COM 212 Exam 2 Study Guide
COM 212 Exam 2 Study Guide Com 212
Popular in Approaches to the Study of Interpersonal Communication
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mariah Rodriguez on Thursday February 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Com 212 at Purdue University taught by Douglas Edward Pruim in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 207 views. For similar materials see Approaches to the Study of Interpersonal Communication in Communication Studies at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/19/15
COM 212 Exam 2 Study Guide Ch 3 Notes Nonverbal Spontaneous Symbolic Powerful 1 Nonverbal given more more trusted 2 Emotionally powerful 3 More universal 4 Continuous and natural 5 Cluster together when happy I smile voice lights up Functions for nonverbal Express meanings Modify verbal messages 1 Complement 2 Accent 3 Repeat 4 Substitute 5 Contradict Regulate the flow of interaction Visual W physical space Environmental preferences 1 arousal no arousal 2 dominance submissive 3 pleasuredispeasure Territoriality Personal space intimidate personal social public Kinesics movement Body movement postures Gestures emblems affect regulate self adapters object Eye gaze Facial expressions Artifacts things Appearance clothing accessories Auditory Vocalics paralanguage Qualities of the voice Pitch tone volume Characterizers Laughing Segregates clutter uhm like basically Invisible Chronemics Olfacticssmell Haptics touch Types Contexts Professional functions Social polite Romantic EVT gt cvr EVT expectancy violation theory When we have a normal response to things When things are violated physical response or arousal Violation valence Reward valence CVT cognitive valence theory Low violation don39t react High violation we react Ch 3 Vocabulary Accenting nonverbal behavior that focuses attention on a specific word or phrase to provide emphasis Affect displays postural or gestural cues that convey how a person feels emotionally Auditory Communication system nonverbal code do vocalics or paralinguistics experience through hearing Body proportionality the relative length size or distance between related physical features Body symmetry both sides of face or body are similar in size and features symmetrical Body types a persons basic body structure thin muscular plump Chronemics meanings conveyed by time Cognitive valence theory theory that builds on expectancy violations theory by specifying additional factors including perception of the violation arousal level and relevant cognitive schemata that helps explain reactions to violations Compensation reaction to a nonverbal violation by doing the opposite of what the violator dida negotiating strategy that involves finding a way to pay back an accommodating party in order to reach a mutually beneficial agreement Complementing nonverbally elaborating on a verbal message Contradicting simultaneously engaging in nonverbal behavior that conveys a meaning opposite from what is said Cultural display rules social or cultural guidelines regarding when and in what contexts it is appropriate to convey particular emotional expressions Emblems gestures that can be easily translated into verbal statements Emotions transitory social roles involving ones assessments of a social situation that are experienced as passions rather than actions Equivocal communication messages that are ambiguous uncertain and open to more than one equally valid interpretation Expectancy violations theory theory explaining how violations of expectations about nonverbal closeness are interpreted what factors influence those interpretations and how people respond to such violations Facial blend mixture of traces of various emotions on the face fear or anger most are short lived so they reflect the transition from from one emotional state to another Gaze using sight to monitor and regulate another39s behavior or to express emotions Haptics use and interpretation of touch as a means of communication Illustrators nonverbal behaviors that accompany speech emphasizing particular words or painting a picture of what is being said Invisible communication systemnonverbal codes of Chronemics olfactics and haptics codes that in humans are more difficult to detect because they do not generally involve sight and sound Kinesics use of body movements such as gestures postureand head trunk and limb movements to communicate with others Leakage cues unintended often momentary nonverbal signs that leak our true feelings even when we think we are masking them Liking one of three primary dimensions of social meaning expressed via nonverbal communication a continuum ranging from obvious affection to clearly hostility Looking gazing in the vernal direction of another persons eyes eye contact Nonperson someone who is not treated as a real person so he or she can violate personal space without appearing threatening hairdresser waitress Object adapters material artifacts used to manage tension Olfactics meanings associated with smells emitted by the human body Paralanguage another term for vocalics no word sounds that carry meaning Personal space imaginary and flexible bubble extending out from ones body and used to regulate conversational distance between communicators Physical appearance nonverbal code that includes facial features skin hair color hairstyle and general body shape and our manipulation of these features to communicate messages Proxemics nonverbal code involving the use and interpretation of physical space to communicate Reciprocation reacting to nonverbal violation by following suit if someone comes close we also increase closeness Regulating using nonverbal behaviors to facilitate and manage the flow of conversation Regulators nonverbal behaviors that help control the flow of interaction Repeating engaging in a nonverbal behavior that carries the same meaning as the verbal message it accompanies Responsiveness one of the three primary dimensions of social meaning expressed nonverbally indicating the level of involvement exhibited in interaction with others ranging from highly attentive responsive to inattentive unresponsive Seeing visual contact with the whole person not just the eyes or face Self adapters manipulation of ones own body typically used to manage and convey feelings of anxiety or fear spontaneous communication senders involuntary display of an inner emotional state and receivers direct and immediate sensory awareness of that emotional state Status one of the three primary dimensions of social meaning expressed in nonverbal codes ranging from feelings of importance or superiority to feelings of inferiority or intimidation Substituting using nonverbal code in place of a verbal message to convey the same meaning Symbolic communication use of arbitrary symbols that have been socially defines and are intended to convey specific messages Territoriality the legal or assumed ownership of space Violation valence our perception of whether a nonverbal violation is positive or nega ve Visual communication system the nonverbal codes of proxemics kinesics and artifacts that are largely seen as opposed to heard felt or otherwise sensed Vocal characterizers specific sounds or qualities that often qualify as speech acts in themselves laughing crying whining as a signal for attention Vocal qualities loudness pitch inflection tempo rhythm intensity articulation resonance and other ways in which the voice can be modulated to communicate meaning Vocal segregates sounds that interfere with fluent speech quotuhmsquot or quotahsquot prolonged silences stuttering Vocalics meanings reflected in the sounds of the voice itself paralinguistics apart from the content of a verbal message it39s not what you say it39s how you say it Ch4 Notes Language gt Analogic codes vs digital codes eg Clocks Characteristics of language 6 Verbal codes consist of discrete separate units 7 Language encourages us to create new realities 8 Language leads to the ability to think in new and complex ways 9 Verbal codes are self reflexive Functions of language 1 Used to conquer silence and the unknown Ex break the awkward silence 2 Allows us to express and control emotion Ex hallmark commercials love 3 Can camouflage or hide thoughts and feelings Ex girls saying quotI39m finequot 4 Permits us to make and avoid contact Ex quot I39m sorry I am sick right now I don39t want to shake your headquot when not wanting to shake someone39s hand 5 Enables us to assert individual and social identity Ex explaining who I am during interviews 6 Allows us to give or seek information 7 Can use to control or be controlled by the world Ex controlling what I want at a restaurant by using language 8 To monitor the process of communication Ex chatting with friends about communication Structure of language Semantic the meaning Denotation dictionary definition of a word Connotationsall the feelings meanings and motives that come along with a word Syntactic the order Syntax Grammar Pragmatic what do you do with it Speech acts Regulative functions Constitutive functions Speech acts What can we do with our words during a speech act Joke Argue Compliment Teach Explain Ask CMM How we interpret know the list below and how to put examples with each item in the list for the exam cultural patterngtnorth americanUS NA life scriptgt female in college convict relationgt roommates friends cemates episodegt room one new speech actgt greeting joke content can change 39 AAT Ch 4 Vocabulary Analogic code a code that is made up of signs that convey meaning by being like the concept they convey smile conveys happiness Connotative meaning personal often emotionally charged meaning that goes beyond denotation Constitutive rule in CMM theory a rule that allows communicators to translate content into speech acts and speech acts into content Critical theorists theorists who believe that there is a power dimension to language such that groups that control language also Byron thought and action Cultural pattern one of the contexts identified in CMM theory it refers to the cultural norms that govern communication Denotative meaning meaning that is conventionalized the dictionary definition of a concept Digital code code that is made up of discrete symbols happygt happiness Disclaimers sentences that ward off criticism by giving excuses for what one is about to say Elaborated codelanguage code associated with middleclass speakers primary use is to convey information meanings explicitly coded into words Episode one of the contexts identified in CMM theory refers to the situation in which an interaction occurs Female register language forms typically used by women or thought to be characteristic of women ex disclaimers tag endings qualifiers Free information when responses go beyond minimal demands by including extra info of interest to the receiver they contain free information receivers can use this information to find topics to pursue Life script relatively fixed way of thinking about the self and relating to others that is organized around general themes for living ones life in CMM theory it refers to the selfimages of the participants Linguistic determinism proposition that language affects thought Message production theorists Morphemems mallets meaningful element of speech often but not always equivalent to a word Muted group theorists theorists who argue that subordinate groups are often silenced especially when the way they use language is defined as trivial or substandard Pragmatics language at the level of practical usage pragmatic rules allow individuals to use language in socially appropriate ways Qualifiers words that soften a statement by moderating it ex kind of somewhat soft of Regulative rule in CMM theory a rule that tells communicators how appropriate a given speech act is in a given context Relationship one of the contexts identified in CMM theory it refers to the kind of relationship that exists between communicators Restricted code language code associated with working class speakers it is often used to create social solidarity it does not put all of the meanings it conveys into words instead it assumes that listeners will pick up information from context Sapirwhorf hypothesis the idea that there is a relationship between language thought and action consists of two propositions linguistic determinism and linguistic relativity Semantics language at the level of the word semantics rules specify the elements that give words meanings Speech act what an individual is doing during speech it is roughly equivalent to the speakers intention or purpose although it is possible that a speaker may not be consciously aware of implications of a speech act Symbolsign that is arbitrary and conventionalized Syntactics language at the level of the sentence or utterance syntactic rules allow individuals to combine words to create wellformed utterances Tag endings fragments such as quotrightquot Or quotokayquot That are tacked into the end of sentences turning statements into questions Ch 5 Notes LISTENING 5 Types of Listening 10 discriminatory trying to find a note or sound trying to listen hard to something 11 appreciative listening to a comedy show music 12 comprehensive what we are doing when listening to Doug trying to learn something 13 evaluative listening to see if something if true or not when listening to a problem and putting your input in when maybe the talker just wants them to listenshould have been doing empathetic 14 empathetic listening to emotional content the exercise we did in class when listening to classmates about their problems not putting your input injust listen Styles of Listening Peoplecentered quotorientedquot Actioncentered quotorientedquot Contentcentered quotorientedquot Timecentered quotorientedquot realizing that there are different styles will help you when working with groups CONFLICT What does conflict tell us interdependence cannot have by yourself signal for change allows for problem diagnosis Difficulty emotions bias obstacles Emotions HOT timeouts count to 10 before say something walk away plans set a communication plan for what going to say when you see someone that you don39t like pisses you off Excitation Transfer when you39re mad and your heart is pumping but you come down from that and you think you are back to your base linenot mad anymore Although in reality you are not back at your baseline yet you still have a little bit more time before you get there So if something else bad happens between that time were you think you39re at your base line and when you actually are back at your baseline you will get even more mad than you usually would had you actually been at your baseline Biases simplifying the situation Example using the word quotjustquot quot You just need to quitquot exaggerating differences Example quotWe just don39t have anything in commonquot when breaking up with someoneusing this as a crutch excuse viewing conflict as a winlose composition Example Always having to win a fightquot When Ryan says quotI was right about a conflict we have making selfserving iudgements Example assuming you should get the newest car over your younger sibling falsely assuming understanding when I am in a fight with someone who is not understanding what I am saying I usually say quot I don39t understand how you don39t get what I am saying herequot undervaluing others39 proposals Example when people assume your idea is wrong not accepting others ways Obstacles gunnysacking storing stuff up for later quotwe fought about this months ago why are you now bringing this upquot kitchensinking bringing up ever single problem you are having while in an argument demandwithdraw when one person is aggressive and one person gives up in a relationship reframin this is the positive way to deal with the relationship reframe the conflict talking about it and working it out making sacrifices Conflict Management Strategy steps 1 Shields Up 2 Listening Ears OPEN let them know you are listening to them 3 Empathize 4 HeartOPEN 5 Ask questions 6 Give back solutions Ch 5 Vocabulary actionoriented listening style of listening focused on finding answers to specific questions in order to take action they may draw to conclusions before listening to the entire message active listening responding so that speakers know you are listening maintaining eye contact nodding and smiling asking for clarification appreciative listening listening for the sheer pleasure of the activity attention the act of selectively focusing on certain communication cues while ignoring others first step in the listening process biased perceptions erroneous ways of thinking about conflicts example seeing a conflict as worse than it really is comprehensive listening listening to understand and remember information example listening to nightly news to figure out what is going on in the world contentorientated listening style of listening focused on gaining complex often technical information contentoriented listeners enjoy thinking and talking about new ideas cool system information processing system associated with the prefrontal cortex that encourages complex slow rational responses demandwithdraw sequence classic dysfunctional pattern in which one party the demander uses complaints and criticisms to pressure another party the withdrawer who in turn becomes defensive and passive discriminatory listening listening to discriminate among stimuli example listening to see if someone is saying quotcheesequot or quotshe39squot emotional intelligence the ability to process emotional information by recognizing emotions in others39 faces and bodies understanding how emotions affect thinking knowing how emotions are connected and being able to regulate one39s own emotions empathetic listeninglistening to help others by allowing them to talk out their problems entity theory belief that human nature is fixed and that understanding other people is simply a matter of uncovering predetermined traits people who take this view often have more difficulties resolving conflicts than those who see human nature as changeable evaluationact of making decisions about the accuracy and usefulness of the messages we interpret third step of listening process evaluative listening making judgements about the intentions and competence of sources and about the completeness of the info they offer us gunnysacking failing the confront problems as they crop up hearing physiological process that occurs when sound waves are processed by the central nervous system hot system information processing system located in the amygdala portion of the brain that results in simple rapid emotional responses to stress threat or danger implementation plans specific strategies for how to handle conflicts example asking for clarification when partner39s answers are vague incremental theorybelief that human qualities change with circumstances and that understanding other people is a matter of understanding their needs and goals culture and thought processes people holding this view often have an easier time resolving conflicts than those who see human nature as fixed interests in a conflict the underlying needs or concerns of each party addressing interests instead if positions often opens up the realm of potential solutions interpersonal conflict situation that occurs whenever the goals or actions of two people are interdependent but incompatible interpretationact of assigning meaning to stimuli that capture out attention second step to listening process kitchensinkingincludding irrelevant details in an argument listeningprocess of receiving constructing meaning from and responding to spoken andor nonverbal messages unlike hearing listening is a social cognitive process paraphrasemeans of checking your perceptions by stating in your own words what you think another person means peopleoriented listening style of listening focused on emotions and feelings people oriented listeners are empathetic and view listening as a way to connect with others position 1 in a conflict the initial demand that each party proposes 2 one39s place in a social hierarchy problemfocused listeningy listening to understand and diagnose relational problems and resolve conflicts reframing a way of restating a conflict so that it is collaborative rather than competitive statement such as quot i want sole custody of the childrenquot could be reframed as quot I want us to decide what is in the best interests of the childrenquot responding offering your partner some overt indication of interest and support39 fourth step in the listening process timeoriented listening style of listening focused on staying on schedule time oriented listeners often announce how much time they are willing to spend listening and may interrupt when others go on too long timeouts short breaks that allow people engaged in conflict to cool down their emotions
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