2. very low birthweight (VLBW): less than 3 pounds (1,500 grams) 3. extremely low birthweight (ELBW): less than 2 pounds (1,000 grams) V. Chapter 5 — The First Two Years: Biosocial Development A. body size change: birthweight doubles by month four and triples by first year B. percentile — point on a ranking scale of 0 to 100 (example: if you are in the 5th percentile for height, 95% of babies your age are taller than you at this time) C. head sparing — biological mechanism that protects the brain when malnutrition disrupts body growth, brain is last part of body to be damaged by malnutrition D. brain: 1. neurons — nerve cells 2. prefrontal cortex — very front of brain (anticipation, planning, and impulse control) 3. cortex — outer layers of the brain (thinking, feelings, and sensing) 4. midbrain — emotions and memory 5. synapses — intersections between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of other neurons 6. axon — fiber that extends from a neuron and transmits electrochemical impulses to the dendrites of other neurons 7. dendrite — fiber that extends from a neuron and received electrochemical impulses transmitted from other neuron via their axons 8. neurotransmitter — brain chemical that carries information form the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrites of a receiving neuron E. shaken baby syndrome — baby shaken could lead to death or life-long intellectual impairment F. states of arousal: 1. deep sleep 2. REM sleep (twice as much as adults) 3. alert inactivity 4. alert activity 5. crying G. co-sleeping 1. pros: easier response time, less parental exhaustion, more convenient for breast-feeding 2. cons: higher SID rates, ghosts in the nursery phenomenon H. perception — mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets sensation I. sensation — response of a sensory system when it detects a stimulus J. preferential looking technique — showing infants 2 objects/patterns at a time to look at preference K. age differences in visual scanning: one month old scans perimeters of shapes, two month old scans both perimeters and interiors of shapes, 2 to 3 month olds track moving objects L. own race effect — better at distinguishing faces of own race M. touch: acute in infants, respond to being securely held, prefer specific touches, pain and temperature are often connected to touch N. smell: function at birth, rapidly adapt to social world, related to family and cultural preferences, may have evolutionary function O. intermodal perception — two or more senses are present from very early in life; link sight and sound, oral and visual experience, and visual and tactile experience P. reflexes: 1. Babinski reflex: toes flex is something touches bottom of foot 2. stepping reflex: “walk” when held and on surface 3. Palmar grasping reflex: grasps anything placed in palm 4. moro reflex: placed on table, bang on table, will push arms out, then in, and cry 5. maintaining oxygen: breathing, hiccuping, sneezing 6. maintaining constant body temperature: crying, shivering 7. managing feeding: sucking, rooting, swallowing Psychology Study Guide | Exam 2 4 Q. pre reaching movements — clumsy, swimming movements by young infants toward general vicinity of objects they see; successful reaching at 3 to 4 months, clear intention of reaching and use of object at 10 months R. self-locomotion: 8 months are capable of this skill S. dynamic systems perspective — integrated system that guides development; with change, system gets more complex and effective T. motor skills — learned abilities to move some part of body; in actions ranging form large leap to flicker of eyelid 1. gross motor skills: physical abilities involving large body movements (walking, jumping) 2. fine motor skills: physical abilities involving small body movements (drawing, picking up a coin) VI. Chapter 6 — The First Two Years: Cognitive Development A. sensorimotor intelligence — way infant’s think during the first period of cognitive development B. 6 stages of sensorimotor development (Piaget): 1. birth to 1 month: sucking, grasping, staring, listening 2. 1 to 4 months: first acquired adaptations, accommodation and coordination of reflexes 3. 4 to 8 months: making interesting events last, responding to people and objects 4. 8 to 12 months: new adaptation and anticipation, becoming more deliberate and purposeful in responding to people and objects 5. 12 to 18 months: new means through active experimentation and creativity 6. 18 to 24 months: new means through mental combinations and thinking before doing, new ways of achieving a goal without resorting to trial and error C. object permanence — understanding that things continue to exist when not seen D. drawbacks of Piaget’s theory: infants reach the stages of sensorimotor intelligence earlier than Piaget expected because he used a small sample size, too simplistic of method, and could not see brain activity (MRI, brain scans, etc.) E. affordance — perception requires selectivity, provides opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by a person, place, or object in the environment F. mirror neurons — cells in an observer’s brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way they would if the observer were actually performing that action G. visual cliff research: placing an infant on a flat surface that appears to have an edge, infant will respond according to mother’s facial expressions H. implicit memory: unconscious I. explicit memory: conscious J. best to learn a second language before 10 months because by that time, infants are not able to discriminate syllables in another language K. infant directed talk — common, but not universal, characteristics include a warm and affectionate tone, high pitch, extreme intonation, slower speech, and exaggerated facial expressions; infants prefer this talk over normal talk L. developmental changes in speech perception: infant’s ability to discriminate between speech sounds in other languages declines between 6 and 12 months M. first words infants are most likely to produce: name of significant caregiver, siblings, favorite foods, and elimination (two identical syllables) N. holophrastic period — when infant uses a single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought (example: use the word “mama” to express that they want their mother’s hat) O. overextension — use one word to describe many similar things (example: using the word ball to describe not only a ball, but a balloon as well) VII. Chapter 7 — The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development A. emotional development: 1. anger (6 months): healthy response to frustration 2. sadness (first months): indicates withdrawal, accompanied by increased production of cortisol, stressful experience for infants 3. fear (9 months): people, things, or situations 4. stranger wariness (9 months): frightened of unfamiliar people B. separation anxiety — tears, dismay, or anger occur when a familiar caregiver leaves, if it remains strong after age 3, emotional disorder may occur C. toddler emotions: new emotions such as pride, shame, embarrassment, disgust, and guilt; laughing and crying become louder; self-awareness begins Psychology Study Guide | Exam 2 5 D. self awareness: infants have no sense of self, see themselves as part of their mothers (first 4 months); infants begin to develop awareness of themselves as separate from mother (5 months); emergence of me- self (15 to 18 months) E. temperament — emotions, activity, and self-regulation; epigenetic 1. New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) puts infants into easy, difficult, slow-to-warm-up, and hard-to- classify F. attachment 1. secure attachment — comfort and confidence from presence of caregiver; care when they leave 2. insecure-avoidance attachment — infant avoids connection with caregiver; does not care about caregiver’s presence 3. insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment — anxiety and uncertainty; upset at separation and resists or seeks contact 4. disorganized attachment — inconsistent results VIII. Chapter 8 — Early Childhood: Biosocial Development A. growth patterns: 1. slimmer as the lower body lengthens 2. around 2 — 6 years, well-nourished children add almost 3 inches and gain about 4 1/2 pounds in weight 3. grow from breastbone to belly button B. nutrition: 1. children have more calories per pound of body weight than infants 2. obesity more frequent than malnutrition 3. overfeeding children in low-income families are especially vulnerable to obesity 4. children in developed nations get plenty of calories C. “just right” phenomenon — only certain things, prepared and presented in a particular way; like and prefer routines D. brain: 1. myelin — fatty coating on the axons that speeds signal between neurons 2. corpus callosum — separates hemispheres of brain into left and right 3. prefrontal cortex — covers the front part of the frontal lobe, plays a major role in the regulation of complex cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning; limited in infancy, but continues to develop until early adulthood; maturation of prefrontal cortex facilitates focused attention and cubs impulsiveness 4. amygdala — tiny brain structures that regulate emotions, particularly fear and anxiety 5. hippocampus — central processor of memory, especially memory for locations 6. hypothalamus — responds to amygdala and the hippocampus E. hormonal feedback loop: 1. a 2. hippocampus amygdala 3. a positive feedback loop 4. a hypothalamus 5. a negative feedback loop 6. a CRH 7. a 8. a 9. a pituitary 10. a ACTH 11. a 12. a adrenal cortex 13. aa F. environmental hazards: 1. pollutants in air can harm young, growing brains and bodies more than older, developed ones and particular concerns for urban, low SES children and can create asthma and other respiratory problems 2. other hazards can be in food and water G. fine motor skills — more difficult than gross motor skills, involve small hand and finger movements, often involve both sides of brain, influenced by practice and maturation, matures 6 months earlier in females H. gross motor skills — large, easier body movements; walking, jumping, etc. Psychology Study Guide | Exam 2 6 I. child maltreatment: 1. more young children die from accidents than from any other specific cause 2. age related — falls, motor-vehicle, poison, fire, drowning, etc. 3. injury control — safety surfaces, car seats, bike helmets, safety containers for medications, pool monitoring, etc. 4. accident autopsy — how the accident happens 5. statistical analysis — how many times accident happens 6. levels of injury prevention: a) primary prevention — primary source of preventing accidents b) secondary prevention — how to prevent accident at that time c) territory prevention — how long it takes to help after accident occurs 7. child maltreatment — intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years 8. child abuse — deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical emotional, or sexual well-being 9. child neglect — failure to meet a child’s physical, education, or emotional needs 10. reported maltreatment — harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities 11. substantial maltreatment — harm or endangerment has been reported, investigated, and verified 12. frequency of maltreatment: a) reports of substantial maltreatment increased from 1950 to 1990, but decreased thereafter b) physical and sexual abuse declined, but neglect did not c) fewer homes with many small children, variation in level of professional scrutiny related to abuse, few children report their own abuse, and maltreatment may be under-reported may be why neglect has not declined IX. Chapter 9 — Early Childhood: Cognitive Development A. pre operational intelligence — Piaget’s term for cognitive development between the ages of about 2 — 6; included language and imagination, logical, operational thinking is not yet possible at this stage B. symbolic thought — major accomplishment of pre operational intelligence that allows a child to think symbolically, including understanding that words can refer to things not seen and that an item can symbolize something else C. egocentrism — children’s tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective D. limitations of pre operational thought is that it is egocentric and most children in this stage have difficulty understanding life from any other perspective than his or her own E. conservation — principle that the amount of substance remains the same even when its appearance changes F. limitation of Piaget’s research include his major source of inspiration for the theory was his observations of his own three children, other children were all from well-educated professionals with high SES, therefore, it is difficult to generalize his findings to a larger population G. Vygotzky’s theory: 1. each person’s thinking is shaped by other people’s wishes and goals 2. guided participation — process by which children actively acquire new skills and problem-solving capabilities through their participation in meaningful activities 3. scaffolding — temporary support that is tailored to a learner’s needs and abilities aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process 4. overimitation — when a person imitates an action that is not a relevant part of the behavior learned H. role of language according to Vygotsky: 1. language is a social concept that is developed through social interactions 2. involves not only child’s exposure to words, but also a process between thought and language I. theory of mind — person’s theory of what other people might be thinking; in order to have a theory of mind, children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are 1. false beliefs task example: putting candies in a crayon box, child knows that there are candies in the box, not crayons, child asked what his friend would believe would be in the box, child would need to say crayons in order to develop a theory of mind J. fast mapping — speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning K. code-focused teaching — designed to help students crack the ‘code of reading’ from spoken to written words; may include very basic skills such as letter sound knowledge, phonological awareness, or phonics L. book reading — vocabulary as well as familiarity with pages and print will increase when adults read to children, allowing questions and conversations Psychology Study Guide | Exam 2 7 M. parent education — when teachers and other professionals teach parents how to stimulate cognition, children become better readers N. language enhancement — within each child’s zone of proximal development, mentors can expand vocabulary and grammar, based on child’s knowledge and experience O. preschool programs — children learn rom teachers, songs, excursions, and other children P. overregularization — application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur, making the language seem more ‘regular’ than it actually is Q. child focused vs. teacher focused: 1. child focused stress natural inclination to learn through play rather than by following adult directions, and encourage self-paced exploration and artistic expression 2. teacher focused stress academic subjects taught by a teacher to an entire class, help children learn letters, numbers, shapes, and colors as well as how to listen to teachers and sit quietly, make clear distinction between work and play X. Chapter 10 — Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development A. emotion regulation — ability to control your emotions B. effortful control — cannot fully control emotions, very difficult C. Erikson’s initiative vs. guilt: 1. psychosocial crisis 2. children under take new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them 3. guilt — self-blame when people do something wrong 4. shame — people’s feeling that others blame them, disapprove of them, or are disappointed in them D. self-concept — including self-esteem, physical appearance, personality, and various personal traits; connected to parental confirmation; protective optimism = not realistic E. intrinsic motivation — drive or reason to pursue a goal, comes from inside a person (need to feel smart of competent); invent imaginary friends F. extrinsic motivation — drive or reason to pursue a goal that arises form the need to have achievements rewarded from outside (receiving material possessions or another’s esteem) G. culture and emotional control: 1. fear — United States 2. anger — Puerto Rico 3. pride — China 4. selfishness — Japan 5. impatience — Native American communities 6. defiance — Mexico 7. moodiness — Netherlands H. externalizing problems — expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outburst (more common in males) I. internalizing problems — turning one’s emotional distress inward; feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, worthless (more common in females) J. importance of play: 1. universal and timeless, most productive and enjoyable activity 2. types of play: a) solitary — child plays alone, unaware of other children nearby b) onlooker — child watches other children play c) parallel — children play with similar toys in similar ways, but separate d) associate — children interacts, observing each other and sharing material, but not mutual and reciprocal e) cooperative — children play together mutually f) rough and tumble play — no intention of hurting each other g) sociodramatic play — make believe, new social roles K. Baumrind’s parenting styles: 1. authoritarian parenting — approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment for misconduct, and little communication from child to parent 2. permissive parenting — approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication, but little discipline, guidance, or control 3. authoritative parenting — approach to child rearing which the parents set limits, but listen to the child and are flexible (parenting that is most favorable) Psychology Study Guide | Exam 2 8 4. neglectful / uninvolved parenting — approach to a child in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children’s lives L. types of aggression: 1. instrumental behavior — behavior that hurts someone else because the aggressor wants to get or keep a possession of privilege 2. reactive aggression — impulse retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidentally action, verbal or physical 3. relational aggression — nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejections, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people 4. bullying aggression — unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attacks, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves M. parental discipline: 1. corporal punishment — punishment that physically hurts the body 2. psychological control — disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on child’s feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents XI. Chapter 12 — Middle Childhood: Cognitive Development A. middle childhood occurs between ages of 6 — 11 years old B. brain development: 1. maturation supports an increasingly interconnected brain by age 7 2. complex tasks slowly mastered by prefrontal cortex such as reading, social skills, control impulses, planning for the future, and analyzing consequences 3. speed of thought increases (reaction time) 4. automaticity frees up cognitive resources, know where things are C. intelligence: 1. difficult to find consensus because changes with age 2. includes verbal ability, practical problem-solving, and social competence 3. theories: a) factor analysis — scores are combined into factors and groups b) Charles Spearman gave idea of general factor ‘g’ c) Thurston disagreed and said there are 7 unrelated, primary mental abilities 4. IQ — intelligence quotient; standardized; normal, bell-shaped curve; typical mean 100; standard deviation 15; mental age / chronological age x 100 D. Flynn Effect — substantial and long-sustained increase in both fluid and crystallized intelligence test scores measure in many parts of the world from 1930 to present day E. concrete operational stage — Piaget believes that this is when a child is capable of performing a variety of mental operations and thoughts using concrete concepts F. sensory memory — component of information-processing system in which incoming stimulus is stored for a split second to allow it to be processed G. working memory — component of information-processing system in which current conscious mental activity occurs (short term memory) H. long-term memory — component of information-processing system in which virtually limitless amount son information can be stored indefinitely I. metacognition — ability to evaluate a cognitive task in order to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one’s performance on that task; ‘thinking about thinking’ J. reading and SES: 1. children from lower SES families usually have smaller vocabularies than those form higher SES families as well as simpler grammar and shorter sentences K. international schooling: 1. trends in math and science study (TIMSS) — international assessment of the math and science skills of fourth and eighth graders; different countries’ scores are not always comparable because sample selection, test administration, and content validity are hard to keep uniform 2. progress in international reading literacy study (PIRLS) — planned five-year cycle of international trend studies of the reading ability of fourth graders Psychology Study Guide | Exam 2 9 XII. Chapter 13 — Middle Childhood: Psychosocial Development A. self concept — idea about themselves including their intelligence, personality, abilities, gender, and ethnic background B. social comparison — tendency to assess one’s abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against other people, especially one’s peers C. resilience — capacity to adapt well to significant adversity and to overcome serious stress D. function of family: 1. nuclear family — family that consists of a father, a mother, and their biological children under age 18 2. single-parent family — family that consists of only one parents and his or her biological children under age 18 3. extended family — family of three or more generations living in one household 4. polygamous family — family consisting of one man, several wives, and their children E. divorce impacts: 1. children tend to do their best in nuclear families with married parents 2. divorce impairs a children’s academic achievement and psychosocial development F. poverty impact: 1. cause and symptom of emotional and learning problems 2. more income means better family functioning G. popular vs. unpopular children: 1. aggressive-rejected — rejected by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior 2. withdrawn-rejected — rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, and anxious behavior 3. popular children are well liked H. bullying: 1. bully-victim — someone who attacks others and who is attacked as well 2. physical — hitting, pinching, shoving, kicking, etc. 3. verbal — teasing, taunting, name-calling, etc. 4. relational — destroying peer acceptance 5. cyberbullying — using electronic means to harm another 6. causes: genetic predisposition, brain abnormality, parenting environment, peers 7. consequences: impaired social understanding, lower school achievement, relationship difficulties, depression I. Kohlbergs 3 Stages: 1. pre conventional — emphasizes rewards and punishments 2. conventional — emphasizes social roles 3. post conventional — emphasizes moral principles J. current research suggests that raising moral issues and letting children talk about them may advance morality (child thinks more deeply about moral issues) XIII. Chapter 14 — 16: Adolescence A. hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis — sequence of hormone production originating in the hypothalamus and moving to the pituitary and then to the adrenal glands B. biological sequence in puberty: 1. a growth spurt 2. a adrenal glands increase in many hormones hormones, including primary sex hypothalamus pituitary gonads testosterone and characteristics 4. a estrogen 5. a 6. a secondary sex 7. a characteristics HPA and HPG axis 8. a 9. a C. hormonal changes: 1. testosterone — sex hormone, best known androgen, males produce more than females 2. estradiol — sex hormone, considered chief estrogen, females produce more than males D. sexual activity of adolescents increases as the interest in sex increases as well E. problems with sexual maturation: 1. decreased teen births in every nation, rise in use of protection, decrease in teen abortion rate, earlier puberty and weaker social taboos encourage sex at earlier age correlates with depression and drug abuse, increased complexity are related to parenting, more common and dangerous STI’s Psychology Study Guide | Exam 2 10 F. anorexia nervosa — eating disorder characterized by self-starvation; affected individuals voluntarily undercut and often overexercise, depriving their vital organs of nutrition, can be fatal G. bulimia nervosa — eating disorder characterized by binge eating and subsequent purging, usually induced vomiting and / or use of laxatives H. personal fable — aspect of adolescent egocentrism characterized by an adolescent’s belief that their thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique, more wonderful, or more awful than anyone else’s I. invincibility fable — adolescent’s egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high speed driving J. assumptions that have no necessary relation to reality is indicative of formal operational thought K. top down processing — reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out specifics (deductive) L. bottom down processing — reasoning form one or more specific experiences or facts to reach a general conclusion (inductive) M. sunk cost fallacy — mistaken believe that if money, time, or effort that cannot be recovered has already been invested in some endeavor, then more should be invested in an effort to reach the goal N. base rate neglect — common fallacy in which a person ignores the overall frequency of some behavior or characteristic in making a decision O. intuitive thought — thought that arises form an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation, and is influenced by past experiences and cultural assumptions (adolescents) P. analytical thought — thought that results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts; depends on logic and rationality (adults) Q. increased in risky decisions in adolescents when with peers rather than when alone R. entity theory of intelligence — understanding intelligence that sees ability as innate, a fixed quantity present at birth; those who hold this view do not believe that effort enhances achievement S. incremental theory of intelligence — understanding intelligence that holds that intelligence can be directly increased by effort; those who subscribe to this view believe they can master whatever they seek to learn if they pay attention, participate in class, study, complete their homework, etc. T. programmed for international student assessment (PISA) — international test taken by 15 year olds in 50 nations that is designed to measure problem solving and cognition in daily life U. Erikson’s identity vs. role confusion: 1. ‘Who am I?’ 2. confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt 3. identity achievement — attainment of indignity, point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in a chord with past experiences and future plans 4. role confusion — situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is V. Marcia’s research of how young people cope with identity crisis: 1. role confusion 2. foreclosure (premature identity formation) 3. moratorium (adolescent’s chaise of socially acceptable way to postpone making identity-achievement decisions) 4. identity achievement W. types of identities: 1. religious identity 2. political identity 3. vocational identity 4. sexual identity X. relationship with parents often gets worse thought adolescence and then progressively gets better Y. clinical depression — feelings of lethargy and worthlessness that last two weeks or more Z. adolescent crime and drug use increase during their adolescent years


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