Exam 2 Study Guide - Nutrition 101
Exam 2 Study Guide - Nutrition 101 Nutrition 101
Popular in Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kennedy Patterson on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Nutrition 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lori Greene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 287 views. For similar materials see Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
Exam 2 Review 22315 1 Monosaccharides Single sugars Simple carbohydrates Three Monosaccharides o Glucose Energy source for all cells One of the 2 sugars monosaccharides in every disaccharide Polysaccharides are made of glucose Mild sweet flavor C 20H 6sided ring 0 o Fructose O Intenser sweet flavor H O Occurs naturally in fruit and honey 0 5sided ring 0 Galactose HOCH H7OH Does not have a sweet flavor 6sided ring H n Position of the hydroxyl group differs from glucose Part of every disaccharide n C6H1206 0 Each differs in their arrangement of the atoms Disaccharides Pairs of monosaccharides 2 attached together Simple carbohydrates Three disaccharides o Maltose Glucose Glucose Produced whenever starch breaks down 0 Sucrose Glucose Fructose Sweetest o Lactose Glucose Galactose Carbohydrate in milk ie milk sugar Contributes half of energy in milk Hydrolysis 0 Chemical reaction breaks a disaccharide into 2 monosaccharides 0 Molecule of water H20 splits to provide hydrogen and OH o Commonly occurs during digestion Condensann 0 Chemical reaction that links monosaccharides o Hydroxyl group OH and hydrogen atom combine to form water Polysaccharides Large Chains of monosaccharides Complex carbohydrates Long chains of glucose Three polysaccharides o Glycogen Storage form of energy in the body Exam 2 Review 22315 13 stored in the liver 23 stored in muscle cells Built of Glucose units Branched chains Food is not a good source of glycogen 0 Starch Storage form of energy in plants Built of glucose units Branched and unbranched chains Grains are the best source of starch 0 Fiber Rice corn rye barley oats legumes and starchy vegetables Provides structure in stems trunks roots leaves and skins of plants thus found in all plant foods Vegetables fruits whole grains legumes Built of monosaccharides and other carbohydrate derivatives Bonds between fibers monosaccharides cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes Fibers Pass through the body undigested Soluble Fibers Dissolve in water viscous form gels and fermentable digested by bacteria in the colon Oats barley legumes citrus fruits Research shows they reduce cholesterol and glucose levels Insoluble Fibers Do not dissolve in water nonviscous and less readily fermentable Bran and vegetables Promote bowel movements and alleviate constipation 2 Types of lipids o Triglycerides fats and oils Most common type of lipid Phospholipids ex lecithin Sterols ex cholesterol Structure of Lipids O O O Lipids have carbon hydrogen and oxygen like carbohydrates 0 Lipids have more calories because they have more carbons and hydrogens Lipids are characterized by the insolubility to water Structure of Fatty Acids o All fatty acids have the same basic structure 0 Methyl group and an acid group with a chain of carbons and hydrogens in the middle l y w ll l39 HHTFIlHFl39r l I h HE C if if F i it 13 39C O H H P I I l I V 391 ll l39 F l quot l rilll Hl 0 Differences Length of chain 9 number of carbons Saturation double bonds Location of double bonds Exam 2 Review 22315 0 Saturated Fatty Acids Fully loaded with all hydrogen NO double bonds 0 Unsaturated Fatty Acids At least one double bond 0 Monounsaturated Fatty Acid One double bond EX Oleic acid in olive and canola oil 0 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Two or more double bonds EX Linoleic acid in vegetable oils 0 Location of Double bonds Name fatty acids by location of double bond Omega numberposition of double bond closest to the methyl group CH3 0 Omega3 Fatty Acid 1 Closest double bond 3 H 0 ca rbons from methyl g rou p c u o Omega6 fatty acid quotW Closest double bond 6 MW 391 carbons from methyl group Essential Fatty Acids 0 Cannot be made by the body 0 Linoleic Acid an Omega6 Fatty Acid Supplied by vegetable oils meats Makes arachidonic acid in Omega 6 family 0 Linolenic Acid an Omega3 Fatty Acid Supplied by dark green vegetables if n x vegetable oils and flaxseed Makes eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA but only in small amounts M 2 Food sources include fatty cold 939 i H water fish shellfish and human milk u C I lt M u J v Triglycerides 0 Contain one glycerol and 3 fatty acids 0 Condensation forms a triglyceride and hydrolysis breaks it down I Side group Made up of amino acids varies Amino acids contain nitrogen N carbon C hydrogen H and oxygen 0 H All amino acids have the same basic structure Amino H N C O H 0 Central carbon atom group H H Acid 0 Hydrogen atom group 0 Acid group COOH 0 Amino Group NH2 0 Side group varies with each amino acid Exam 2 Review 22315 Proteins more complex that carbs or lipids due to unique side group Proteins are made up of 20 different amino acids Simplest amino acid is glycine o A single hydrogen as its side group Amino acids differ in size shape and other characteristics due to the unique side group Nonessential Amino Acids o More than half of amino acids are nonessential o Nonessential the body can synthesize o Takes nitrogen and fragments from CH0 and fat to form 39 amino acids 1 Essential Amino Acids rv 0 Nine amino acids W H are essential wini 0 Essential the body cannot synthesize 0 We must get them from our diets Structures of Proteins 0 Amino acids are linked together to form proteins 0 Linked together by peptide bonds 0 Condensation reactions connect amino acids 0 Dipeptide Two amino acids bonded together 0 Tripeptide Three amino acids bonded together 0 Polypeptide Multiple amino acids bonded together Most proteins contain a few dozen to hundreds of amino acids 0 Structure is determined by the sequence of amino acids The 20 amino acids can be linked together in a variety of sequences 0 Secondary structure Determined by weak electrical attractions Positively charged H attract negatively charged 0 Polypeptide chain twists o Tertiary Structure Long polypeptide chain twists that fold into complex tangled shapes Breakdown of Protein Structure 0 Denaturation Loss of shape uncoiling of proteins due to heat agitation acid Ex Hardening of an egg when it is cooked or stiffening of egg whites when they are whipped Ex In the body body proteins denature when exposed to stomach acid 4 0 Part of every cell membrane 0 Energy Essential Amino Acids Nonessential Amino Acid 1 u l M I ll le llHllH quot 390l39ll 1 Hll 394 II J 39iulij l 39quot ll Iii l39liiu A II Exam 2 Review 22315 Storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue is unlimited 0 Insulation of body temperature 0 Protection of vital organs 0 In foods lipids function to Give foods flavor and aroma Transport fat soluble vitamins Provide kcalories triglyceride 0 Structural Building blocks of muscles blood and skin Major structural component of all cells Enzymes Catabolic and anabolic Ex Digestive enzymes Hormones Messenger molecules that elicit response to restore normal conditions Ex Insulin amp glucagon o Regulators of Fluid Balance Proteins help to maintain fluid balance Protein can leak into interstitial spaces causing edema o AcidBase regulators Proteins have negative charges on their surface Attract hydrogen ions with a positive charge Proteins act as buffers o Transporters Carry nutrients and molecules in the body s fluids Ex Lipoproteins transport lipids in the body Antibodies Defends the body against disease Source of Energy and Glucose Proteins are sacrificed during times of starvation or insufficient carb intake Gluconeogenesis 0 Primary energy source for cells 0 Glycogen Storage Blood glucose rises after a meal Excess glucose molecules are combined by condensation to form glycogen When blood glucose falls the liver cells break down glycogen by hydrolysis Single glucose molecules are released into the blood stream Muscle cells hold onto to most of their glycogen to use during exercise Body can only store a small amount of glycogen 5F o Mouth salivary enzyme amylase hydrolyzes starch into smaller molecules shorter polysaccharides or maltose o Stomach no new enzymes are introduced to break down CHO Salivary amylase diminishes as stomach acid and proteindigesting enzymes break it down Fiber may promote satiety 0 Small Intestine pancreatic amylase continues breaking down polysaccharides final digestion takes place on outer membranes of intestinal cells mostly glucose molecules remain Maltase breaks maltose into 2 glucose molecules Sucrase breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose Lactase breaks lactose into glucose and Galactose Exam 2 Review 22315 0 Large Intestine fibers remain and attract water bacteria in GI tract ferment some fibers mainly soluble Generates water and gas Fibers do contribute a small amount of energy for the colon 2kcalg o Primarily takes place in the small intestine Active transport Glucose and Galactose Facilitated Diffusion Fructose Fructose and Galactose are metabolized by the liver Glucose sent to body s cells for energy o Mouth proteins are crushed and moistened o Stomach Partial breakdown of protein through hydrolysis Hydrochloric acid uncoils denatures proteins 0 Small Intestine Polypeptides enter the SI Pancreatic and intestinal proteases hydrolyze them into smaller peptide chains and single amino acids Peptidases on the intestinal wall split most dipeptides and tripeptides into the single amino acids 0 Specific carriers transport amino acids into intestinal cells 0 Once in the cell they may be used for energy or to synthesize needed compounds 0 Amino acids not used by intestinal cells are transported across the cell membrane Then sent to the liver 0 Challenge is to keep the lipids mixed vs separation Lipids hydrophobic Digestive enzymes are hydrophilic o Mouth Some hard fats melt o Stomach Muscles contract to propel contents toward pyloric sphincter Lipid particles broken down by gastric lipase 0 Small Intestine When fat enters cholecystokinin CCK is released which signals the release of bile from the gallbladder Bile acts as an emulsifier so the enzymes can act on the fat Most fat digestion occurs in the small intestine Pancreatic lipases and intestinal lipases F quotFw Fa 39 I q w M It quot WWW 39 Exam 2 Review 22315 o Glycerol amp short and mediumchain fatty acids absorbed directly into the bloodstream Phospho pw o Monoglycerides and longchain fatty acids form micelles spherical complex Transported by proteins called chylomicrons o Lipid transport is made possible by a group of vehicles known as lipoproteins Chylomicrons Largest of the lipoproteins Least dense Get smaller as triglycerides are removed by the cells Verylow density lipoproteins VLDL Composed primarily of triglycerides Transport lipids to the tissues Get smaller and more dense as triglycerides are removed and VLDL becomes LDL Low Density Lipoproteins LDL Composed primarily of cholesterol with few triglycerides Transport lipids to the tissues High Density Lipoprotein HDL Composted primarily of protein Transport cholesterol from the cells to the liver Health Implications High LDL is associated with higher risk of heart disease and known as bad cholesterol High HDL appears to have a protective effect 6F 0 Enzymes Amylase Lactaid o Enzymes Catabolic amp Anabolic o Hormones insulin amp glucagon o Hormone Cholecystokinin 0 Enzyme Pancreatic lipases and intestinal lipases 0 Protein Energy Malnutrition Slowed growth impaired brain and kidney functions poor immunity 0 Heart Disease Protein in excess especially animal proteins that are high in saturated fat 0 Cancer High intake of red meat that is high in saturated fat 0 Osteoporosis Protein intake high 9 calcium excretion increases 0 Weight Management High protein diets are not good weight management options Important to provide adequate protein for healthy satiety o Kidney Disease May accelerate kidney disease but does not cause Exam 2 Review 22315 0 Cardiovascular Disease LDL cholesterol accumulates in arteries until blood flow is slowed or stops Saturated and trans fats appear to be associated with a rise in LDL Recommended lowering saturated fat and trans fats by decreasing animal fats high fat meat choose leaner cooking methods low fat milk Recommended increasing unsaturated fat by increasing olive oil nuts avocados and salmon 0 Cancer May promote cancer growth Evidence not strong Recommended to reduce red meat 0 Obesity More fat more calories Sugar intake is excessive in the US Recommended 30tsp 120 grams per day Major sources sugarsweetened beverages desserts candy Americans who drink sugarsweetened beverages have a higher energy intake Weigh more with high intake of added sugar Sugars displace more nutrient dense foods May make it hard to meet vitamin and mineral recommendations 0 2010 Dietary Guidelines Caution that added sugars may increase the risk of chronic diseases Reduce intake of kcal from added sugars Discretionary kcal 100300 kcalday Practice good oral hygiene and consume added sugars less frequently to prevent dental caries According to the DRI s sugar should make up no more than 25 of your kcal 8 0 Recommended Starch and Fiber Intake Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMDR 4565 of kcal from CHO Fiber 25 grams or more for women 35 grams or more for men Actual intake averages at 1112 grams per day 0 Real Life Recommendations At least half of grains should be whole grains Look for 3 grams of fiber or more on the label Eat more fruits and vegetables Consume lowfat milk products Consume more legumerich meals Reduce intake of added sugars 0 Protein Quality Animal protein high 90 9900 Plant protein lower 70 90 o Soy amp legumes more than 90 0 High Quality Proteins OOOOO Exam 2 Review 22315 Contains all essential amino acids Animal products Soy protein Complementary Proteins Rice and Beans 0 Recommended Protein Intake AMDR 10 35 of calories from protein 50175g of protein RDA 08 gramskilograms of body weight for adults Pound to kilogram conversion is 22 Divide weight in pounds by 22 to get kilograms 0 Ex 130bs divided by 22 59 kilograms Always consider the grams of protein as well as the percentage 0 Real Life Recommendations One ounce of protein contains about 7 grams of protein Recommended serving of most animal proteins are 34 ounces What type of protein foods should we eat each week Seafood 20 Meat poultry and eggs 70 Nuts seeds and legumes 10 Milk products are a good source of protein 8 grams per serving Fruits vegetables and grains provide little protein 03g Shopping and Cooking Choose lean sources of protein Trim fat from meats Remove skin before eating Consume protein from food versus supplements Only exception may be competitive athletes o Consume enough protein but not too much 0 Dietary Guidelines 2010 AMDR for fat 20 35 calories from fat Less than 10 of energy from saturated fat Little to no trans fats 300mg or less of dietary cholesterol 0 Adequate Intake AI 510 of calories from linoleic acid 06 12 of calories from linoleninc acid 9F Glucose 6 carbons 2 Pyruvate 3 carbons 9 Lactate 9 Liver Glucose Acetyl CoA 2 carbons TCA Cycle ETC ATP Water Glycerol 3 carbons Pyruvate Exam 2 Review 22315 Acetyl CoA 9 Fatty Acids 18 carbon TCA ETC ATP H20 50 of amino acids go to Pyruvate 50 go straight to Acetyl CoA Amino 50 Acids 50 Pyruvate Acetyl CoA TCA ETC ATP Water 10 Women get drunk faster than men 0 Alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme Woman produce less of this stomach enzyme Consequently women absorb more alcohol 0 Drinking on an empty stomach can also affect absorption rate Absorbed more quickly if stomach is empty Fasting causes the body to breakdown proteins Alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme is a protein Only consume 1 drink per hour 0 The liver can only metabolize 1 drink per hour 0 The alcohol will continue to circulate until the liver enzymes are ready to process it Alcohol causes dehydration 0 Yes alcohol depresses production of antidiuretic hormone ADH is a hormone that helps body retain water Digestion of Alcohol 0 Alcohol needs virtually no digestion o Reaches brain within a few minutes 11 12 Shortterm fasting 1 day 0 Breakdown of glycogen Fasting for 25 days Exam 2 Review 22315 0 Break down of lean tissues 0 Amino acids and glycerol converted to pyruvate and then to glucose Long term fasting week or longer 0 Breakdown of fat for fuel 0 Acetyl CoA build up and converted to ketones Metabolic Rate Decreases 13 Age as age increases BMR decreases Height as height increases BMR increases Rate of growth infants adolescents Gender males have higher metabolism Body comp more muscle mass higher BMR Feverstress BMR increases Environmental temperature extreme temps BMR increases Fastingstarvation BMR decreases fairly quickly Hormones affects metabolism Smoking increases metabolism Caffeine increases metabolism for short amount of time Sleep 10 x weightkg 626 x Heightcm 5 x Ageyears 5 resting energy expenditure male 10 x weightkg 626 x Heightcm 5 x Ageyears 161 resting energy expenditure female 0 130lbs22 492 kg weight 0 61 inches x 254 15494 cm height 0 10x492 626x15494 5x19 161 o 492 96992 95 161 1205 BMK 15 BMI a measure of a person s weight relative to a person s height not body composition 0 BMI weight kg height m2 Conversion divide by 22 for weight divide by 3937 for height BMI under 185 considered underweight BMI of 18525 considered healthy weight BMI of 2520 considered overweight 0 BMI over 30 considered obese More than 23 of American adults have a BMI greater than 25 16 Women over 35 inches greater risk of chronic diseases Men over 40 inches greater risk of chronic diseases 17 Underweight osteoporosis bone fractures menstrual irregularities infertility OOO Exam 2 Review 22315 Overweight diabetes hypertension CVD sleep apnea osteoarthritis cancer infertility pregnancy complications
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